Abstract

The spectrum and electro-optic properties of CdSe quantum dots are studied. Spectrum wavelength shifts that are due to the quantum size effect and to the electro-optic Stark effect are investigated. It is found that CdSe quantum dot–polymer composites formed by an electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) technique exhibit high internal electric fields. Using the second-order perturbation theory of the 1s–1s energy shift (Stark effect), we estimate the internal field of the ESA film to be as high as 2.6 × 108 V/m. This value results in a much higher absorption coefficient and electro-optic coefficients for ESA films than for their bulk crystal counterparts or for spin-coated film samples. The relationships among unusual spectra, film structure, and high electro-optic response are analyzed. These results are useful both for understanding the physical mechanisms of semiconductor quantum dots and for developing high-performance photonic devices.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. P. Alivisatos, “Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13,226–13,239 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. D. Krauss, F. W. Wise, D. B. Tanner, “Observation of coupled vibrational modes of a semiconductor nanocrystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1376–1379 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, “Quantum dots in photonic dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1353–1355 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Trindade, P. O. Brien, N. L. Pickett, “Nanocrystalline semiconductors: synthesis, properties, and perspectives,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3843–3858 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford U. Press, 1997), p. 327.
  6. M. Jacobsohn, U. Banin, “Size dependence of second harmonic generation in CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 1–5 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. A. Blanton, R. L. Leheny, M. A. Guyot-Sionnest, “Dielectric dispersion measurements of CdSe nanocrystal colloids: observation of a permanent dipole moment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 865–868 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. P. Halsall, J. E. Nicholls, J. J. Davies, P. J. Wright, B. Cockayne, “Photoluminescence studies of CdS, CdSe wurtzite superlattices; evidence for large piezoelectric effects,” Surf. Sci. 228, 41–44 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. A. Empedocles, M. G. Bawendi, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Science 278, 2114–2117 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, “CdSe nano-crystals with a dipole moment in the first excited state,” J. Chem. Phys. 97, 730–733 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. D. Yoffe, “Low-dimensional systems: quantum size effects and electronic properties of semiconductor microcrystallites (zero-dimensional systems) and some quasi-two-dimensional systems,” Adv. Phys. 42, 173–266 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Linear electro-optic tensor ratio determination and quadratic electro-optic modulation of electrostatically self-assembled CdSe quantum dot films,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6297–6304 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, K. Cooper, Y. Q. Wang, Y. J. Liu, R. O. Claus, “Electro-optic property measurements of electrostatically self-assembled ultrathin films,” Opt. Commun. 186, 135–141 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Zhang, “Electro-optic properties of semiconductor nano-crystals and electro-optic polymers and their applications,” Ph.D. dissertation (Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 2002).
  15. L. E. Brus, “Electron–electron and electron–hole interactions in small semiconductor crystallites: the size dependence of the lowest excited electronic state,” J. Chem. Phys. 80, 4403–4409 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = S, Se, Te) semiconductor nano-crystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706–8715 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1981).
  18. L. E. Brus, “Quantum crystallites and nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. A 53, 465–474 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford U. Press, 1997), pp. 334–335.
  20. C. C. Teng, H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734–1736 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. A. Lindsay, Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics (American Chemical Society, 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. A. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. T. Kowel, “Second-harmonic generation and absorption studies of polymer-dye films oriented by corona-onset poling at elevated temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733–741 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. C. Caro, M. C. Gover, “Phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing absorbing media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1376–1380 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. M. Amsterdam, Nonlinear Optics:Fundamentals, Materials and Devices: Proceedings of the Fifth Toyota Conference on Nonlinear Optical Materials (North-Holland, 1992), p. 421.
  25. R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics Theory and Technology, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1995).

2002 (1)

L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Linear electro-optic tensor ratio determination and quadratic electro-optic modulation of electrostatically self-assembled CdSe quantum dot films,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6297–6304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Trindade, P. O. Brien, N. L. Pickett, “Nanocrystalline semiconductors: synthesis, properties, and perspectives,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3843–3858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Jacobsohn, U. Banin, “Size dependence of second harmonic generation in CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 1–5 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, K. Cooper, Y. Q. Wang, Y. J. Liu, R. O. Claus, “Electro-optic property measurements of electrostatically self-assembled ultrathin films,” Opt. Commun. 186, 135–141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, “Quantum dots in photonic dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1353–1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. A. Blanton, R. L. Leheny, M. A. Guyot-Sionnest, “Dielectric dispersion measurements of CdSe nanocrystal colloids: observation of a permanent dipole moment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 865–868 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Empedocles, M. G. Bawendi, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Science 278, 2114–2117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. P. Alivisatos, “Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13,226–13,239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Krauss, F. W. Wise, D. B. Tanner, “Observation of coupled vibrational modes of a semiconductor nanocrystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1376–1379 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

A. D. Yoffe, “Low-dimensional systems: quantum size effects and electronic properties of semiconductor microcrystallites (zero-dimensional systems) and some quasi-two-dimensional systems,” Adv. Phys. 42, 173–266 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = S, Se, Te) semiconductor nano-crystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706–8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, “CdSe nano-crystals with a dipole moment in the first excited state,” J. Chem. Phys. 97, 730–733 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

L. E. Brus, “Quantum crystallites and nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. A 53, 465–474 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

C. C. Teng, H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Halsall, J. E. Nicholls, J. J. Davies, P. J. Wright, B. Cockayne, “Photoluminescence studies of CdS, CdSe wurtzite superlattices; evidence for large piezoelectric effects,” Surf. Sci. 228, 41–44 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1984 (1)

L. E. Brus, “Electron–electron and electron–hole interactions in small semiconductor crystallites: the size dependence of the lowest excited electronic state,” J. Chem. Phys. 80, 4403–4409 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. C. Caro, M. C. Gover, “Phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing absorbing media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1376–1380 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

A. P. Alivisatos, “Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13,226–13,239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, “CdSe nano-crystals with a dipole moment in the first excited state,” J. Chem. Phys. 97, 730–733 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Amsterdam, S. M.

S. M. Amsterdam, Nonlinear Optics:Fundamentals, Materials and Devices: Proceedings of the Fifth Toyota Conference on Nonlinear Optical Materials (North-Holland, 1992), p. 421.

Artemyev, M. V.

M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, “Quantum dots in photonic dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1353–1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Banin, U.

M. Jacobsohn, U. Banin, “Size dependence of second harmonic generation in CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 1–5 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

S. A. Empedocles, M. G. Bawendi, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Science 278, 2114–2117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = S, Se, Te) semiconductor nano-crystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706–8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Blanton, S. A.

S. A. Blanton, R. L. Leheny, M. A. Guyot-Sionnest, “Dielectric dispersion measurements of CdSe nanocrystal colloids: observation of a permanent dipole moment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 865–868 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brien, P. O.

T. Trindade, P. O. Brien, N. L. Pickett, “Nanocrystalline semiconductors: synthesis, properties, and perspectives,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3843–3858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brus, L. E.

L. E. Brus, “Quantum crystallites and nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. A 53, 465–474 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Brus, “Electron–electron and electron–hole interactions in small semiconductor crystallites: the size dependence of the lowest excited electronic state,” J. Chem. Phys. 80, 4403–4409 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Caro, R. C.

R. C. Caro, M. C. Gover, “Phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing absorbing media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1376–1380 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R. O.

L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Linear electro-optic tensor ratio determination and quadratic electro-optic modulation of electrostatically self-assembled CdSe quantum dot films,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6297–6304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, K. Cooper, Y. Q. Wang, Y. J. Liu, R. O. Claus, “Electro-optic property measurements of electrostatically self-assembled ultrathin films,” Opt. Commun. 186, 135–141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cockayne, B.

M. P. Halsall, J. E. Nicholls, J. J. Davies, P. J. Wright, B. Cockayne, “Photoluminescence studies of CdS, CdSe wurtzite superlattices; evidence for large piezoelectric effects,” Surf. Sci. 228, 41–44 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, V. L.

V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, “CdSe nano-crystals with a dipole moment in the first excited state,” J. Chem. Phys. 97, 730–733 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K.

L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, K. Cooper, Y. Q. Wang, Y. J. Liu, R. O. Claus, “Electro-optic property measurements of electrostatically self-assembled ultrathin films,” Opt. Commun. 186, 135–141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J. J.

M. P. Halsall, J. E. Nicholls, J. J. Davies, P. J. Wright, B. Cockayne, “Photoluminescence studies of CdS, CdSe wurtzite superlattices; evidence for large piezoelectric effects,” Surf. Sci. 228, 41–44 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Empedocles, S. A.

S. A. Empedocles, M. G. Bawendi, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Science 278, 2114–2117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gover, M. C.

R. C. Caro, M. C. Gover, “Phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing absorbing media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1376–1380 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Guyot-Sionnest, M. A.

S. A. Blanton, R. L. Leheny, M. A. Guyot-Sionnest, “Dielectric dispersion measurements of CdSe nanocrystal colloids: observation of a permanent dipole moment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 865–868 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Halsall, M. P.

M. P. Halsall, J. E. Nicholls, J. J. Davies, P. J. Wright, B. Cockayne, “Photoluminescence studies of CdS, CdSe wurtzite superlattices; evidence for large piezoelectric effects,” Surf. Sci. 228, 41–44 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hunsperger, R. G.

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics Theory and Technology, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1995).

Jacobsohn, M.

M. Jacobsohn, U. Banin, “Size dependence of second harmonic generation in CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 1–5 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knoesen, A.

Kowel, S. T.

Krauss, T. D.

T. D. Krauss, F. W. Wise, D. B. Tanner, “Observation of coupled vibrational modes of a semiconductor nanocrystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1376–1379 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leheny, R. L.

S. A. Blanton, R. L. Leheny, M. A. Guyot-Sionnest, “Dielectric dispersion measurements of CdSe nanocrystal colloids: observation of a permanent dipole moment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 865–868 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, G. A.

G. A. Lindsay, Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics (American Chemical Society, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. J.

L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, K. Cooper, Y. Q. Wang, Y. J. Liu, R. O. Claus, “Electro-optic property measurements of electrostatically self-assembled ultrathin films,” Opt. Commun. 186, 135–141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Man, H. T.

C. C. Teng, H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mortazavi, M. A.

Murray, C. B.

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = S, Se, Te) semiconductor nano-crystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706–8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, J. E.

M. P. Halsall, J. E. Nicholls, J. J. Davies, P. J. Wright, B. Cockayne, “Photoluminescence studies of CdS, CdSe wurtzite superlattices; evidence for large piezoelectric effects,” Surf. Sci. 228, 41–44 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Norris, D. J.

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = S, Se, Te) semiconductor nano-crystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706–8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pickett, N. L.

T. Trindade, P. O. Brien, N. L. Pickett, “Nanocrystalline semiconductors: synthesis, properties, and perspectives,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3843–3858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1981).

Tanner, D. B.

T. D. Krauss, F. W. Wise, D. B. Tanner, “Observation of coupled vibrational modes of a semiconductor nanocrystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1376–1379 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teng, C. C.

C. C. Teng, H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trindade, T.

T. Trindade, P. O. Brien, N. L. Pickett, “Nanocrystalline semiconductors: synthesis, properties, and perspectives,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3843–3858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. Q.

L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Linear electro-optic tensor ratio determination and quadratic electro-optic modulation of electrostatically self-assembled CdSe quantum dot films,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6297–6304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, K. Cooper, Y. Q. Wang, Y. J. Liu, R. O. Claus, “Electro-optic property measurements of electrostatically self-assembled ultrathin films,” Opt. Commun. 186, 135–141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

T. D. Krauss, F. W. Wise, D. B. Tanner, “Observation of coupled vibrational modes of a semiconductor nanocrystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1376–1379 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woggon, U.

M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, “Quantum dots in photonic dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1353–1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wright, P. J.

M. P. Halsall, J. E. Nicholls, J. J. Davies, P. J. Wright, B. Cockayne, “Photoluminescence studies of CdS, CdSe wurtzite superlattices; evidence for large piezoelectric effects,” Surf. Sci. 228, 41–44 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford U. Press, 1997), pp. 334–335.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford U. Press, 1997), p. 327.

Yoffe, A. D.

A. D. Yoffe, “Low-dimensional systems: quantum size effects and electronic properties of semiconductor microcrystallites (zero-dimensional systems) and some quasi-two-dimensional systems,” Adv. Phys. 42, 173–266 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, “Electro-optic properties of semiconductor nano-crystals and electro-optic polymers and their applications,” Ph.D. dissertation (Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 2002).

Zhang, F. J.

L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Linear electro-optic tensor ratio determination and quadratic electro-optic modulation of electrostatically self-assembled CdSe quantum dot films,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6297–6304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, K. Cooper, Y. Q. Wang, Y. J. Liu, R. O. Claus, “Electro-optic property measurements of electrostatically self-assembled ultrathin films,” Opt. Commun. 186, 135–141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. M.

L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Linear electro-optic tensor ratio determination and quadratic electro-optic modulation of electrostatically self-assembled CdSe quantum dot films,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6297–6304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, K. Cooper, Y. Q. Wang, Y. J. Liu, R. O. Claus, “Electro-optic property measurements of electrostatically self-assembled ultrathin films,” Opt. Commun. 186, 135–141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys. (1)

A. D. Yoffe, “Low-dimensional systems: quantum size effects and electronic properties of semiconductor microcrystallites (zero-dimensional systems) and some quasi-two-dimensional systems,” Adv. Phys. 42, 173–266 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

L. E. Brus, “Quantum crystallites and nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. A 53, 465–474 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, “Quantum dots in photonic dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1353–1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Teng, H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

T. Trindade, P. O. Brien, N. L. Pickett, “Nanocrystalline semiconductors: synthesis, properties, and perspectives,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3843–3858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. C. Caro, M. C. Gover, “Phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing absorbing media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1376–1380 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = S, Se, Te) semiconductor nano-crystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706–8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Linear electro-optic tensor ratio determination and quadratic electro-optic modulation of electrostatically self-assembled CdSe quantum dot films,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6297–6304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Colvin, A. P. Alivisatos, “CdSe nano-crystals with a dipole moment in the first excited state,” J. Chem. Phys. 97, 730–733 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Brus, “Electron–electron and electron–hole interactions in small semiconductor crystallites: the size dependence of the lowest excited electronic state,” J. Chem. Phys. 80, 4403–4409 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

A. P. Alivisatos, “Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13,226–13,239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

M. Jacobsohn, U. Banin, “Size dependence of second harmonic generation in CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 1–5 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, K. Cooper, Y. Q. Wang, Y. J. Liu, R. O. Claus, “Electro-optic property measurements of electrostatically self-assembled ultrathin films,” Opt. Commun. 186, 135–141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. A. Blanton, R. L. Leheny, M. A. Guyot-Sionnest, “Dielectric dispersion measurements of CdSe nanocrystal colloids: observation of a permanent dipole moment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 865–868 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Krauss, F. W. Wise, D. B. Tanner, “Observation of coupled vibrational modes of a semiconductor nanocrystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1376–1379 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

S. A. Empedocles, M. G. Bawendi, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Science 278, 2114–2117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

M. P. Halsall, J. E. Nicholls, J. J. Davies, P. J. Wright, B. Cockayne, “Photoluminescence studies of CdS, CdSe wurtzite superlattices; evidence for large piezoelectric effects,” Surf. Sci. 228, 41–44 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford U. Press, 1997), p. 327.

F. Zhang, “Electro-optic properties of semiconductor nano-crystals and electro-optic polymers and their applications,” Ph.D. dissertation (Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 2002).

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1981).

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford U. Press, 1997), pp. 334–335.

S. M. Amsterdam, Nonlinear Optics:Fundamentals, Materials and Devices: Proceedings of the Fifth Toyota Conference on Nonlinear Optical Materials (North-Holland, 1992), p. 421.

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics Theory and Technology, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1995).

G. A. Lindsay, Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics (American Chemical Society, 1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Enhanced confinement and oscillation strength in compressed excitons.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Structure of a quantum dots–polymer composite film made by ESA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission-electron microscope image of CdSe quantum dots.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical absorption spectra of CdSe films and solution (concentrations of CdSe quantum dots: ESA film, 2.14%; spin-coated film 5%). PDDA, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Luminescence spectra of CdSe films prepared by spin coating and ESA.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental and theoretical results of 1s–1s transition energy of CdSe crystallites as a function of size.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variation of r33 with modulation frequency of CdSe films fabricated under different conditions. The poling voltage of the spin-coating film is 80 V/µm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation of r33 with poling voltage of spin-coating CdSe films. The modulation frequency is 300 Hz, and the double asterisks mark r33 of the ESA film obtained from Fig. 7.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ĥ = h 2 2 m h h 2 h 2 2 m e e 2 e 2 ɛ | r e r h | ,
E ( R ) = E g + h 2 π 2 2 μ R 2 1.786 e 2 ɛ 2 R + 0.248 E R ,
E R = 13.606 m 0 ɛ 2 2 ( 1 m e * + 1 m h * ) ,
1 μ = 1 m e * + 1 m h * ,
Δ E ( F ) = 0.65 ( eFR ) 2 E 1 s ,
E 1 s = h 2 π 2 2 R 2 ( 1 m e + 1 m h )
f = 2 m h 2 Δ E | μ | 2 | u 0 | 2 ,
χ ( 2 ) = N β [ f ( ω ) ] 2 f 2 ω ( cos 2 φ ) ,
χ ( 2 ) = n c 4 π ω α ,
r = 2 χ ( 2 ) / n 4 .

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