Abstract

Large bolometer arrays capable of operating at millimeter wavelengths are being built for astronomical use. For optimal sensitivity, high-quality optics with wide fields of view are needed. We report on the design of reimaging optics for use on the 100-m Green Bank telescope with a 64-element bolometer array.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. Prestage, R. J. Maddalena, “The Green Bank Telescope: status and early results,” in Large Ground-Based Telescopes, J. M. Oschmann, L. M. Stepp, eds., Proc. SPIE4837, 944–953 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. J. Benford, J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, H. S. Moseley, “Ultralow-background large-format bolometer arrays,” in IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 944–953 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Devlin, S. R. Dicker, J. Klein, M. P. Supanich, “A high capacity completely closed-cycle 250 mK 3He refrigeration system based on a pulse tube cooler,” Cryogenics 44, 611–616 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Winston, “Light collection within the framework of geometric optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 245–247 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. Griffin, J. J. Bock, W. K. Gear, “Relative performance of filled and feedhorn-coupled focal-plane architectures,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6543–6554 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. A. J. de Korte, J. Beyer, S. Deiker, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, M. Macintosh, S. W. Nam, C. D. Reintsema, L. R. Vale, M. E. Huber, “Time-division superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for transition-edge sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3807–3815 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Optical Research Associates ( http://www.opticalres.com/cv/cvprodds_f.html ).
  8. J. W. Lamb, “Miscellaneous data on materials for millimetre and submillimetre optics,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 17, 1997–2034 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. W. Lamb, “Cross-polarisation and astigmatism in matching grooves,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 17, 2159–2165 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. J. Devlin, S. R. Dicker, J. Klein, M. P. Supanich, “A high capacity completely closed-cycle 250 mK 3He refrigeration system based on a pulse tube cooler,” Cryogenics 44, 611–616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Beyer, S. Deiker, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, M. Macintosh, S. W. Nam, C. D. Reintsema, L. R. Vale, M. E. Huber, “Time-division superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for transition-edge sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3807–3815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1996 (2)

J. W. Lamb, “Miscellaneous data on materials for millimetre and submillimetre optics,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 17, 1997–2034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lamb, “Cross-polarisation and astigmatism in matching grooves,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 17, 2159–2165 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

Benford, D. J.

D. J. Benford, J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, H. S. Moseley, “Ultralow-background large-format bolometer arrays,” in IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 944–953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, J.

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Beyer, S. Deiker, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, M. Macintosh, S. W. Nam, C. D. Reintsema, L. R. Vale, M. E. Huber, “Time-division superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for transition-edge sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3807–3815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bock, J. J.

Chervenak, J. A.

D. J. Benford, J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, H. S. Moseley, “Ultralow-background large-format bolometer arrays,” in IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 944–953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Korte, P. A. J.

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Beyer, S. Deiker, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, M. Macintosh, S. W. Nam, C. D. Reintsema, L. R. Vale, M. E. Huber, “Time-division superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for transition-edge sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3807–3815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deiker, S.

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Beyer, S. Deiker, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, M. Macintosh, S. W. Nam, C. D. Reintsema, L. R. Vale, M. E. Huber, “Time-division superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for transition-edge sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3807–3815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devlin, M. J.

M. J. Devlin, S. R. Dicker, J. Klein, M. P. Supanich, “A high capacity completely closed-cycle 250 mK 3He refrigeration system based on a pulse tube cooler,” Cryogenics 44, 611–616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dicker, S. R.

M. J. Devlin, S. R. Dicker, J. Klein, M. P. Supanich, “A high capacity completely closed-cycle 250 mK 3He refrigeration system based on a pulse tube cooler,” Cryogenics 44, 611–616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gear, W. K.

Griffin, M. J.

Hilton, G. C.

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Beyer, S. Deiker, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, M. Macintosh, S. W. Nam, C. D. Reintsema, L. R. Vale, M. E. Huber, “Time-division superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for transition-edge sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3807–3815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huber, M. E.

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Beyer, S. Deiker, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, M. Macintosh, S. W. Nam, C. D. Reintsema, L. R. Vale, M. E. Huber, “Time-division superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for transition-edge sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3807–3815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Irwin, K. D.

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Beyer, S. Deiker, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, M. Macintosh, S. W. Nam, C. D. Reintsema, L. R. Vale, M. E. Huber, “Time-division superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for transition-edge sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3807–3815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Benford, J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, H. S. Moseley, “Ultralow-background large-format bolometer arrays,” in IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 944–953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klein, J.

M. J. Devlin, S. R. Dicker, J. Klein, M. P. Supanich, “A high capacity completely closed-cycle 250 mK 3He refrigeration system based on a pulse tube cooler,” Cryogenics 44, 611–616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, J. W.

J. W. Lamb, “Miscellaneous data on materials for millimetre and submillimetre optics,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 17, 1997–2034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lamb, “Cross-polarisation and astigmatism in matching grooves,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 17, 2159–2165 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, M.

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Beyer, S. Deiker, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, M. Macintosh, S. W. Nam, C. D. Reintsema, L. R. Vale, M. E. Huber, “Time-division superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for transition-edge sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3807–3815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maddalena, R. J.

R. M. Prestage, R. J. Maddalena, “The Green Bank Telescope: status and early results,” in Large Ground-Based Telescopes, J. M. Oschmann, L. M. Stepp, eds., Proc. SPIE4837, 944–953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moseley, H. S.

D. J. Benford, J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, H. S. Moseley, “Ultralow-background large-format bolometer arrays,” in IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 944–953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Beyer, S. Deiker, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, M. Macintosh, S. W. Nam, C. D. Reintsema, L. R. Vale, M. E. Huber, “Time-division superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for transition-edge sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3807–3815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prestage, R. M.

R. M. Prestage, R. J. Maddalena, “The Green Bank Telescope: status and early results,” in Large Ground-Based Telescopes, J. M. Oschmann, L. M. Stepp, eds., Proc. SPIE4837, 944–953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reintsema, C. D.

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Beyer, S. Deiker, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, M. Macintosh, S. W. Nam, C. D. Reintsema, L. R. Vale, M. E. Huber, “Time-division superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for transition-edge sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3807–3815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Supanich, M. P.

M. J. Devlin, S. R. Dicker, J. Klein, M. P. Supanich, “A high capacity completely closed-cycle 250 mK 3He refrigeration system based on a pulse tube cooler,” Cryogenics 44, 611–616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vale, L. R.

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Beyer, S. Deiker, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, M. Macintosh, S. W. Nam, C. D. Reintsema, L. R. Vale, M. E. Huber, “Time-division superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for transition-edge sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3807–3815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winston, R.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Cryogenics (1)

M. J. Devlin, S. R. Dicker, J. Klein, M. P. Supanich, “A high capacity completely closed-cycle 250 mK 3He refrigeration system based on a pulse tube cooler,” Cryogenics 44, 611–616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (2)

J. W. Lamb, “Miscellaneous data on materials for millimetre and submillimetre optics,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 17, 1997–2034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lamb, “Cross-polarisation and astigmatism in matching grooves,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 17, 2159–2165 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Beyer, S. Deiker, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, M. Macintosh, S. W. Nam, C. D. Reintsema, L. R. Vale, M. E. Huber, “Time-division superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for transition-edge sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3807–3815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Optical Research Associates ( http://www.opticalres.com/cv/cvprodds_f.html ).

R. M. Prestage, R. J. Maddalena, “The Green Bank Telescope: status and early results,” in Large Ground-Based Telescopes, J. M. Oschmann, L. M. Stepp, eds., Proc. SPIE4837, 944–953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Benford, J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, H. S. Moseley, “Ultralow-background large-format bolometer arrays,” in IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 944–953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

View of the rotating turret from inside the receiver cabin. PAR must fit in one of the 610 mm holes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mechanical prototype of our TES array. Because of its relatively small size, wiring for each detector can come out along the supporting structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simplified drawing of the optical design. Both lenses are made of HDPE with an antireflective coating made of grooves. The filters are capacitive mesh filters made by Cardiff University.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity of ghost images from a source 16 arc sec off axis superimposed on the calculated PSF. The two most intense ghost images come from reflections off the array and reflections within the capacitive mesh filters. Reflections off the array produce large, out-of-focus images at large angles from the main beam while the filters generate more intense illumination centered on the PSF. These contributions are shown separately in light gray on the plot. No ghost images brighter than the diffraction-limited sidelobes were found for any source in our field of view.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Requirements for Our Optical Design

Tables Icon

Table 2 Expected Spillover at Each Mirror

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