Abstract

We describe the design, fabrication, and excellent performance of an optimized deep-etched high-density fused-silica transmission grating for use in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems. The fabricated optimized transmission grating exhibits an efficiency of 87.1% at a wavelength of 1550  nm. Inductively coupled plasma-etching technology was used to fabricate the grating. The deep-etched high-density fused-silica transmission grating is suitable for use in a DWDM system because of its high efficiency, low polarization-dependent loss, parallel demultiplexing, and stable optical performance. The fabricated deep-etched high-density fused-silica transmission gratings should play an important role in DWDM systems.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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2005 (3)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

A. Sappey and P. Huang, " Free-space diffraction gratings allow denser channel spacing," Wavelength Division Multiplexing Solutions Res. Dev. 3, 39- 41 ( 2001).

2000 (2)

E. Gogolides and P. Vauvert, " Etching of SiO2 and Si in fluorocarbon plasma: A detailed surface model accounting for etching and deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5570- 5584 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Mait, A. Scherer, O. Dial, D. W. Prather, and X. Gao, " Diffractive lens fabricated with binary features less than 60 nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 381- 383 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (3)

Bouchut, P.

Boyd, R. D.

Britten, J. A.

Bryan, S. J.

Chen, R. T.

Clausnitzer, T.

Dial, O.

Fuchs, H. J.

Gaborit, G.

Gao, X.

Gaylord, T. K.

Gogolides, E.

E. Gogolides and P. Vauvert, " Etching of SiO2 and Si in fluorocarbon plasma: A detailed surface model accounting for etching and deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5570- 5584 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

Grann, E. B.

Hirsh, J.

Horwitz, J. W.

Huang, P.

A. Sappey and P. Huang, " Free-space diffraction gratings allow denser channel spacing," Wavelength Division Multiplexing Solutions Res. Dev. 3, 39- 41 ( 2001).

Journot, E.

Jup, M.

Kley, E. B.

Laude, J. -P.

J. -P. Laude, DWDM Fundamentals, Components, and Applications (Artech House Optoelectronics Library, 2002).

Li, L.

Limpert, J.

Liu, L.

Mait, J. N.

Moharam, M. G.

Morey, W. W.

Néauport, J.

Nguyen, H. T.

Perry, M. D.

Pommet, D. A.

Prather, D. W.

Qiao, J.

Ristau, D.

Sappey, A.

A. Sappey, " Not all multiplexing technologies are on the same wavelength," Photonics Spectra 36, 78- 84 ( 2002).

A. Sappey and P. Huang, " Free-space diffraction gratings allow denser channel spacing," Wavelength Division Multiplexing Solutions Res. Dev. 3, 39- 41 ( 2001).

Scherer, A.

Shore, B. W.

Tünnermann, A.

Vauvert, P.

E. Gogolides and P. Vauvert, " Etching of SiO2 and Si in fluorocarbon plasma: A detailed surface model accounting for etching and deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5570- 5584 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Zellmer, H.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, F.

Zhou, C.

Zöllner, K.

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Gogolides and P. Vauvert, " Etching of SiO2 and Si in fluorocarbon plasma: A detailed surface model accounting for etching and deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5570- 5584 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photonics Spectra (1)

A. Sappey, " Not all multiplexing technologies are on the same wavelength," Photonics Spectra 36, 78- 84 ( 2002).

Wavelength Division Multiplexing Solutions Res. Dev. (1)

A. Sappey and P. Huang, " Free-space diffraction gratings allow denser channel spacing," Wavelength Division Multiplexing Solutions Res. Dev. 3, 39- 41 ( 2001).

Other (1)

J. -P. Laude, DWDM Fundamentals, Components, and Applications (Artech House Optoelectronics Library, 2002).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the demultiplexing principle with a free-space transmission grating used in a DWDM system. SMF, single-mode fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the efficiency measurement setup for a high-density surface-relief rectangular grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical efficiency of a fused-silica grating with λ = 1550 nm, m = −1 order, and TE polarization as a function of groove depth and density for a rectangular profile with a DC of 0.5.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Process flow for fabricating a deep-etched high-density fused-silica transmission grating with ICP-etching technology. PR, photoresist.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scanning electron micrograph cross-sectional images of (a) a large area and (b) a magnified local part of a fabricated fused-silica grating with a density of 674 lines∕mm, a groove depth of 2.5 μm, and a DC of 0.5.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical efficiencies and experimental efficiencies of the fabricated grating at different incidence angles. The incident beam is (a) TE polarized or (b) TM polarized with a wavelength of 1550 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Theoretical efficiency of m = −1 order of the fabricated grating with a density 674 lines∕mm, a groove depth of 2.5 μm, and a DC of 0.5, at a wavelength from 1460 to 1620 nm.

Equations (3)

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sin d m = sin i + m λ Λ ,
DC = ( a / Λ ) ,
θ = arcsin ( λ / 2 Λ ) ,

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