Abstract

We compare the sensitivity of photon-counting and charged-coupled-device (CCD) imagers for rapidly moving objects. Our test case involves the detection of small objects in space, seen against a diffuse zodiacal light background, as observed from a space platform. We contrast photon-counting detectors, with excellent time resolution and negligible readout noise, against CCDs with a significantly larger quantum efficiency. For fast moving objects and small fields of view, the photon-counting detectors are able to detect significantly smaller targets, with the added benefit of providing angle–angle–time metric information in addition to high-time-resolution light curves. For larger fields of view and slower moving objects, the CCDs are more sensitive. These results may motivate the further development of microchannel-plate photon-counting systems and amplified CCDs for detecting and tracking space objects.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2003

J. Hynecek, T. Nishiwaki, “Excess noise and other important characteristics of low light level imaging using charge multiplying CCDs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 239–245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Robbins, B. J. Hadwen, “The noise performance of electron multiplying charge-coupled devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 1227–1232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. A. Albota, B. F. Aull, D. G. Fouche, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, R. M. Marino, J. G. Mooney, N. R. Newbury, M. E. O’Brien, B. E. Player, B. C. Willard, J. J. Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 351–370 (2002).

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

1998

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A. Levasseur-Regourd, C. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Stokes, C. Von Braun, R. Sridharan, D. Harrison, J. Sharma, “The Space-Based Visible program,” Lincoln Lab. J. 11, 205–239 (1998).

1993

T. Malzbender, “Fourier volume rendering,” ACM Trans. Graphics, 12, 233–250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986

Albota, M. A.

M. A. Albota, B. F. Aull, D. G. Fouche, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, R. M. Marino, J. G. Mooney, N. R. Newbury, M. E. O’Brien, B. E. Player, B. C. Willard, J. J. Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 351–370 (2002).

Arthur, N.

N. Arthur, E. Cox, Allen’s Astrophysical Quantities, 4th ed. (AIP/Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001), p. 353.

Aull, B. F.

M. A. Albota, B. F. Aull, D. G. Fouche, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, R. M. Marino, J. G. Mooney, N. R. Newbury, M. E. O’Brien, B. E. Player, B. C. Willard, J. J. Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 351–370 (2002).

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

Baron, M.

C. Ho, W. C. Priedhorsky, M. Baron, “Detecting small debris using a ground-based photon-counting detector,” in Space Debris Detection and Mitigation,A. F. Allahdadi, ed., Proc. SPIE1951, 67–75 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Ho, W. Priedhorsky, M. Baron, “Detecting small debris using a ground-based photon-counting detector,” in Space Debris Detection and Mitigation, F. A. Allahdadi, ed., Proc. SPIE1951, 67–75 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baron, M. H.

M. H. Baron, W. C. Priedhorsky, “Crossed-delay line detector for ground- and space-based applications,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE2006, 188–197 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R.

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. Burt, I. Moody, “Subelectron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications II, M. M. Blouke, J. Canosa, N. Sampat, eds., Proc. SPIE4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bixler, J.

Blain, P. C.

J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, J. J.

J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bone, D. A.

J. L. A. Fordham, D. A. Bone, R. J. Norton, P. D. Read, “The MIC photon counting detector,” Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Counting Detectors for Space Instrumentation (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1992), Vol. SP-356, pp. 103–106.

Bowyer, S.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A. Levasseur-Regourd, C. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Chakrabarti, J. Vallerga, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Wedge and strip image readout systems for photon-counting detectors in space astronomy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 2139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brislawn, C. M.

J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brumby, S. P.

J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burt, D.

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. Burt, I. Moody, “Subelectron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications II, M. M. Blouke, J. Canosa, N. Sampat, eds., Proc. SPIE4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cafferty, M. M.

J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, S.

Cox, E.

N. Arthur, E. Cox, Allen’s Astrophysical Quantities, 4th ed. (AIP/Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001), p. 353.

Daniels, P. J.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

Deng, D. D. S.

D. D. S. Deng, H. ElGindy, “High-speed parameterisable Hough transform using reconfigurable hardware,” in Proceedings, Pan-Sydney Area Workshop on Visual Information Processing, D. D. Feng, J. Jin, P. Eades, H. Yan, eds., Vol. 11 of Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology (Australian Computer Society, Darlinghurst, Australia, 2002), pp. 51–57.

Dunham, M. E.

J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

ElGindy, H.

D. D. S. Deng, H. ElGindy, “High-speed parameterisable Hough transform using reconfigurable hardware,” in Proceedings, Pan-Sydney Area Workshop on Visual Information Processing, D. D. Feng, J. Jin, P. Eades, H. Yan, eds., Vol. 11 of Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology (Australian Computer Society, Darlinghurst, Australia, 2002), pp. 51–57.

Felton, B. J.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

Fordham, J. L. A.

J. L. A. Fordham, D. A. Bone, R. J. Norton, P. D. Read, “The MIC photon counting detector,” Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Counting Detectors for Space Instrumentation (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1992), Vol. SP-356, pp. 103–106.

Forster, K.

P. Jelinsky, P. Morrissey, J. Malloy, S. Jelinsky, O. Siegmun, C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, T. Wyder, P. Friedman, “Performance results of the GALEX cross delay line detectors,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 233–240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fouche, D. G.

M. A. Albota, B. F. Aull, D. G. Fouche, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, R. M. Marino, J. G. Mooney, N. R. Newbury, M. E. O’Brien, B. E. Player, B. C. Willard, J. J. Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 351–370 (2002).

Friedman, P.

P. Jelinsky, P. Morrissey, J. Malloy, S. Jelinsky, O. Siegmun, C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, T. Wyder, P. Friedman, “Performance results of the GALEX cross delay line detectors,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 233–240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frigo, J. R.

J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gokhale, M.

J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gröller, M. E.

L. Viola, A. Kanitsar, M. E. Gröller, “GPU-based frequency domain volume rendering,” in Proceedings of Spring Conference of Computer Graphics 2004 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 2004).

Hadwen, B. J.

M. S. Robbins, B. J. Hadwen, “The noise performance of electron multiplying charge-coupled devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 1227–1232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haikala, L. K.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A. Levasseur-Regourd, C. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hanner, M. S.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A. Levasseur-Regourd, C. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, D.

G. H. Stokes, C. Von Braun, R. Sridharan, D. Harrison, J. Sharma, “The Space-Based Visible program,” Lincoln Lab. J. 11, 205–239 (1998).

Harvey, N. R.

J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hauser, M. G.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A. Levasseur-Regourd, C. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heinrichs, R. M.

M. A. Albota, B. F. Aull, D. G. Fouche, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, R. M. Marino, J. G. Mooney, N. R. Newbury, M. E. O’Brien, B. E. Player, B. C. Willard, J. J. Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 351–370 (2002).

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

Ho, C.

C. Ho, W. C. Priedhorsky, M. Baron, “Detecting small debris using a ground-based photon-counting detector,” in Space Debris Detection and Mitigation,A. F. Allahdadi, ed., Proc. SPIE1951, 67–75 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Ho, W. Priedhorsky, M. Baron, “Detecting small debris using a ground-based photon-counting detector,” in Space Debris Detection and Mitigation, F. A. Allahdadi, ed., Proc. SPIE1951, 67–75 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Ho, International, Space, and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N. Mex., ho@lanl.gov (private communication, 2004).

Hynecek, J.

J. Hynecek, T. Nishiwaki, “Excess noise and other important characteristics of low light level imaging using charge multiplying CCDs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 239–245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Janesick, J.

J. Janesick, Scientific Charge Coupled Devices (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash.2001), Vol. PM83.
[CrossRef]

Jelinsky, P.

P. Jelinsky, P. Morrissey, J. Malloy, S. Jelinsky, O. Siegmun, C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, T. Wyder, P. Friedman, “Performance results of the GALEX cross delay line detectors,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 233–240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jelinsky, S.

P. Jelinsky, P. Morrissey, J. Malloy, S. Jelinsky, O. Siegmun, C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, T. Wyder, P. Friedman, “Performance results of the GALEX cross delay line detectors,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 233–240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kanitsar, A.

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J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
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J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
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M. A. Albota, B. F. Aull, D. G. Fouche, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, R. M. Marino, J. G. Mooney, N. R. Newbury, M. E. O’Brien, B. E. Player, B. C. Willard, J. J. Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 351–370 (2002).

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Landers, D. J.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

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J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
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C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A. Levasseur-Regourd, C. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
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B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

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Malloy, J.

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M. A. Albota, B. F. Aull, D. G. Fouche, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, R. M. Marino, J. G. Mooney, N. R. Newbury, M. E. O’Brien, B. E. Player, B. C. Willard, J. J. Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 351–370 (2002).

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P. Jelinsky, P. Morrissey, J. Malloy, S. Jelinsky, O. Siegmun, C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, T. Wyder, P. Friedman, “Performance results of the GALEX cross delay line detectors,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 233–240 (2003).
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J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
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J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
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C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. Burt, I. Moody, “Subelectron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications II, M. M. Blouke, J. Canosa, N. Sampat, eds., Proc. SPIE4306, 289–298 (2001).
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J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
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J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
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M. A. Albota, B. F. Aull, D. G. Fouche, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, R. M. Marino, J. G. Mooney, N. R. Newbury, M. E. O’Brien, B. E. Player, B. C. Willard, J. J. Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 351–370 (2002).

Porter, R. B.

J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
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C. Ho, W. Priedhorsky, M. Baron, “Detecting small debris using a ground-based photon-counting detector,” in Space Debris Detection and Mitigation, F. A. Allahdadi, ed., Proc. SPIE1951, 67–75 (1993).
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M. H. Baron, W. C. Priedhorsky, “Crossed-delay line detector for ground- and space-based applications,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE2006, 188–197 (1993).
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C. Ho, W. C. Priedhorsky, M. Baron, “Detecting small debris using a ground-based photon-counting detector,” in Space Debris Detection and Mitigation,A. F. Allahdadi, ed., Proc. SPIE1951, 67–75 (1993).
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Reach, W. T.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A. Levasseur-Regourd, C. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
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Read, P. D.

J. L. A. Fordham, D. A. Bone, R. J. Norton, P. D. Read, “The MIC photon counting detector,” Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Counting Detectors for Space Instrumentation (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1992), Vol. SP-356, pp. 103–106.

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M. S. Robbins, B. J. Hadwen, “The noise performance of electron multiplying charge-coupled devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 1227–1232 (2003).
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J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
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J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
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P. Jelinsky, P. Morrissey, J. Malloy, S. Jelinsky, O. Siegmun, C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, T. Wyder, P. Friedman, “Performance results of the GALEX cross delay line detectors,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 233–240 (2003).
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Schlosser, W.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A. Levasseur-Regourd, C. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
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G. H. Stokes, C. Von Braun, R. Sridharan, D. Harrison, J. Sharma, “The Space-Based Visible program,” Lincoln Lab. J. 11, 205–239 (1998).

Siegmun, O.

P. Jelinsky, P. Morrissey, J. Malloy, S. Jelinsky, O. Siegmun, C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, T. Wyder, P. Friedman, “Performance results of the GALEX cross delay line detectors,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 233–240 (2003).
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J. Vallerga, B. Welsh, O. Siegmund, “Future of imaging photon counting detectors for ground-based astronomy,” in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4841, 795–804 (2003).
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G. H. Stokes, C. Von Braun, R. Sridharan, D. Harrison, J. Sharma, “The Space-Based Visible program,” Lincoln Lab. J. 11, 205–239 (1998).

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C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A. Levasseur-Regourd, C. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
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G. H. Stokes, C. Von Braun, R. Sridharan, D. Harrison, J. Sharma, “The Space-Based Visible program,” Lincoln Lab. J. 11, 205–239 (1998).

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J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
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Theiler, J. T.

J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
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Toller, G. N.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A. Levasseur-Regourd, C. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
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Tubbs, R. N.

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. Burt, I. Moody, “Subelectron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications II, M. M. Blouke, J. Canosa, N. Sampat, eds., Proc. SPIE4306, 289–298 (2001).
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Vallerga, J.

O. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Chakrabarti, J. Vallerga, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Wedge and strip image readout systems for photon-counting detectors in space astronomy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 2139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Vallerga, B. Welsh, O. Siegmund, “Future of imaging photon counting detectors for ground-based astronomy,” in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4841, 795–804 (2003).
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Viola, L.

L. Viola, A. Kanitsar, M. E. Gröller, “GPU-based frequency domain volume rendering,” in Proceedings of Spring Conference of Computer Graphics 2004 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 2004).

Von Braun, C.

G. H. Stokes, C. Von Braun, R. Sridharan, D. Harrison, J. Sharma, “The Space-Based Visible program,” Lincoln Lab. J. 11, 205–239 (1998).

Weiland, J.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A. Levasseur-Regourd, C. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
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Weinberg, J. L.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A. Levasseur-Regourd, C. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
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Welsh, B.

J. Vallerga, B. Welsh, O. Siegmund, “Future of imaging photon counting detectors for ground-based astronomy,” in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4841, 795–804 (2003).
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Willard, B. C.

M. A. Albota, B. F. Aull, D. G. Fouche, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, R. M. Marino, J. G. Mooney, N. R. Newbury, M. E. O’Brien, B. E. Player, B. C. Willard, J. J. Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 351–370 (2002).

Witt, A. N.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A. Levasseur-Regourd, C. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. Weiland, J. L. Weinberg, A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
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Wyder, T.

P. Jelinsky, P. Morrissey, J. Malloy, S. Jelinsky, O. Siegmun, C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, T. Wyder, P. Friedman, “Performance results of the GALEX cross delay line detectors,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 233–240 (2003).
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J. J. Szymanski, P. C. Blain, J. J. Bloch, C. M. Brislawn, S. P. Brumby, M. M. Cafferty, M. E. Dunham, J. R. Frigo, M. Gokhale, N. R. Harvey, G. Kenyon, W. H. Kim, D. D. Lavenier, K. P. McCabe, M. Mitchell, K. R. Moore, S. J. Perkins, R. B. Porter, S. Robinson, A. Salazar, J. T. Theiler, A. C. Young, “Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 83–90 (2000).
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Young, D. J.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

Zayhowski, J. J.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Problem of detecting a rapidly moving object, viewed in a three-dimensional space–time. A detector with poor time resolution, such as a CCD, sees the object as an extended track. A photon-counting detector with high time resolution produces a data set that can be transformed to freeze the motion of the object, removing the blur in software.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of detector quantum efficiencies with the solar photon spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(top) Two-dimensional representation of object detection by a slow CCD detector. The horizontal axis represents position, and the vertical axis represents time. Because of the lack of time resolution, background from the entire exposure contributes to each point on the track. However, readout noise is collected only once and is minimized by the slow clock rate. (middle) Same detection problem but with a faster framing detector that collects four frames during the exposure. Only one fourth as much sky noise is collected along each interval of the track because only the short exposure that includes the actual path contributes to the noise; however, there is more readout noise because the CCD is noisier when it is clocked more rapidly. (bottom) Same detection problem again but with a photon-counting detector that records the precise time and position of each detected event. In this case, the object signal need only compete with background photons that are coincident in both space and time. There is no frame time and no readout noise for this class of detectors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(top) Minimum detectable area for a Lambertian sphere with 10% albedo at a distance of 1000 km, for a 10-s exposure with a 15-cm telescope and the detector choices shown. Each detector element corresponds to 4.8 μrad on the sky, for a net field of view of 9.7 × 9.7 mrad (0.55 × 0.55°). (middle) Same as (top), but each detector element corresponds to 48.5 μrad on the sky (~ f/2.75 optics). (bottom) Same as (middle); but each detector element corresponds to 485 μrad (100 arc sec) on the sky (~f/2.75 optics).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sensitivity as a function of pixel size for 1 km s−1 transverse velocity. The CCD detectors can become more sensitive for a larger pixel size because the decrease in readout noise is more important than the increase in sky background.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Detection sensitivity as a function of sky brightness, for a fast moving object and a 20-mrad field of view. The transverse velocity corresponds to the full orbital velocity for an object in low Earth orbit. From the ground, a dark moonless sky will have a sky brightness of 200–500 in the same units.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sensitivity of a deep system with a 50-cm aperture, and 1.2-μrad pixels. In this case, the photon-counting detectors have a clear advantage. At small velocities, an object of a 1.1-mm diameter can be detected at 1000 km.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Assumed Detector Characteristics

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Table 2 Count Rates for the Three Detector Types

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Table 3 Statistics for Minimally Detectable Objectsa

Equations (1)

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2 / 3 α ( r / R ) 2 F sun

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