Abstract

A low-threshold self-starting Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser is demonstrated that uses a tight-focusing cavity design in conjunction with a semiconductor saturable- absorber mirror (SESAM). With 3% and 12% output couplers, we achieve mode-locking thresholds as low as 390 and 600  mW, respectively. Stable femtosecond laser pulses with average power of 114  mW are generated at a pump power of 1.2  W, which corresponds to a typical duration of 17  fs and bandwidth of 47  nm. Mode-locking operation is achieved in a pump power range of 600  mW to 4.8  W at an output coupling of 12%; the advantages of using a SESAM for low-power mode-locking operation are demonstrated.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, "60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 16, 42-44 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Aoyama, K. Yamakawa, Y. Akahane, J. Ma, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and H. Kiriyama, "0.85-pW, 33-fs Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1594-1596 (2003).
  3. J. R. Lincoln, M. J. P. Dymott, and A. I. Ferguson, "Femtosecond pulses from an all-solid-state Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser," Opt. Lett. 19, 1210-1212 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Read, F. Blonigen, N. Riccelli, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "Low-threshold operation of an ultrashort-pulse mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 489-491 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Q. Y. Wang, J. M. Dai, W. L. Zhang, H. Y. Liang, R. B. Zhang, and Q. R. Xing, "15 fs-pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with low pump power," Chin. J. Lasers A 24, 1057-1060 (1997).
  6. K. Lamb, D. E. Spence, J. Hong, C. Yelland, and W. Sibbett, "All-solid-state self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 19, 1864-1866 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. M. Kowalevicz, Jr., T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultralow-threshold Kerr-lens mode-locked TiAl2O3 laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 2037-2039 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, "Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 176, 171-175 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. J. Valentine, D. Burns, and D. W. Sibbet, "Low-threshold all-solid-state femtosecond lasers," in Femtosecond Technology: From Basic to Application Prospects, T.Kamiya, F.Saito, O.Wada, and H.Yajima, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1999), pp. 258-263.
  10. W. J. Ling, J. A. Zheng, Y. L. Jia, and Z. Y. Wei, "Theoretical study on the Ti:sapphire laser with low pump threshold," Acta Phys. Sin. 54, 1619-1622 (2005).
  11. J. H. Sun, R. B. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, L. Chai, D. Q. Pang, J. M. Dai, Z. G. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Nakagawa, and T. Sugaya, "High-average-power self-staring mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with a broadband semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror," Appl. Opt. 40, 3539-3541 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. S. Pshenichnikov, W. P. de Boeij, and D. A. Wiersma, "Generation of 13-fs, 5-MW pulses from a cavity-dumped Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 19, 572-574 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. H. Lin, M. D. Wei, W. F. Hsieh, and H. H. Wu, "Cavity configurations for soft-aperture Kerr-lens mode locking and multiple-period bifurcations in Ti:sapphire lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1069-1075 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Q. R. Xing, W. L. Zhang, and K. M. Yoo, "Self-Q-switched self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 119, 113-116 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. K. Ranka, A. L. Gaeta, A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "Autocorrelation measurement of 6-fs pulses based on the two-photon-induced photocurrent in a GaAsP photodiode," Opt. Lett. 22, 1344-1346 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Brabec, Ch. Spielmann, and E. Krausz, "Mode locking in solitary lasers," Opt. Lett. 16, 1961-1963 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

W. J. Ling, J. A. Zheng, Y. L. Jia, and Z. Y. Wei, "Theoretical study on the Ti:sapphire laser with low pump threshold," Acta Phys. Sin. 54, 1619-1622 (2005).

2002

2001

2000

Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, "Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 176, 171-175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

Q. Y. Wang, J. M. Dai, W. L. Zhang, H. Y. Liang, R. B. Zhang, and Q. R. Xing, "15 fs-pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with low pump power," Chin. J. Lasers A 24, 1057-1060 (1997).

J. K. Ranka, A. L. Gaeta, A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "Autocorrelation measurement of 6-fs pulses based on the two-photon-induced photocurrent in a GaAsP photodiode," Opt. Lett. 22, 1344-1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

Q. R. Xing, W. L. Zhang, and K. M. Yoo, "Self-Q-switched self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 119, 113-116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1991

Akahane, Y.

M. Aoyama, K. Yamakawa, Y. Akahane, J. Ma, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and H. Kiriyama, "0.85-pW, 33-fs Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1594-1596 (2003).

Aoyama, M.

M. Aoyama, K. Yamakawa, Y. Akahane, J. Ma, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and H. Kiriyama, "0.85-pW, 33-fs Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1594-1596 (2003).

Baltuska, A.

Blonigen, F.

Brabec, T.

Burns, D.

G. J. Valentine, D. Burns, and D. W. Sibbet, "Low-threshold all-solid-state femtosecond lasers," in Femtosecond Technology: From Basic to Application Prospects, T.Kamiya, F.Saito, O.Wada, and H.Yajima, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1999), pp. 258-263.

Chai, L.

Dai, J. M.

J. H. Sun, R. B. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, L. Chai, D. Q. Pang, J. M. Dai, Z. G. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Nakagawa, and T. Sugaya, "High-average-power self-staring mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with a broadband semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror," Appl. Opt. 40, 3539-3541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Wang, J. M. Dai, W. L. Zhang, H. Y. Liang, R. B. Zhang, and Q. R. Xing, "15 fs-pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with low pump power," Chin. J. Lasers A 24, 1057-1060 (1997).

de Boeij, W. P.

Dymott, M. J. P.

Ferguson, A. I.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gaeta, A. L.

Hong, J.

Hsieh, W. F.

Inoue, N.

M. Aoyama, K. Yamakawa, Y. Akahane, J. Ma, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and H. Kiriyama, "0.85-pW, 33-fs Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1594-1596 (2003).

Jia, Y. L.

W. J. Ling, J. A. Zheng, Y. L. Jia, and Z. Y. Wei, "Theoretical study on the Ti:sapphire laser with low pump threshold," Acta Phys. Sin. 54, 1619-1622 (2005).

Kapteyn, H.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kean, P. N.

Kiriyama, H.

M. Aoyama, K. Yamakawa, Y. Akahane, J. Ma, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and H. Kiriyama, "0.85-pW, 33-fs Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1594-1596 (2003).

Kobayashi, K.

Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, "Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 176, 171-175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Krausz, E.

Lamb, K.

Liang, H. Y.

Q. Y. Wang, J. M. Dai, W. L. Zhang, H. Y. Liang, R. B. Zhang, and Q. R. Xing, "15 fs-pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with low pump power," Chin. J. Lasers A 24, 1057-1060 (1997).

Lin, J. H.

Lincoln, J. R.

Ling, W. J.

W. J. Ling, J. A. Zheng, Y. L. Jia, and Z. Y. Wei, "Theoretical study on the Ti:sapphire laser with low pump threshold," Acta Phys. Sin. 54, 1619-1622 (2005).

Ma, J.

M. Aoyama, K. Yamakawa, Y. Akahane, J. Ma, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and H. Kiriyama, "0.85-pW, 33-fs Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1594-1596 (2003).

Miura, T.

Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, "Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 176, 171-175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M.

Nakagawa, T.

J. H. Sun, R. B. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, L. Chai, D. Q. Pang, J. M. Dai, Z. G. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Nakagawa, and T. Sugaya, "High-average-power self-staring mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with a broadband semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror," Appl. Opt. 40, 3539-3541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, "Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 176, 171-175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pang, D. Q.

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

Ranka, J. K.

Read, K.

Riccelli, N.

Schibli, T. R.

Sibbet, D. W.

G. J. Valentine, D. Burns, and D. W. Sibbet, "Low-threshold all-solid-state femtosecond lasers," in Femtosecond Technology: From Basic to Application Prospects, T.Kamiya, F.Saito, O.Wada, and H.Yajima, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1999), pp. 258-263.

Sibbett, W.

Spence, D. E.

Spielmann, Ch.

Sugaya, T.

J. H. Sun, R. B. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, L. Chai, D. Q. Pang, J. M. Dai, Z. G. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Nakagawa, and T. Sugaya, "High-average-power self-staring mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with a broadband semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror," Appl. Opt. 40, 3539-3541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, "Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 176, 171-175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. H.

Takada, H.

Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, "Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 176, 171-175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

J. H. Sun, R. B. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, L. Chai, D. Q. Pang, J. M. Dai, Z. G. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Nakagawa, and T. Sugaya, "High-average-power self-staring mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with a broadband semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror," Appl. Opt. 40, 3539-3541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, "Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 176, 171-175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, H.

M. Aoyama, K. Yamakawa, Y. Akahane, J. Ma, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and H. Kiriyama, "0.85-pW, 33-fs Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1594-1596 (2003).

Valentine, G. J.

G. J. Valentine, D. Burns, and D. W. Sibbet, "Low-threshold all-solid-state femtosecond lasers," in Femtosecond Technology: From Basic to Application Prospects, T.Kamiya, F.Saito, O.Wada, and H.Yajima, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1999), pp. 258-263.

Wang, Q. Y.

J. H. Sun, R. B. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, L. Chai, D. Q. Pang, J. M. Dai, Z. G. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Nakagawa, and T. Sugaya, "High-average-power self-staring mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with a broadband semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror," Appl. Opt. 40, 3539-3541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Wang, J. M. Dai, W. L. Zhang, H. Y. Liang, R. B. Zhang, and Q. R. Xing, "15 fs-pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with low pump power," Chin. J. Lasers A 24, 1057-1060 (1997).

Wei, M. D.

Wei, Z. Y.

W. J. Ling, J. A. Zheng, Y. L. Jia, and Z. Y. Wei, "Theoretical study on the Ti:sapphire laser with low pump threshold," Acta Phys. Sin. 54, 1619-1622 (2005).

Wiersma, D. A.

Wu, H. H.

Xing, Q. R.

Q. Y. Wang, J. M. Dai, W. L. Zhang, H. Y. Liang, R. B. Zhang, and Q. R. Xing, "15 fs-pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with low pump power," Chin. J. Lasers A 24, 1057-1060 (1997).

Q. R. Xing, W. L. Zhang, and K. M. Yoo, "Self-Q-switched self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 119, 113-116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, K.

M. Aoyama, K. Yamakawa, Y. Akahane, J. Ma, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and H. Kiriyama, "0.85-pW, 33-fs Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1594-1596 (2003).

Yelland, C.

Yoo, K. M.

Q. R. Xing, W. L. Zhang, and K. M. Yoo, "Self-Q-switched self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 119, 113-116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R. B.

J. H. Sun, R. B. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, L. Chai, D. Q. Pang, J. M. Dai, Z. G. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Nakagawa, and T. Sugaya, "High-average-power self-staring mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with a broadband semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror," Appl. Opt. 40, 3539-3541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Wang, J. M. Dai, W. L. Zhang, H. Y. Liang, R. B. Zhang, and Q. R. Xing, "15 fs-pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with low pump power," Chin. J. Lasers A 24, 1057-1060 (1997).

Zhang, W. L.

Q. Y. Wang, J. M. Dai, W. L. Zhang, H. Y. Liang, R. B. Zhang, and Q. R. Xing, "15 fs-pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with low pump power," Chin. J. Lasers A 24, 1057-1060 (1997).

Q. R. Xing, W. L. Zhang, and K. M. Yoo, "Self-Q-switched self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 119, 113-116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, "Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 176, 171-175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. G.

Zheng, J. A.

W. J. Ling, J. A. Zheng, Y. L. Jia, and Z. Y. Wei, "Theoretical study on the Ti:sapphire laser with low pump threshold," Acta Phys. Sin. 54, 1619-1622 (2005).

Acta Phys. Sin.

W. J. Ling, J. A. Zheng, Y. L. Jia, and Z. Y. Wei, "Theoretical study on the Ti:sapphire laser with low pump threshold," Acta Phys. Sin. 54, 1619-1622 (2005).

Appl. Opt.

Chin. J. Lasers A

Q. Y. Wang, J. M. Dai, W. L. Zhang, H. Y. Liang, R. B. Zhang, and Q. R. Xing, "15 fs-pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with low pump power," Chin. J. Lasers A 24, 1057-1060 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, "Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 176, 171-175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. R. Xing, W. L. Zhang, and K. M. Yoo, "Self-Q-switched self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 119, 113-116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

G. J. Valentine, D. Burns, and D. W. Sibbet, "Low-threshold all-solid-state femtosecond lasers," in Femtosecond Technology: From Basic to Application Prospects, T.Kamiya, F.Saito, O.Wada, and H.Yajima, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1999), pp. 258-263.

M. Aoyama, K. Yamakawa, Y. Akahane, J. Ma, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and H. Kiriyama, "0.85-pW, 33-fs Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1594-1596 (2003).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the low-threshold self-starting femtosecond Ti:sapphire (Ti:S) laser: F, lens with 50 mm focal length; M1–M3, mirrors with 50 mm ROC; P1, P2, fused-silica prisms; O.C.; output coupler; Verdi; Nd:YVO4 laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characteristics of mode-locking power versus pump power at a 12% output coupler.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left, interferometric autocorrelation trace and (right) the corresponding spectrum for a pump power of 1.2 W. The pulse duration is 17 fs, assuming a sech[2] pulse shape, and the FWHM bandwidth is 47 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Shortest pulse duration versus pump power at a 12% output coupler.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Pump Power and Output Power for Two Output Couplers

Metrics