Abstract

The thickness of a transparent layer of oil upon the surface of water is measured as the distance between the surface of oil film and the interface of the oil with the water. Two experimental results have demonstrated that the interface can reflect a white-light beam well enough to form an interferogram, even if the light is subjected to oil-film dispersion. When a beam of white light is incident vertically onto the oil-film surface, a scanning white-light interferometer in the Michelson configuration is employed to locate two serial reflections, surface reflection and interface reflection. The thickness of the transparent oil film on water is calculated based on the separation of these two interferograms. A limitation thickness, ~250 μm with 1.25 μm resolution, is achieved under the condition that there is 50 nW of optical power incident onto the oil-film surface with a wavelength centered at 1310 nm.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. R. Taplin, A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, S. R. Nattrass, “Applications of low coherence interferometry to dynamic oil film thickness measurement,” presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Technology to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 8–11 July, 1996.
  2. S. R. Taplin, A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Novel application of white-light sensing to dynamic oil film measurement,” presented at the IEE Colloquium on Progress in Fibre Optic Sensors and Their Applications, London, 7 November 1995.
  3. S. Patsayeva, V. Yuzhakov, V. Varlamov, R. Barbini, R. Fantoni, C. Frassanito, A. Palucci, “Laser spectroscopy of mineral oils on the water surface,” presented at the EARSeL-SIG-Workshop on Lidar, Dresden, Germany, 16–17 June 2000.
  4. C. H. Hidrovo, D. P. Hart, “Emission reabsorption laser induced fluorescence (EFLIF) film thickness measurement,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 467–477 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S.-W. Kim, G.-H. Kim, “Thickness-profile measurement of transparent thin-film layers by white-light scanning interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5968–5973 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Costantino, O. E. Martinez, J. R. Torga, “Wide band interferometry for thickness measurement,” Opt. Express 11, 952–957 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Oil film thickness measurement using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3269–3281 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Otremba, “The impact on the reflectance in VIS of a type of crude oil film floating on the water surface,” Opt. Express 7, 129–134 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. B. Ghandhi, “Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes: application to oil-film measurements in an internal combustion engine,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5456–5464 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Höbel, K. Haffner, “An on-line monitoring system for oil-film, pressure and temperature distributions in large-scale hydrogenerator bearings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 393–402 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

C. H. Hidrovo, D. P. Hart, “Emission reabsorption laser induced fluorescence (EFLIF) film thickness measurement,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 467–477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (2)

M. Höbel, K. Haffner, “An on-line monitoring system for oil-film, pressure and temperature distributions in large-scale hydrogenerator bearings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 393–402 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Kim, G.-H. Kim, “Thickness-profile measurement of transparent thin-film layers by white-light scanning interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5968–5973 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

Barbini, R.

S. Patsayeva, V. Yuzhakov, V. Varlamov, R. Barbini, R. Fantoni, C. Frassanito, A. Palucci, “Laser spectroscopy of mineral oils on the water surface,” presented at the EARSeL-SIG-Workshop on Lidar, Dresden, Germany, 16–17 June 2000.

Costantino, S.

Fantoni, R.

S. Patsayeva, V. Yuzhakov, V. Varlamov, R. Barbini, R. Fantoni, C. Frassanito, A. Palucci, “Laser spectroscopy of mineral oils on the water surface,” presented at the EARSeL-SIG-Workshop on Lidar, Dresden, Germany, 16–17 June 2000.

Frassanito, C.

S. Patsayeva, V. Yuzhakov, V. Varlamov, R. Barbini, R. Fantoni, C. Frassanito, A. Palucci, “Laser spectroscopy of mineral oils on the water surface,” presented at the EARSeL-SIG-Workshop on Lidar, Dresden, Germany, 16–17 June 2000.

Ghandhi, J. B.

Haffner, K.

M. Höbel, K. Haffner, “An on-line monitoring system for oil-film, pressure and temperature distributions in large-scale hydrogenerator bearings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 393–402 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hart, D. P.

C. H. Hidrovo, D. P. Hart, “Emission reabsorption laser induced fluorescence (EFLIF) film thickness measurement,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 467–477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hidrovo, C. H.

C. H. Hidrovo, D. P. Hart, “Emission reabsorption laser induced fluorescence (EFLIF) film thickness measurement,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 467–477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Höbel, M.

M. Höbel, K. Haffner, “An on-line monitoring system for oil-film, pressure and temperature distributions in large-scale hydrogenerator bearings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 393–402 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

Jackson, D. A.

S. R. Taplin, A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Novel application of white-light sensing to dynamic oil film measurement,” presented at the IEE Colloquium on Progress in Fibre Optic Sensors and Their Applications, London, 7 November 1995.

S. R. Taplin, A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, S. R. Nattrass, “Applications of low coherence interferometry to dynamic oil film thickness measurement,” presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Technology to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 8–11 July, 1996.

Kim, G.-H.

Kim, S.-W.

Martinez, O. E.

Nattrass, S. R.

S. R. Taplin, A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, S. R. Nattrass, “Applications of low coherence interferometry to dynamic oil film thickness measurement,” presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Technology to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 8–11 July, 1996.

Otremba, Z.

Palucci, A.

S. Patsayeva, V. Yuzhakov, V. Varlamov, R. Barbini, R. Fantoni, C. Frassanito, A. Palucci, “Laser spectroscopy of mineral oils on the water surface,” presented at the EARSeL-SIG-Workshop on Lidar, Dresden, Germany, 16–17 June 2000.

Patsayeva, S.

S. Patsayeva, V. Yuzhakov, V. Varlamov, R. Barbini, R. Fantoni, C. Frassanito, A. Palucci, “Laser spectroscopy of mineral oils on the water surface,” presented at the EARSeL-SIG-Workshop on Lidar, Dresden, Germany, 16–17 June 2000.

Podoleanu, A. Gh.

S. R. Taplin, A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Novel application of white-light sensing to dynamic oil film measurement,” presented at the IEE Colloquium on Progress in Fibre Optic Sensors and Their Applications, London, 7 November 1995.

S. R. Taplin, A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, S. R. Nattrass, “Applications of low coherence interferometry to dynamic oil film thickness measurement,” presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Technology to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 8–11 July, 1996.

Swift, R. N.

Taplin, S. R.

S. R. Taplin, A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, S. R. Nattrass, “Applications of low coherence interferometry to dynamic oil film thickness measurement,” presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Technology to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 8–11 July, 1996.

S. R. Taplin, A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Novel application of white-light sensing to dynamic oil film measurement,” presented at the IEE Colloquium on Progress in Fibre Optic Sensors and Their Applications, London, 7 November 1995.

Torga, J. R.

Varlamov, V.

S. Patsayeva, V. Yuzhakov, V. Varlamov, R. Barbini, R. Fantoni, C. Frassanito, A. Palucci, “Laser spectroscopy of mineral oils on the water surface,” presented at the EARSeL-SIG-Workshop on Lidar, Dresden, Germany, 16–17 June 2000.

Webb, D. J.

S. R. Taplin, A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Novel application of white-light sensing to dynamic oil film measurement,” presented at the IEE Colloquium on Progress in Fibre Optic Sensors and Their Applications, London, 7 November 1995.

S. R. Taplin, A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, S. R. Nattrass, “Applications of low coherence interferometry to dynamic oil film thickness measurement,” presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Technology to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 8–11 July, 1996.

Yuzhakov, V.

S. Patsayeva, V. Yuzhakov, V. Varlamov, R. Barbini, R. Fantoni, C. Frassanito, A. Palucci, “Laser spectroscopy of mineral oils on the water surface,” presented at the EARSeL-SIG-Workshop on Lidar, Dresden, Germany, 16–17 June 2000.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

C. H. Hidrovo, D. P. Hart, “Emission reabsorption laser induced fluorescence (EFLIF) film thickness measurement,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 467–477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Höbel, K. Haffner, “An on-line monitoring system for oil-film, pressure and temperature distributions in large-scale hydrogenerator bearings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 393–402 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Other (3)

S. R. Taplin, A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, S. R. Nattrass, “Applications of low coherence interferometry to dynamic oil film thickness measurement,” presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Technology to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 8–11 July, 1996.

S. R. Taplin, A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Novel application of white-light sensing to dynamic oil film measurement,” presented at the IEE Colloquium on Progress in Fibre Optic Sensors and Their Applications, London, 7 November 1995.

S. Patsayeva, V. Yuzhakov, V. Varlamov, R. Barbini, R. Fantoni, C. Frassanito, A. Palucci, “Laser spectroscopy of mineral oils on the water surface,” presented at the EARSeL-SIG-Workshop on Lidar, Dresden, Germany, 16–17 June 2000.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the SWLI in the Michelson configuration: LED, light-emitting diode; PD, photodetector; S, the reflection of the Diesel oil-film surface; I, reflection from the interface of Diesel oil with water.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Span of the two interferograms depends on the thickness of the oil film. S is the interferogram formed by the interference between the beam from the scanning mirror and the reflection from the surface of the Diesel oil film; I is the interferogram formed by the interference formed by the reflection from the scanning mirror and the reflection from the interface of the oil film with water.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Separation of the two interferograms varies according to the oil-film thickness, but the position of interferogram I has little effect on the stability of the oil–water interface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Maximum thickness of a Diesel oil film on water that can be detected by the SWLI under the condition of 50 nW incident power of light on the oil-film surface and wavelength centered at 1310 nm. Here interferogram I almost disappears, and this gives the maximum thickness, 203 step × 1.25 μm/step = 253.75 μm ≈ 250 μm, of Diesel oil (nine drops) on a water surface.

Equations (1)

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I ( x ) = - + B ( λ ) { 1 + cos [ ( 2 π / λ ) x ] } d λ ,

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