Abstract

Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of dimethylsilane and hexamethyldisilane produced thin films with a refractive index of 1.56 ± 0.01 at 633 nm. A decrease in the refractive index of approximately 3% was observed after irradiation with UV light from an ArF laser operating at 193 nm. Lower-intensity UV light from a Hg arc lamp induced a slower and controllable decrease in the refractive index. Top-side prism coupling showed the as-deposited organosilicon films to be multimode at 633 nm and single mode at 1550 nm. A model predicted that 30 s of UV irradiation with the Hg arc lamp would decrease the refractive index of the light-guiding film by approximately 0.01, converting the waveguide into single-mode operation across the spectrum of essential wavelengths for microphotonics. Irradiation followed by further coupling experiments confirmed this tunability. Trimming the refractive index of patternable organosilicon polymeric films presents a method of optimizing the coupling performance of PECVD microphotonic interconnect layers postdeposition.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Eldada, “Polymer microphotonics,” in Nano- and Micro-Optics for Information Systems, L. Eldada, ed., Proc. SPIE5225, 49–60 (2003).
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  5. K. Wada, H.-C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, “On-chip interconnection beyond semiconductor roadmap—silicon microphotonics,” in Active and Passive Optical Components for WDM Communications II, A. K. Dutta, A. A. S. Awwal, N. K. Dutta, K. Okamoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4870, 437–443 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. P. K. Tien, G. Smolinsky, R. J. Martin, “Thin organosilicon films for integrated optics,” Appl. Opt. 11, 637–642 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  10. A. Watanabe, T. Komatsubara, O. Ito, M. Matsuda, “SiC/SiO2 micropatterning by ultraviolet irradiation and heat treatment of a poly(phenylsilyne) film,” J. Appl. Phys. 77,(6) 2796–2800 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Monget, O. Joubert, “Plasma polymerized methylsilane. II. Performance for 248 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 785–792 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. Joubert, D. Fuard, C. Monget, T. Weidman, “Plasma polymerized methylsilane. III. Process optimization for 193 nm lithography applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 793–798 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. R. Kunz, M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, S. P. Sawan, Y. G. Tsai, “Controlled-ambient photolithography of polysilane resists at 193 nm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1629–1633 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, J. T. Yardley, “Laser-fabricated low-loss single-mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704–1713 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, “4 × 4 digital optical matrix switch using polymeric oversized rib waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 684–686 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Yasuo, S. Shinya, B. Gokon, S. Seitoku, E. Soichi, S. Shuichi, I. Takashi, K. Keiji, S. Shinichiro, “Central wavelength adjustment method for asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter and asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter,” Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology and General Electric Toshiba Silicones Company Ltd., Jap. Pat. # 2000075151 (2000).
  17. C. Kostrzewa, R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, B. Schuppert, K. Petermann, “Tunable polymer optical add/drop filter for multiwavelength networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1487–1489 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. B. Wolfe, J. C. Love, B. D. Gates, G. M. Whitesides, R. S. Conroy, M. Prentiss, “Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by electrical microcontact printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1623–1625 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, T. Zyung, M.-C. Oh, S.-Y. Shin, “Postphotobleaching method for the control of coupling constant in an electro-optic polymer directional coupler switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 763–765 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Chen, V. Chuyano, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, S. S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, “Trimming of polymer waveguide Y-junction by rapid photobleaching for tuning the power splitting ratio,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 1499–1501 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. K. Tien, “Light waves in thin films and integrated optics,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2395–2413 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1970).
  24. D. D. Burkey, K. K. Gleason, “Structure and mechanical properties of thin films deposited from 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane and water,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5143–5150 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. G. Pryce-Lewis, D. J. Edell, K. K. Gleason, “Pulsed-PECVD films from hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane for use as insulating biomaterials,” Chem. Mater. 12, 3488–3494 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. B. Wolfe, J. C. Love, B. D. Gates, G. M. Whitesides, R. S. Conroy, M. Prentiss, “Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by electrical microcontact printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1623–1625 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. D. Burkey, K. K. Gleason, “Structure and mechanical properties of thin films deposited from 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane and water,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5143–5150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing, and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

C. Monget, O. Joubert, “Plasma polymerized methylsilane. II. Performance for 248 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 785–792 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Joubert, D. Fuard, C. Monget, T. Weidman, “Plasma polymerized methylsilane. III. Process optimization for 193 nm lithography applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 793–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Pryce-Lewis, D. J. Edell, K. K. Gleason, “Pulsed-PECVD films from hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane for use as insulating biomaterials,” Chem. Mater. 12, 3488–3494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Grill, L. Perraud, V. Patel, C. Jahnes, S. Cohen, “Low dielectric constant SiCOH films as potential candidates for interconnect dielectrics,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 565, 107–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, “4 × 4 digital optical matrix switch using polymeric oversized rib waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 684–686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

C. Kostrzewa, R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, B. Schuppert, K. Petermann, “Tunable polymer optical add/drop filter for multiwavelength networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1487–1489 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, V. Chuyano, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, S. S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, “Trimming of polymer waveguide Y-junction by rapid photobleaching for tuning the power splitting ratio,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 1499–1501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, J. T. Yardley, “Laser-fabricated low-loss single-mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704–1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. Watanabe, T. Komatsubara, O. Ito, M. Matsuda, “SiC/SiO2 micropatterning by ultraviolet irradiation and heat treatment of a poly(phenylsilyne) film,” J. Appl. Phys. 77,(6) 2796–2800 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, T. Zyung, M.-C. Oh, S.-Y. Shin, “Postphotobleaching method for the control of coupling constant in an electro-optic polymer directional coupler switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 763–765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

F. C. Shilling, T. W. Weidman, A. M. Joshi, “Solid-state characterization of polysilanes containing the SiH bond,” Macromol. Symp. 86, 131–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

L. A. Hornak, T. W. Wedman, E. W. Kwock, “Polyalkylsilyne photodefined thin-film optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2235–2239 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

R. D. Miller, J. Michl, “Polysilane high polymers,” Chem. Rev. 89, 1359–1410 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Kunz, M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, S. P. Sawan, Y. G. Tsai, “Controlled-ambient photolithography of polysilane resists at 193 nm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1629–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

1969 (1)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1970).

Burkey, D. D.

D. D. Burkey, K. K. Gleason, “Structure and mechanical properties of thin films deposited from 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane and water,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5143–5150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

A. Chen, V. Chuyano, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, S. S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, “Trimming of polymer waveguide Y-junction by rapid photobleaching for tuning the power splitting ratio,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 1499–1501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chuyano, V.

A. Chen, V. Chuyano, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, S. S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, “Trimming of polymer waveguide Y-junction by rapid photobleaching for tuning the power splitting ratio,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 1499–1501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, S.

A. Grill, L. Perraud, V. Patel, C. Jahnes, S. Cohen, “Low dielectric constant SiCOH films as potential candidates for interconnect dielectrics,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 565, 107–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Conroy, R. S.

D. B. Wolfe, J. C. Love, B. D. Gates, G. M. Whitesides, R. S. Conroy, M. Prentiss, “Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by electrical microcontact printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1623–1625 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing, and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, V. Chuyano, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, S. S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, “Trimming of polymer waveguide Y-junction by rapid photobleaching for tuning the power splitting ratio,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 1499–1501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Edell, D. J.

H. G. Pryce-Lewis, D. J. Edell, K. K. Gleason, “Pulsed-PECVD films from hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane for use as insulating biomaterials,” Chem. Mater. 12, 3488–3494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, D. J.

R. R. Kunz, M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, S. P. Sawan, Y. G. Tsai, “Controlled-ambient photolithography of polysilane resists at 193 nm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1629–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, J. T. Yardley, “Laser-fabricated low-loss single-mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704–1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, “Polymer microphotonics,” in Nano- and Micro-Optics for Information Systems, L. Eldada, ed., Proc. SPIE5225, 49–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, “Polymer integrated optics: promise versus practicality,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices IV, B. Kippelen, D. D. Bradley, eds., Proc. SPIE4642, 11–22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fischbeck, G.

C. Kostrzewa, R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, B. Schuppert, K. Petermann, “Tunable polymer optical add/drop filter for multiwavelength networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1487–1489 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fuard, D.

O. Joubert, D. Fuard, C. Monget, T. Weidman, “Plasma polymerized methylsilane. III. Process optimization for 193 nm lithography applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 793–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garner, S.

A. Chen, V. Chuyano, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, S. S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, “Trimming of polymer waveguide Y-junction by rapid photobleaching for tuning the power splitting ratio,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 1499–1501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gates, B. D.

D. B. Wolfe, J. C. Love, B. D. Gates, G. M. Whitesides, R. S. Conroy, M. Prentiss, “Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by electrical microcontact printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1623–1625 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gleason, K. K.

D. D. Burkey, K. K. Gleason, “Structure and mechanical properties of thin films deposited from 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane and water,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5143–5150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Pryce-Lewis, D. J. Edell, K. K. Gleason, “Pulsed-PECVD films from hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane for use as insulating biomaterials,” Chem. Mater. 12, 3488–3494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gokon, B.

K. Yasuo, S. Shinya, B. Gokon, S. Seitoku, E. Soichi, S. Shuichi, I. Takashi, K. Keiji, S. Shinichiro, “Central wavelength adjustment method for asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter and asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter,” Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology and General Electric Toshiba Silicones Company Ltd., Jap. Pat. # 2000075151 (2000).

Grill, A.

A. Grill, L. Perraud, V. Patel, C. Jahnes, S. Cohen, “Low dielectric constant SiCOH films as potential candidates for interconnect dielectrics,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 565, 107–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hornak, L. A.

L. A. Hornak, T. W. Wedman, E. W. Kwock, “Polyalkylsilyne photodefined thin-film optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2235–2239 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, W.-Y.

W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, T. Zyung, M.-C. Oh, S.-Y. Shin, “Postphotobleaching method for the control of coupling constant in an electro-optic polymer directional coupler switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 763–765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ito, O.

A. Watanabe, T. Komatsubara, O. Ito, M. Matsuda, “SiC/SiO2 micropatterning by ultraviolet irradiation and heat treatment of a poly(phenylsilyne) film,” J. Appl. Phys. 77,(6) 2796–2800 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jahnes, C.

A. Grill, L. Perraud, V. Patel, C. Jahnes, S. Cohen, “Low dielectric constant SiCOH films as potential candidates for interconnect dielectrics,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 565, 107–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing, and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, A. M.

F. C. Shilling, T. W. Weidman, A. M. Joshi, “Solid-state characterization of polysilanes containing the SiH bond,” Macromol. Symp. 86, 131–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, O.

C. Monget, O. Joubert, “Plasma polymerized methylsilane. II. Performance for 248 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 785–792 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Joubert, D. Fuard, C. Monget, T. Weidman, “Plasma polymerized methylsilane. III. Process optimization for 193 nm lithography applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 793–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keiji, K.

K. Yasuo, S. Shinya, B. Gokon, S. Seitoku, E. Soichi, S. Shuichi, I. Takashi, K. Keiji, S. Shinichiro, “Central wavelength adjustment method for asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter and asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter,” Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology and General Electric Toshiba Silicones Company Ltd., Jap. Pat. # 2000075151 (2000).

Kim, J.-J.

W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, T. Zyung, M.-C. Oh, S.-Y. Shin, “Postphotobleaching method for the control of coupling constant in an electro-optic polymer directional coupler switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 763–765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

K. Wada, H.-C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, “On-chip interconnection beyond semiconductor roadmap—silicon microphotonics,” in Active and Passive Optical Components for WDM Communications II, A. K. Dutta, A. A. S. Awwal, N. K. Dutta, K. Okamoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4870, 437–443 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Komatsubara, T.

A. Watanabe, T. Komatsubara, O. Ito, M. Matsuda, “SiC/SiO2 micropatterning by ultraviolet irradiation and heat treatment of a poly(phenylsilyne) film,” J. Appl. Phys. 77,(6) 2796–2800 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kostrzewa, C.

C. Kostrzewa, R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, B. Schuppert, K. Petermann, “Tunable polymer optical add/drop filter for multiwavelength networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1487–1489 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, R. R.

R. R. Kunz, M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, S. P. Sawan, Y. G. Tsai, “Controlled-ambient photolithography of polysilane resists at 193 nm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1629–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kwock, E. W.

L. A. Hornak, T. W. Wedman, E. W. Kwock, “Polyalkylsilyne photodefined thin-film optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2235–2239 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R. C.

K. Wada, H.-C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, “On-chip interconnection beyond semiconductor roadmap—silicon microphotonics,” in Active and Passive Optical Components for WDM Communications II, A. K. Dutta, A. A. S. Awwal, N. K. Dutta, K. Okamoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4870, 437–443 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. C.

D. B. Wolfe, J. C. Love, B. D. Gates, G. M. Whitesides, R. S. Conroy, M. Prentiss, “Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by electrical microcontact printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1623–1625 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H.-C.

K. Wada, H.-C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, “On-chip interconnection beyond semiconductor roadmap—silicon microphotonics,” in Active and Passive Optical Components for WDM Communications II, A. K. Dutta, A. A. S. Awwal, N. K. Dutta, K. Okamoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4870, 437–443 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing, and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S. S. H.

A. Chen, V. Chuyano, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, S. S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, “Trimming of polymer waveguide Y-junction by rapid photobleaching for tuning the power splitting ratio,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 1499–1501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marti-Carrera, F. I.

A. Chen, V. Chuyano, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, S. S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, “Trimming of polymer waveguide Y-junction by rapid photobleaching for tuning the power splitting ratio,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 1499–1501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, G. Smolinsky, R. J. Martin, “Thin organosilicon films for integrated optics,” Appl. Opt. 11, 637–642 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, M.

A. Watanabe, T. Komatsubara, O. Ito, M. Matsuda, “SiC/SiO2 micropatterning by ultraviolet irradiation and heat treatment of a poly(phenylsilyne) film,” J. Appl. Phys. 77,(6) 2796–2800 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Michl, J.

R. D. Miller, J. Michl, “Polysilane high polymers,” Chem. Rev. 89, 1359–1410 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. D.

R. D. Miller, J. Michl, “Polysilane high polymers,” Chem. Rev. 89, 1359–1410 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Monget, C.

C. Monget, O. Joubert, “Plasma polymerized methylsilane. II. Performance for 248 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 785–792 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Joubert, D. Fuard, C. Monget, T. Weidman, “Plasma polymerized methylsilane. III. Process optimization for 193 nm lithography applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 793–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moosburger, R.

R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, “4 × 4 digital optical matrix switch using polymeric oversized rib waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 684–686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Kostrzewa, R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, B. Schuppert, K. Petermann, “Tunable polymer optical add/drop filter for multiwavelength networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1487–1489 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M.-C.

W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, T. Zyung, M.-C. Oh, S.-Y. Shin, “Postphotobleaching method for the control of coupling constant in an electro-optic polymer directional coupler switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 763–765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Patel, V.

A. Grill, L. Perraud, V. Patel, C. Jahnes, S. Cohen, “Low dielectric constant SiCOH films as potential candidates for interconnect dielectrics,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 565, 107–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perraud, L.

A. Grill, L. Perraud, V. Patel, C. Jahnes, S. Cohen, “Low dielectric constant SiCOH films as potential candidates for interconnect dielectrics,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 565, 107–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, “4 × 4 digital optical matrix switch using polymeric oversized rib waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 684–686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Kostrzewa, R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, B. Schuppert, K. Petermann, “Tunable polymer optical add/drop filter for multiwavelength networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1487–1489 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M.

D. B. Wolfe, J. C. Love, B. D. Gates, G. M. Whitesides, R. S. Conroy, M. Prentiss, “Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by electrical microcontact printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1623–1625 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pryce-Lewis, H. G.

H. G. Pryce-Lewis, D. J. Edell, K. K. Gleason, “Pulsed-PECVD films from hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane for use as insulating biomaterials,” Chem. Mater. 12, 3488–3494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ra, Y.

A. Chen, V. Chuyano, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, S. S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, “Trimming of polymer waveguide Y-junction by rapid photobleaching for tuning the power splitting ratio,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 1499–1501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rothschild, M.

R. R. Kunz, M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, S. P. Sawan, Y. G. Tsai, “Controlled-ambient photolithography of polysilane resists at 193 nm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1629–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sawan, S. P.

R. R. Kunz, M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, S. P. Sawan, Y. G. Tsai, “Controlled-ambient photolithography of polysilane resists at 193 nm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1629–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schuppert, B.

C. Kostrzewa, R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, B. Schuppert, K. Petermann, “Tunable polymer optical add/drop filter for multiwavelength networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1487–1489 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seitoku, S.

K. Yasuo, S. Shinya, B. Gokon, S. Seitoku, E. Soichi, S. Shuichi, I. Takashi, K. Keiji, S. Shinichiro, “Central wavelength adjustment method for asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter and asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter,” Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology and General Electric Toshiba Silicones Company Ltd., Jap. Pat. # 2000075151 (2000).

Shacklette, L. W.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, J. T. Yardley, “Laser-fabricated low-loss single-mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704–1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

A. Chen, V. Chuyano, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, S. S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, “Trimming of polymer waveguide Y-junction by rapid photobleaching for tuning the power splitting ratio,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 1499–1501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shilling, F. C.

F. C. Shilling, T. W. Weidman, A. M. Joshi, “Solid-state characterization of polysilanes containing the SiH bond,” Macromol. Symp. 86, 131–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S.-Y.

W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, T. Zyung, M.-C. Oh, S.-Y. Shin, “Postphotobleaching method for the control of coupling constant in an electro-optic polymer directional coupler switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 763–765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shinichiro, S.

K. Yasuo, S. Shinya, B. Gokon, S. Seitoku, E. Soichi, S. Shuichi, I. Takashi, K. Keiji, S. Shinichiro, “Central wavelength adjustment method for asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter and asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter,” Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology and General Electric Toshiba Silicones Company Ltd., Jap. Pat. # 2000075151 (2000).

Shinya, S.

K. Yasuo, S. Shinya, B. Gokon, S. Seitoku, E. Soichi, S. Shuichi, I. Takashi, K. Keiji, S. Shinichiro, “Central wavelength adjustment method for asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter and asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter,” Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology and General Electric Toshiba Silicones Company Ltd., Jap. Pat. # 2000075151 (2000).

Shuichi, S.

K. Yasuo, S. Shinya, B. Gokon, S. Seitoku, E. Soichi, S. Shuichi, I. Takashi, K. Keiji, S. Shinichiro, “Central wavelength adjustment method for asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter and asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter,” Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology and General Electric Toshiba Silicones Company Ltd., Jap. Pat. # 2000075151 (2000).

Smolinsky, G.

Soichi, E.

K. Yasuo, S. Shinya, B. Gokon, S. Seitoku, E. Soichi, S. Shuichi, I. Takashi, K. Keiji, S. Shinichiro, “Central wavelength adjustment method for asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter and asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter,” Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology and General Electric Toshiba Silicones Company Ltd., Jap. Pat. # 2000075151 (2000).

Steier, W. H.

A. Chen, V. Chuyano, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, S. S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, “Trimming of polymer waveguide Y-junction by rapid photobleaching for tuning the power splitting ratio,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 1499–1501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stengel, K. M. T.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, J. T. Yardley, “Laser-fabricated low-loss single-mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704–1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takashi, I.

K. Yasuo, S. Shinya, B. Gokon, S. Seitoku, E. Soichi, S. Shuichi, I. Takashi, K. Keiji, S. Shinichiro, “Central wavelength adjustment method for asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter and asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter,” Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology and General Electric Toshiba Silicones Company Ltd., Jap. Pat. # 2000075151 (2000).

Tien, P. K.

Tsai, Y. G.

R. R. Kunz, M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, S. P. Sawan, Y. G. Tsai, “Controlled-ambient photolithography of polysilane resists at 193 nm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1629–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

K. Wada, H.-C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, “On-chip interconnection beyond semiconductor roadmap—silicon microphotonics,” in Active and Passive Optical Components for WDM Communications II, A. K. Dutta, A. A. S. Awwal, N. K. Dutta, K. Okamoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4870, 437–443 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, A.

A. Watanabe, T. Komatsubara, O. Ito, M. Matsuda, “SiC/SiO2 micropatterning by ultraviolet irradiation and heat treatment of a poly(phenylsilyne) film,” J. Appl. Phys. 77,(6) 2796–2800 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wedman, T. W.

L. A. Hornak, T. W. Wedman, E. W. Kwock, “Polyalkylsilyne photodefined thin-film optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2235–2239 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weidman, T.

O. Joubert, D. Fuard, C. Monget, T. Weidman, “Plasma polymerized methylsilane. III. Process optimization for 193 nm lithography applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 793–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weidman, T. W.

F. C. Shilling, T. W. Weidman, A. M. Joshi, “Solid-state characterization of polysilanes containing the SiH bond,” Macromol. Symp. 86, 131–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

D. B. Wolfe, J. C. Love, B. D. Gates, G. M. Whitesides, R. S. Conroy, M. Prentiss, “Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by electrical microcontact printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1623–1625 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1970).

Wolfe, D. B.

D. B. Wolfe, J. C. Love, B. D. Gates, G. M. Whitesides, R. S. Conroy, M. Prentiss, “Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by electrical microcontact printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1623–1625 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, J. T. Yardley, “Laser-fabricated low-loss single-mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704–1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yardley, J. T.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, J. T. Yardley, “Laser-fabricated low-loss single-mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704–1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yasuo, K.

K. Yasuo, S. Shinya, B. Gokon, S. Seitoku, E. Soichi, S. Shuichi, I. Takashi, K. Keiji, S. Shinichiro, “Central wavelength adjustment method for asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter and asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter,” Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology and General Electric Toshiba Silicones Company Ltd., Jap. Pat. # 2000075151 (2000).

Zyung, T.

W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, T. Zyung, M.-C. Oh, S.-Y. Shin, “Postphotobleaching method for the control of coupling constant in an electro-optic polymer directional coupler switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 763–765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing, and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Wolfe, J. C. Love, B. D. Gates, G. M. Whitesides, R. S. Conroy, M. Prentiss, “Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by electrical microcontact printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1623–1625 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, T. Zyung, M.-C. Oh, S.-Y. Shin, “Postphotobleaching method for the control of coupling constant in an electro-optic polymer directional coupler switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 763–765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

H. G. Pryce-Lewis, D. J. Edell, K. K. Gleason, “Pulsed-PECVD films from hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane for use as insulating biomaterials,” Chem. Mater. 12, 3488–3494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

R. D. Miller, J. Michl, “Polysilane high polymers,” Chem. Rev. 89, 1359–1410 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, “4 × 4 digital optical matrix switch using polymeric oversized rib waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 684–686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Kostrzewa, R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, B. Schuppert, K. Petermann, “Tunable polymer optical add/drop filter for multiwavelength networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1487–1489 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Chen, V. Chuyano, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, S. S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, “Trimming of polymer waveguide Y-junction by rapid photobleaching for tuning the power splitting ratio,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 1499–1501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

L. A. Hornak, T. W. Wedman, E. W. Kwock, “Polyalkylsilyne photodefined thin-film optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2235–2239 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Watanabe, T. Komatsubara, O. Ito, M. Matsuda, “SiC/SiO2 micropatterning by ultraviolet irradiation and heat treatment of a poly(phenylsilyne) film,” J. Appl. Phys. 77,(6) 2796–2800 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Burkey, K. K. Gleason, “Structure and mechanical properties of thin films deposited from 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane and water,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5143–5150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, J. T. Yardley, “Laser-fabricated low-loss single-mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704–1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (3)

C. Monget, O. Joubert, “Plasma polymerized methylsilane. II. Performance for 248 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 785–792 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Joubert, D. Fuard, C. Monget, T. Weidman, “Plasma polymerized methylsilane. III. Process optimization for 193 nm lithography applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 793–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Kunz, M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, S. P. Sawan, Y. G. Tsai, “Controlled-ambient photolithography of polysilane resists at 193 nm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1629–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Symp. (1)

F. C. Shilling, T. W. Weidman, A. M. Joshi, “Solid-state characterization of polysilanes containing the SiH bond,” Macromol. Symp. 86, 131–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

A. Grill, L. Perraud, V. Patel, C. Jahnes, S. Cohen, “Low dielectric constant SiCOH films as potential candidates for interconnect dielectrics,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 565, 107–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

L. Eldada, “Polymer microphotonics,” in Nano- and Micro-Optics for Information Systems, L. Eldada, ed., Proc. SPIE5225, 49–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, “Polymer integrated optics: promise versus practicality,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices IV, B. Kippelen, D. D. Bradley, eds., Proc. SPIE4642, 11–22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Wada, H.-C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, “On-chip interconnection beyond semiconductor roadmap—silicon microphotonics,” in Active and Passive Optical Components for WDM Communications II, A. K. Dutta, A. A. S. Awwal, N. K. Dutta, K. Okamoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4870, 437–443 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Yasuo, S. Shinya, B. Gokon, S. Seitoku, E. Soichi, S. Shuichi, I. Takashi, K. Keiji, S. Shinichiro, “Central wavelength adjustment method for asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter and asymmetric directional coupler type wavelength filter,” Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology and General Electric Toshiba Silicones Company Ltd., Jap. Pat. # 2000075151 (2000).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1970).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photo-oxidation occurs via an insertion reaction when a bond is irradiated with UV light. This decreases the molecular density of the material and reduces the refractive index. R1 and R2 are organic substituents (i.e., methyl, phenyl).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the prism-coupling technique for measuring optical properties of light-guiding films.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contrast curve for a plasma-polymerized 2MS film irradiated with 193-nm light. A maximum refractive-index contrast of 0.05 or 3% was achieved with a dosage of 900 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contrast curve for a plasma-polymerized 6M2S film irradiated with a Hg arc lamp.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Two modes of 633-nm light are coupled into this 0.793-m-thick plasma-polymerized 6M2S film. (b) In the same sample, only one mode of 1550-nm light is supported.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Two modes can be supported by a 0.793-m film of 6M2S. (b) One mode of 1550-nm light can be coupled to this film.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

For the 6M2S sample with 0.79-μm thickness, the refractive index would have to be decreased slightly by 0.01 or 1% to have single-mode performance at both (a) 633 and (b) 1550 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Prism-coupling measurements after UV irradiation confirm tunability of 6M2S film. The 6M2S now has single-mode performance for both (a) 633 and (b) 1550 nm.

Equations (1)

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2 k n W cos θ film - 2 Φ air - 2 Φ substrate = 2 m π .

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