Abstract

While the thermomechanical properties of sapphire make it an excellent candidate of test mass for advanced laser interferometers, its optical quality is not well understood or well controlled. We have studied the results from high-resolution measurements of scattering, absorption, and birefringence in test-mass samples to better understand issues of quality. Samples show large-scale scattering structures clearly linked to the crystal-growth process. Samples characterized by the presence of point defects have significantly lower scattering (except at the point defects). In general on a large scale, high scattering also correlates with higher absorption and higher average birefringence inhomogeneity. However, on a smaller scale there is not a clear point-to-point correlation between scattering and absorption. Often a large-scale scattering structure is spatially displaced by tens of millimeters from a similar absorption structure, indicating that quite separate microscopic mechanisms give rise to scattering and absorption. The spatial displacements indicate that absorption centers and scattering centers are laid down during crystal growth at different distances from the solid–liquid interface. We suggest that absorption may be linked to F centers, while scattering may be linked to impurities such as iron.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, and R. Schilling. " Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors," Phys. Rev. A 4, 7022- 7036 ( 1991).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Vinet, V. Brisson, and S. Braccini, " Scattered light noise in gravitational wave interferometric detectors: coherent effects," Phys. Rev. D 54, 1276- 86 ( 1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Degallaix, C. Zhao, L. Ju, and D. Blair, " Thermal lensing compensation for AIGO high optical power test facility," Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S903- S908 ( 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Lawrence, D. Ottaway, M. Zucker, and P. Fritschel, " Active correction of thermal lensing through external radiative thermal actuation," Opt. Lett. 29, 2635- 2637 ( 2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Zhao, L. Ju, J. Degallaix, S. Gras, and D. G. Blair, " Parametric instabilities and their control in advanced interferometer gravitational-wave detectors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 121102 ( 2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Feit, J. Campbell, D. Faux, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, R. A. Riddle, A. Salleo, and J. Yoshiyama, " Modeling of laser-induced surface cracks in silica at 355 nm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. H. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 350- 355 ( 1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Walker, A. Guenther, and P. Nielsen, " A novel technique for investigating impurity initiated short pulse laser damage in thin films," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2053- 2065 ( 1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. During, C. Fossati, and M. Commandre, " Multiwavelength imaging of defects in ultraviolet optical materials," Appl. Opt. 41, 3118- 3126 ( 2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Blair, F. Cleva, and C. Man, " Optical absorption measurements in monocrystalline sapphire at 1 μm," Opt. Mater. 8, 233- 236 ( 1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  17. F. Benabid, M. Notcutt, L. Ju, and D. G. Blair, " Birefringence measurements of sapphire test masses for laser interferometer gravitational wave detector," Phys. Lett. A 237, 337- 342 ( 1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Yan, C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras, and D. G. Blair, " Automatic Rayleigh scattering mapping system for optical quality evaluation of test masses for gravity wave detectors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 015104 ( 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, and D. Fournier, " Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection," Appl. Opt. 20, 1333- 1334 ( 1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. P. Roger, F. Charbonnier, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara and P. Robert, " Photothermal spectroscopy of laser materials," Proceedings Laser' 88 (Society for Optical and Quantum Electronics, 1989), pp. 600- 604.
  21. Crystal Systems, Inc., http://www.crysys.com/hem.html.

2005 (2)

C. Zhao, L. Ju, J. Degallaix, S. Gras, and D. G. Blair, " Parametric instabilities and their control in advanced interferometer gravitational-wave detectors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 121102 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yan, C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras, and D. G. Blair, " Automatic Rayleigh scattering mapping system for optical quality evaluation of test masses for gravity wave detectors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 015104 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

R. Lawrence, D. Ottaway, M. Zucker, and P. Fritschel, " Active correction of thermal lensing through external radiative thermal actuation," Opt. Lett. 29, 2635- 2637 ( 2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yan, L. Ju, F. Eon, S. Gras, C. Zhao, J. Jacob, and D. G. Blair, " Large-scale inhomogeneity in sapphire test masses revealed by Rayleigh scattering imaging," Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1139- S1144 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Degallaix, C. Zhao, L. Ju, and D. Blair, " Thermal lensing compensation for AIGO high optical power test facility," Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S903- S908 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

V. Loriette and C. Boccara, " Absorption of low-loss optical materials measured at 1064 nm by a position-modulated collinear photothermal detection technique," App. Opt. 42, 649- 656 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1998 (2)

F. Benabid, M. Notcutt, L. Ju, and D. G. Blair, " Birefringence measurements of sapphire test masses for laser interferometer gravitational wave detector," Phys. Lett. A 237, 337- 342 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Feit, J. Campbell, D. Faux, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, R. A. Riddle, A. Salleo, and J. Yoshiyama, " Modeling of laser-induced surface cracks in silica at 355 nm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. H. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 350- 355 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

J. Dijon, T. Poiroux, and C. Desrumaux, " Nano absorbing centers: a key point in the laser damage of thin films," in Laser-induced damage in optical materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2966, 315- 325 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Gamp, " Secondary light noise sources in LIGO," LIGO Rep. LIGO-T970074-00-D (California Institute of Technology, 1997).

D. Blair, F. Cleva, and C. Man, " Optical absorption measurements in monocrystalline sapphire at 1 μm," Opt. Mater. 8, 233- 236 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Y. Vinet, V. Brisson, and S. Braccini, " Scattered light noise in gravitational wave interferometric detectors: coherent effects," Phys. Rev. D 54, 1276- 86 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, and R. Schilling. " Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors," Phys. Rev. A 4, 7022- 7036 ( 1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Y. Vinet, B. Meers, C. N. Man, and A. Brellet, " Optimization of long-baseline optical interferometers for gravitational-wave detection," Phys. Rev. D 38, 433- 447 ( 1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

T. Walker, A. Guenther, and P. Nielsen, " A novel technique for investigating impurity initiated short pulse laser damage in thin films," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2053- 2065 ( 1981).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, and D. Fournier, " Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection," Appl. Opt. 20, 1333- 1334 ( 1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrovski, A.

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer and R. Route, " Effect of annealing on the light absorption in sapphire," in Proceedings of Third Edoardo Arnaldi Conference (American Institute of Physics, 2000), Vol. 523, pp. 395- 396.

Amer, N. M.

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, M. Notcutt, L. Ju, and D. G. Blair, " Birefringence measurements of sapphire test masses for laser interferometer gravitational wave detector," Phys. Lett. A 237, 337- 342 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, M. Notcutt, L. Ju, and D. G. Blair, " The influence of X-ray damage on high purity sapphire-optical absorption and investigation on the origin of the residual absorption at 1064 nm," in Proceedings of Third Edoardo Arnaldi Conference (American Institute of Physics, 2000), Vol. 523, pp. 222- 228.

Blair, D.

J. Degallaix, C. Zhao, L. Ju, and D. Blair, " Thermal lensing compensation for AIGO high optical power test facility," Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S903- S908 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Blair, F. Cleva, and C. Man, " Optical absorption measurements in monocrystalline sapphire at 1 μm," Opt. Mater. 8, 233- 236 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Blair, D. G.

C. Zhao, L. Ju, J. Degallaix, S. Gras, and D. G. Blair, " Parametric instabilities and their control in advanced interferometer gravitational-wave detectors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 121102 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yan, C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras, and D. G. Blair, " Automatic Rayleigh scattering mapping system for optical quality evaluation of test masses for gravity wave detectors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 015104 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yan, L. Ju, F. Eon, S. Gras, C. Zhao, J. Jacob, and D. G. Blair, " Large-scale inhomogeneity in sapphire test masses revealed by Rayleigh scattering imaging," Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1139- S1144 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, M. Notcutt, L. Ju, and D. G. Blair, " Birefringence measurements of sapphire test masses for laser interferometer gravitational wave detector," Phys. Lett. A 237, 337- 342 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, M. Notcutt, L. Ju, and D. G. Blair, " The influence of X-ray damage on high purity sapphire-optical absorption and investigation on the origin of the residual absorption at 1064 nm," in Proceedings of Third Edoardo Arnaldi Conference (American Institute of Physics, 2000), Vol. 523, pp. 222- 228.

Boccara, A. C.

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, and D. Fournier, " Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection," Appl. Opt. 20, 1333- 1334 ( 1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Roger, F. Charbonnier, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara and P. Robert, " Photothermal spectroscopy of laser materials," Proceedings Laser' 88 (Society for Optical and Quantum Electronics, 1989), pp. 600- 604.

Boccara, C.

V. Loriette and C. Boccara, " Absorption of low-loss optical materials measured at 1064 nm by a position-modulated collinear photothermal detection technique," App. Opt. 42, 649- 656 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Braccini, S.

Y. Vinet, V. Brisson, and S. Braccini, " Scattered light noise in gravitational wave interferometric detectors: coherent effects," Phys. Rev. D 54, 1276- 86 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

Brellet, A.

Y. Vinet, B. Meers, C. N. Man, and A. Brellet, " Optimization of long-baseline optical interferometers for gravitational-wave detection," Phys. Rev. D 38, 433- 447 ( 1988).
[CrossRef]

Brisson, V.

Y. Vinet, V. Brisson, and S. Braccini, " Scattered light noise in gravitational wave interferometric detectors: coherent effects," Phys. Rev. D 54, 1276- 86 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J.

M. Feit, J. Campbell, D. Faux, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, R. A. Riddle, A. Salleo, and J. Yoshiyama, " Modeling of laser-induced surface cracks in silica at 355 nm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. H. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 350- 355 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Charbonnier, F.

J. P. Roger, F. Charbonnier, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara and P. Robert, " Photothermal spectroscopy of laser materials," Proceedings Laser' 88 (Society for Optical and Quantum Electronics, 1989), pp. 600- 604.

Cleva, F.

D. Blair, F. Cleva, and C. Man, " Optical absorption measurements in monocrystalline sapphire at 1 μm," Opt. Mater. 8, 233- 236 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Commandre, M.

Danzmann, K.

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, and R. Schilling. " Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors," Phys. Rev. A 4, 7022- 7036 ( 1991).
[CrossRef]

Degallaix, J.

C. Zhao, L. Ju, J. Degallaix, S. Gras, and D. G. Blair, " Parametric instabilities and their control in advanced interferometer gravitational-wave detectors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 121102 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Degallaix, C. Zhao, L. Ju, and D. Blair, " Thermal lensing compensation for AIGO high optical power test facility," Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S903- S908 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Desrumaux, C.

J. Dijon, T. Poiroux, and C. Desrumaux, " Nano absorbing centers: a key point in the laser damage of thin films," in Laser-induced damage in optical materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2966, 315- 325 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Dijon, J.

J. Dijon, T. Poiroux, and C. Desrumaux, " Nano absorbing centers: a key point in the laser damage of thin films," in Laser-induced damage in optical materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2966, 315- 325 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

During, A.

Eon, F.

Z. Yan, L. Ju, F. Eon, S. Gras, C. Zhao, J. Jacob, and D. G. Blair, " Large-scale inhomogeneity in sapphire test masses revealed by Rayleigh scattering imaging," Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1139- S1144 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Faux, D.

M. Feit, J. Campbell, D. Faux, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, R. A. Riddle, A. Salleo, and J. Yoshiyama, " Modeling of laser-induced surface cracks in silica at 355 nm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. H. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 350- 355 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M.

M. Feit, J. Campbell, D. Faux, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, R. A. Riddle, A. Salleo, and J. Yoshiyama, " Modeling of laser-induced surface cracks in silica at 355 nm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. H. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 350- 355 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M.

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer and R. Route, " Effect of annealing on the light absorption in sapphire," in Proceedings of Third Edoardo Arnaldi Conference (American Institute of Physics, 2000), Vol. 523, pp. 395- 396.

Fossati, C.

Fournier, D.

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, and D. Fournier, " Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection," Appl. Opt. 20, 1333- 1334 ( 1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Roger, F. Charbonnier, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara and P. Robert, " Photothermal spectroscopy of laser materials," Proceedings Laser' 88 (Society for Optical and Quantum Electronics, 1989), pp. 600- 604.

Fritschel, P.

Gamp, J.

J. Gamp, " Secondary light noise sources in LIGO," LIGO Rep. LIGO-T970074-00-D (California Institute of Technology, 1997).

Gras, S.

Z. Yan, C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras, and D. G. Blair, " Automatic Rayleigh scattering mapping system for optical quality evaluation of test masses for gravity wave detectors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 015104 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, L. Ju, J. Degallaix, S. Gras, and D. G. Blair, " Parametric instabilities and their control in advanced interferometer gravitational-wave detectors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 121102 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yan, L. Ju, F. Eon, S. Gras, C. Zhao, J. Jacob, and D. G. Blair, " Large-scale inhomogeneity in sapphire test masses revealed by Rayleigh scattering imaging," Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1139- S1144 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, A.

T. Walker, A. Guenther, and P. Nielsen, " A novel technique for investigating impurity initiated short pulse laser damage in thin films," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2053- 2065 ( 1981).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, W. B.

Jacob, J.

Z. Yan, L. Ju, F. Eon, S. Gras, C. Zhao, J. Jacob, and D. G. Blair, " Large-scale inhomogeneity in sapphire test masses revealed by Rayleigh scattering imaging," Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1139- S1144 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Ju, L.

Z. Yan, C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras, and D. G. Blair, " Automatic Rayleigh scattering mapping system for optical quality evaluation of test masses for gravity wave detectors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 015104 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, L. Ju, J. Degallaix, S. Gras, and D. G. Blair, " Parametric instabilities and their control in advanced interferometer gravitational-wave detectors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 121102 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Degallaix, C. Zhao, L. Ju, and D. Blair, " Thermal lensing compensation for AIGO high optical power test facility," Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S903- S908 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yan, L. Ju, F. Eon, S. Gras, C. Zhao, J. Jacob, and D. G. Blair, " Large-scale inhomogeneity in sapphire test masses revealed by Rayleigh scattering imaging," Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1139- S1144 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, M. Notcutt, L. Ju, and D. G. Blair, " Birefringence measurements of sapphire test masses for laser interferometer gravitational wave detector," Phys. Lett. A 237, 337- 342 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, M. Notcutt, L. Ju, and D. G. Blair, " The influence of X-ray damage on high purity sapphire-optical absorption and investigation on the origin of the residual absorption at 1064 nm," in Proceedings of Third Edoardo Arnaldi Conference (American Institute of Physics, 2000), Vol. 523, pp. 222- 228.

Kozlowski, M. R.

M. Feit, J. Campbell, D. Faux, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, R. A. Riddle, A. Salleo, and J. Yoshiyama, " Modeling of laser-induced surface cracks in silica at 355 nm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. H. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 350- 355 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, R.

Loriette, V.

V. Loriette and C. Boccara, " Absorption of low-loss optical materials measured at 1064 nm by a position-modulated collinear photothermal detection technique," App. Opt. 42, 649- 656 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Man, C.

D. Blair, F. Cleva, and C. Man, " Optical absorption measurements in monocrystalline sapphire at 1 μm," Opt. Mater. 8, 233- 236 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Man, C. N.

Y. Vinet, B. Meers, C. N. Man, and A. Brellet, " Optimization of long-baseline optical interferometers for gravitational-wave detection," Phys. Rev. D 38, 433- 447 ( 1988).
[CrossRef]

Meers, B.

Y. Vinet, B. Meers, C. N. Man, and A. Brellet, " Optimization of long-baseline optical interferometers for gravitational-wave detection," Phys. Rev. D 38, 433- 447 ( 1988).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, P.

T. Walker, A. Guenther, and P. Nielsen, " A novel technique for investigating impurity initiated short pulse laser damage in thin films," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2053- 2065 ( 1981).
[CrossRef]

Notcutt, M.

F. Benabid, M. Notcutt, L. Ju, and D. G. Blair, " Birefringence measurements of sapphire test masses for laser interferometer gravitational wave detector," Phys. Lett. A 237, 337- 342 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, M. Notcutt, L. Ju, and D. G. Blair, " The influence of X-ray damage on high purity sapphire-optical absorption and investigation on the origin of the residual absorption at 1064 nm," in Proceedings of Third Edoardo Arnaldi Conference (American Institute of Physics, 2000), Vol. 523, pp. 222- 228.

Ottaway, D.

Poiroux, T.

J. Dijon, T. Poiroux, and C. Desrumaux, " Nano absorbing centers: a key point in the laser damage of thin films," in Laser-induced damage in optical materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2966, 315- 325 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Riddle, R. A.

M. Feit, J. Campbell, D. Faux, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, R. A. Riddle, A. Salleo, and J. Yoshiyama, " Modeling of laser-induced surface cracks in silica at 355 nm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. H. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 350- 355 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Robert, P.

J. P. Roger, F. Charbonnier, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara and P. Robert, " Photothermal spectroscopy of laser materials," Proceedings Laser' 88 (Society for Optical and Quantum Electronics, 1989), pp. 600- 604.

Roger, J. P.

J. P. Roger, F. Charbonnier, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara and P. Robert, " Photothermal spectroscopy of laser materials," Proceedings Laser' 88 (Society for Optical and Quantum Electronics, 1989), pp. 600- 604.

Route, R.

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer and R. Route, " Effect of annealing on the light absorption in sapphire," in Proceedings of Third Edoardo Arnaldi Conference (American Institute of Physics, 2000), Vol. 523, pp. 395- 396.

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. Feit, J. Campbell, D. Faux, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, R. A. Riddle, A. Salleo, and J. Yoshiyama, " Modeling of laser-induced surface cracks in silica at 355 nm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. H. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 350- 355 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Rudiger, A.

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, and R. Schilling. " Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors," Phys. Rev. A 4, 7022- 7036 ( 1991).
[CrossRef]

Salleo, A.

M. Feit, J. Campbell, D. Faux, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, R. A. Riddle, A. Salleo, and J. Yoshiyama, " Modeling of laser-induced surface cracks in silica at 355 nm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. H. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 350- 355 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Schilling., R.

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, and R. Schilling. " Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors," Phys. Rev. A 4, 7022- 7036 ( 1991).
[CrossRef]

Vinet, Y.

Y. Vinet, V. Brisson, and S. Braccini, " Scattered light noise in gravitational wave interferometric detectors: coherent effects," Phys. Rev. D 54, 1276- 86 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Vinet, B. Meers, C. N. Man, and A. Brellet, " Optimization of long-baseline optical interferometers for gravitational-wave detection," Phys. Rev. D 38, 433- 447 ( 1988).
[CrossRef]

Walker, T.

T. Walker, A. Guenther, and P. Nielsen, " A novel technique for investigating impurity initiated short pulse laser damage in thin films," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2053- 2065 ( 1981).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, W.

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, and R. Schilling. " Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors," Phys. Rev. A 4, 7022- 7036 ( 1991).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Z.

Z. Yan, C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras, and D. G. Blair, " Automatic Rayleigh scattering mapping system for optical quality evaluation of test masses for gravity wave detectors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 015104 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yan, L. Ju, F. Eon, S. Gras, C. Zhao, J. Jacob, and D. G. Blair, " Large-scale inhomogeneity in sapphire test masses revealed by Rayleigh scattering imaging," Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1139- S1144 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoshiyama, J.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the mapping positions and crystal orientations of two samples. (a) Absorption mapping geometry. For each sapphire sample, five absorption maps were recorded at five different depths: z = 10 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm, 40 mm, and 50 mm, from the front side. The diameter of the maps was 130 mm, and the step between the points was either 2 or 1.5 mm. The absorption versus the depth (z) is scanned at two different (x, y, z) positions: (−50 mm, 0, 0) and (50 mm, 0, 0) for each substrate. (b) Rayleigh-scattering mapping geometry. The ARSMS layer-by-layer mapping of the cylindrical sample was realized by moving the sample in cylindrical coordinates (R, θ) relative to a fixed laser beam. The translation step within one layer is 0.5 mm. The sample was rotated by successive 18° intervals around the center axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical absorption and scattering maps show internal crystal structures and point defects in the two sapphire samples. In sample 1, point defects appear in both absorption and scattering. The background level of the absorption varies from 18 to 75 ppm∕cm, and the scattering from 2 to 9 ppm∕cm. At point defects the absorption varies between 100 and 300 ppm∕cm, while the scattering value varies between 300 and 500 ppm∕cm. Sample 2 images show inhomogeneous structures and no point defects. The level of absorption changes from 22 to 140 ppm∕cm, and the scattering from 3 to 17 ppm∕cm. Notice the different cross section between scattering and absorption as illustrated in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Comparison of five cross section maps of absorption and scattering for sample 2. (b) The reconstructed 3D map of the scattering clearly shows the conical growth structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Histogram of the distributions of (a) the scattering value and (b) the absorption value in sample 1 and sample 2. The vertical axis is normalized to the total number of samples.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of mapping images of birefringence (phase retardation), integrated scattering, and absorption of sample 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption and scattering in sample 1: (a) along the a axis at x = 50 mm; (b) along the a axis at x = −50 mm; (c) along the c axis at z = 20 mm; (d) along the c axis at z = 30 mm. We observe strong correlation along the a axis, while no obvious correlation along the c axis.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of scattering and absorption in sample 2 along the a axis and the c axis: (a) along the a axis, x=50 mm; (b) along the a axis, x=−50 mm; (c) along the c axis, z=20 mm; (d) along the c axis, z=30 mm. After case (b), the data show correlation with a spatial shift of about 25–40 mm between absorption and scattering.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Intensities of Scattering and Absorption

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