Abstract

A volume photorefractive phase mask has been fabricated with incoherent white light from an incandescent source in LiNbO3:Fe self-defocusing photorefractive crystal for the first time, to our knowledge. It can guide and modulate a probe white light or a laser beam and can be used to transmit an incoherent dark image as the guided modes of the waveguides induced by white-light dark spatial solitons. This also proves the existence of photorefractive nonlinearity of white light.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Yariv, “Three-dimensional pictorial transmission in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 88–89 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Moslehi, P. Harvey, J. Ng, T. Jannson, “Fiber-optic wavelength-division multiplexing and demultiplexing using volume holographic gratings,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1088–1090 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Stegeman, M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: university and diversity,” Science 286, 1518–1523 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447–2451 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Fischer, M. Cronin-Golomb, J. O. White, A. Yariv, “Real-time phase conjugate window for one-way optical field imaging through a distortion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 141–143 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Ogasawara, M. Ohno, K. Karaki, K. Nishizawa, A. Akiba, “Image transmission with a pair of graded-index optical fibers and a BaTiO3phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2193–2197 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Mitchell, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of incoherent white light,” Nature 387, 880–883 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646–649 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Multimode incoherent spatial solitons in logarithmically saturable nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2310–2313 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Theory of self-trapped spatially incoherent light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4990–4993 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent dark solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5113–5116 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, “Big incoherent solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1422–1425 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. V. Shkunov, D. Z. Anderson, “Radiation transfer model of self-trapping spatially incoherent radiation by nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2683–2686 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Lu, S. M. Liu, R. Guo, L. S. Yang, C. F. Huang, D. Y. Wang, “One-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons with fully incoherent white light,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 52, 3075–3081 (2003) (in Chinese).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. M. I. Carvalho, S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, “Dark and bright vector spatial solitons in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R53–R56 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. F. Ling, R. Guo, S. M. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, “The optics vortex soliton in photovoltaic-photorefractive medium,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 49, 455–459 (2000) (in Chinese).
  22. S. A. Ponomarenko, N. M. Lichinitser, G. P. Agrawal, “Theory of incoherent optical solitons: beyond the mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 015603 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004

S. A. Ponomarenko, N. M. Lichinitser, G. P. Agrawal, “Theory of incoherent optical solitons: beyond the mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 015603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Lu, S. M. Liu, R. Guo, L. S. Yang, C. F. Huang, D. Y. Wang, “One-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons with fully incoherent white light,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 52, 3075–3081 (2003) (in Chinese).

2001

2000

Z. F. Ling, R. Guo, S. M. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, “The optics vortex soliton in photovoltaic-photorefractive medium,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 49, 455–459 (2000) (in Chinese).

1999

G. Stegeman, M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: university and diversity,” Science 286, 1518–1523 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Multimode incoherent spatial solitons in logarithmically saturable nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2310–2313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent dark solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5113–5116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, “Big incoherent solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1422–1425 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Shkunov, D. Z. Anderson, “Radiation transfer model of self-trapping spatially incoherent radiation by nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2683–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Theory of self-trapped spatially incoherent light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4990–4993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of incoherent white light,” Nature 387, 880–883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646–649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Carvalho, S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, “Modulational instability of quasi-plane-wave optical beams biased in photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Commun. 126, 167–174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Carvalho, S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, “Dark and bright vector spatial solitons in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R53–R56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Ogasawara, M. Ohno, K. Karaki, K. Nishizawa, A. Akiba, “Image transmission with a pair of graded-index optical fibers and a BaTiO3phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2193–2197 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447–2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

1982

B. Fischer, M. Cronin-Golomb, J. O. White, A. Yariv, “Real-time phase conjugate window for one-way optical field imaging through a distortion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 141–143 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976

A. Yariv, “Three-dimensional pictorial transmission in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 88–89 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

S. A. Ponomarenko, N. M. Lichinitser, G. P. Agrawal, “Theory of incoherent optical solitons: beyond the mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 015603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, A.

Anastassion, C.

Anderson, D. Z.

V. V. Shkunov, D. Z. Anderson, “Radiation transfer model of self-trapping spatially incoherent radiation by nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2683–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, M. I.

M. I. Carvalho, S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, “Modulational instability of quasi-plane-wave optical beams biased in photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Commun. 126, 167–174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Carvalho, S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, “Dark and bright vector spatial solitons in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R53–R56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Multimode incoherent spatial solitons in logarithmically saturable nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2310–2313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent dark solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5113–5116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646–649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christodoulides, D.

Christodoulides, D. N.

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Multimode incoherent spatial solitons in logarithmically saturable nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2310–2313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent dark solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5113–5116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646–649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Theory of self-trapped spatially incoherent light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4990–4993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Carvalho, S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, “Dark and bright vector spatial solitons in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R53–R56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Carvalho, S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, “Modulational instability of quasi-plane-wave optical beams biased in photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Commun. 126, 167–174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Coskun, T. H.

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Multimode incoherent spatial solitons in logarithmically saturable nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2310–2313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent dark solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5113–5116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Theory of self-trapped spatially incoherent light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4990–4993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646–649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

B. Fischer, M. Cronin-Golomb, J. O. White, A. Yariv, “Real-time phase conjugate window for one-way optical field imaging through a distortion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 141–143 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Eugenieva, E.

Fischer, B.

B. Fischer, M. Cronin-Golomb, J. O. White, A. Yariv, “Real-time phase conjugate window for one-way optical field imaging through a distortion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 141–143 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Guo, R.

Y. Lu, S. M. Liu, R. Guo, L. S. Yang, C. F. Huang, D. Y. Wang, “One-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons with fully incoherent white light,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 52, 3075–3081 (2003) (in Chinese).

Z. F. Ling, R. Guo, S. M. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, “The optics vortex soliton in photovoltaic-photorefractive medium,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 49, 455–459 (2000) (in Chinese).

H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447–2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harvey, P.

Huang, C. F.

Y. Lu, S. M. Liu, R. Guo, L. S. Yang, C. F. Huang, D. Y. Wang, “One-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons with fully incoherent white light,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 52, 3075–3081 (2003) (in Chinese).

Jain, M.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447–2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jannson, T.

Karaki, K.

Kasapi, A.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447–2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kip, D.

Lichinitser, N. M.

S. A. Ponomarenko, N. M. Lichinitser, G. P. Agrawal, “Theory of incoherent optical solitons: beyond the mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 015603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ling, Z. F.

Z. F. Ling, R. Guo, S. M. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, “The optics vortex soliton in photovoltaic-photorefractive medium,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 49, 455–459 (2000) (in Chinese).

Liu, S. M.

Y. Lu, S. M. Liu, R. Guo, L. S. Yang, C. F. Huang, D. Y. Wang, “One-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons with fully incoherent white light,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 52, 3075–3081 (2003) (in Chinese).

Z. F. Ling, R. Guo, S. M. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, “The optics vortex soliton in photovoltaic-photorefractive medium,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 49, 455–459 (2000) (in Chinese).

H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, S. M. Liu, R. Guo, L. S. Yang, C. F. Huang, D. Y. Wang, “One-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons with fully incoherent white light,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 52, 3075–3081 (2003) (in Chinese).

Mitchell, D. J.

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, “Big incoherent solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1422–1425 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M.

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Multimode incoherent spatial solitons in logarithmically saturable nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2310–2313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent dark solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5113–5116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of incoherent white light,” Nature 387, 880–883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Theory of self-trapped spatially incoherent light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4990–4993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646–649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moslehi, B.

Ng, J.

Nishizawa, K.

Ogasawara, T.

Ohno, M.

Ponomarenko, S. A.

S. A. Ponomarenko, N. M. Lichinitser, G. P. Agrawal, “Theory of incoherent optical solitons: beyond the mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 015603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

G. Stegeman, M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: university and diversity,” Science 286, 1518–1523 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent dark solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5113–5116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Multimode incoherent spatial solitons in logarithmically saturable nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2310–2313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646–649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Theory of self-trapped spatially incoherent light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4990–4993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of incoherent white light,” Nature 387, 880–883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M.

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shkunov, V. V.

V. V. Shkunov, D. Z. Anderson, “Radiation transfer model of self-trapping spatially incoherent radiation by nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2683–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S. R.

M. I. Carvalho, S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, “Modulational instability of quasi-plane-wave optical beams biased in photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Commun. 126, 167–174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Carvalho, S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, “Dark and bright vector spatial solitons in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R53–R56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, “Big incoherent solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1422–1425 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.

G. Stegeman, M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: university and diversity,” Science 286, 1518–1523 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. Y.

Y. Lu, S. M. Liu, R. Guo, L. S. Yang, C. F. Huang, D. Y. Wang, “One-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons with fully incoherent white light,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 52, 3075–3081 (2003) (in Chinese).

Wen, H. D.

H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

White, J. O.

B. Fischer, M. Cronin-Golomb, J. O. White, A. Yariv, “Real-time phase conjugate window for one-way optical field imaging through a distortion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 141–143 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. J.

H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L. S.

Y. Lu, S. M. Liu, R. Guo, L. S. Yang, C. F. Huang, D. Y. Wang, “One-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons with fully incoherent white light,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 52, 3075–3081 (2003) (in Chinese).

Yariv, A.

B. Fischer, M. Cronin-Golomb, J. O. White, A. Yariv, “Real-time phase conjugate window for one-way optical field imaging through a distortion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 141–143 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, “Three-dimensional pictorial transmission in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 88–89 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G. Y.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447–2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G. Q.

H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

Z. F. Ling, R. Guo, S. M. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, “The optics vortex soliton in photovoltaic-photorefractive medium,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 49, 455–459 (2000) (in Chinese).

H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. Z.

H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Acta. Phys. Sin.

Y. Lu, S. M. Liu, R. Guo, L. S. Yang, C. F. Huang, D. Y. Wang, “One-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons with fully incoherent white light,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 52, 3075–3081 (2003) (in Chinese).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: He–Ne, laser; lamp, incandescent lamp; SF, spatial filter; M, mirror; L1 and L4, collimating lenses; O, amplitude mask; L2 and L3, imaging lenses; LN, LiNbO3:Fe crystal; C, crystalline c axis; AT, attenuator; CCD, CCD camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

White-light phase masks in LiNbO3:Fe-crystal-fabricated amplitude masks: (a) two kinds of input amplitude mask; (b), (c) output images of phase masks that use white light as the probe beam at t = 0 and t = 7 h, respectively; and (d) output images of phase masks that use a laser as the probe beam at t = 7 h. The images in the top row correspond to the crystal with parallel faces, and the images in the bottom row correspond to the crystal with two faces not parallel by a small tilt angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sketch of writing and testing the phase mask by use of the binary amplitude mask: (a) the intensity distribution of writing light I(x, y), (b) the index distribution in waveguides written owing to the photovoltaic photorefractive effect, and (c) the output intensity distribution of the probe light from the phase mask.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase masks fabricated by a laser in LiNbO3:Fe crystal.7

Equations (1)

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Δ n = - 1 2 n 3 r eff E sc = Δ n 2 I I + I d ,

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