Abstract

A method for the passive remote monitoring of chemical vapors by differential Fourier-transform infrared radiometry is presented to determine the characteristics of a chemical vapor plume from a stack located at a distance of more than 1 km from the sensor. This measurement technique is based on the use of a double-beam Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer that is optimized for optical subtraction. A description of the interferometer (compact atmospheric sounding interferometer) is given along with the algorithm (GASEM) that has been developed for the on-line detection, identification, and quantification of chemical vapor plumes. The detection method is described with a particular emphasis placed on its monitoring capabilities. The analysis focuses on the experimental results obtained at a recent open-air experiment for vapor plume mixtures of dimethyl methyl phosphonate and SF6 probed at a distance of 1.5 km. The accuracy of a simplified plume radiance model implemented in the detection algorithm is specifically addressed. The measurement technique has been successfully used to detect and identify low, medium, and high concentrations of vapor mixtures but appears to have limited quantification capabilities in its present form.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  4. J.-M. Thériault, “Modeling the responsivity and self-emission of a double-beam Fourier-transform infrared interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 505–515 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J.-M. Thériault, “Passive remote monitoring of chemical vapour concentration: method and results for ammonia,” in Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere V, J. E. Russell, K. Shafer, O. Lado-Bordowsky, eds., Proc. SPIE4168, 211–220 (2001).
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  7. R. L. Lachance, J.-M. Thériault, C. Lafond, A. Villemaire, “Gaseous emanation detection algorithm using a Fourier-transform interferometer operating in differential mode,” in Electro-optical Technology for Remote Chemical Detection and Identification III, M. Fallahi, E. Howden, eds., Proc. SPIE3383, 124–132 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: A moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. GL-TR-89-0122 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).
  10. W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).
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  13. C. M. Gittins, M. F. Hinds, W. G. Lawrence, P. A. Mulhall, W. J. Marinelli, “Remote sensing and selective detection of chemical vapour plumes by LWIR imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometry,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Va., 2001), p. 294.
  14. P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, D. A. Howard, M. D. Lane, J. L. Piatek, S. W. Ruff, W. L. Stefanov, “A thermal emission spectral library of rock-forming minerals,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9735–9739 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, D. A. Howard, M. D. Lane, J. L. Piatek, S. W. Ruff, W. L. Stefanov, “A thermal emission spectral library of rock-forming minerals,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9735–9739 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Bandfield, J. L.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, D. A. Howard, M. D. Lane, J. L. Piatek, S. W. Ruff, W. L. Stefanov, “A thermal emission spectral library of rock-forming minerals,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9735–9739 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beil, A. B.

A. B. Beil, R. Daum, R. Harig, G. Matz, “Remote sensing of atmospheric pollution by passive FTIR spectrometry,” in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring Techniques, K. Schafer, ed., Proc. SPIE3493, 32–43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berk, A.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: A moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. GL-TR-89-0122 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: A moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. GL-TR-89-0122 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

Bradette, C.

J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, L. Moreau, R. J. Combs, R. T. Kroutil, C. T. Chaffin, T. L. Marshall, T. L. Thomas, “Remote monitoring of chemical vapors by differential FTIR radiometry: method and results for binary mixtures,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Va.2001), p. 345.

J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, A. Villemaire, M. Chamberland, J. Giroux, “Differential detection with a double-beam interferometer,” in Electro-optical Technology for Remote Chemical Detection and Identification II, M. Fallahi, E. Howden, eds., Proc. SPIE3082, 65–75 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Jensen, J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, C. Gittins, W. Marinelli, “Results from the Pronghorn field test using passive infrared spectroradiometers—CATSI and AIRIS,” presented at the Fifth Workshop on Standoff Detection for Chemical and Biological Defense, Quebec City, Quebec, 10–15 June 2001.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chaffin, C. T.

J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, L. Moreau, R. J. Combs, R. T. Kroutil, C. T. Chaffin, T. L. Marshall, T. L. Thomas, “Remote monitoring of chemical vapors by differential FTIR radiometry: method and results for binary mixtures,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Va.2001), p. 345.

Chamberland, M.

J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, A. Villemaire, M. Chamberland, J. Giroux, “Differential detection with a double-beam interferometer,” in Electro-optical Technology for Remote Chemical Detection and Identification II, M. Fallahi, E. Howden, eds., Proc. SPIE3082, 65–75 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, P. R.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, D. A. Howard, M. D. Lane, J. L. Piatek, S. W. Ruff, W. L. Stefanov, “A thermal emission spectral library of rock-forming minerals,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9735–9739 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Combs, R. J.

J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, L. Moreau, R. J. Combs, R. T. Kroutil, C. T. Chaffin, T. L. Marshall, T. L. Thomas, “Remote monitoring of chemical vapors by differential FTIR radiometry: method and results for binary mixtures,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Va.2001), p. 345.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Daum, R.

A. B. Beil, R. Daum, R. Harig, G. Matz, “Remote sensing of atmospheric pollution by passive FTIR spectrometry,” in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring Techniques, K. Schafer, ed., Proc. SPIE3493, 32–43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flanigan, D. F.

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giroux, J.

J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, A. Villemaire, M. Chamberland, J. Giroux, “Differential detection with a double-beam interferometer,” in Electro-optical Technology for Remote Chemical Detection and Identification II, M. Fallahi, E. Howden, eds., Proc. SPIE3082, 65–75 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gittins, C.

J. O. Jensen, J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, C. Gittins, W. Marinelli, “Results from the Pronghorn field test using passive infrared spectroradiometers—CATSI and AIRIS,” presented at the Fifth Workshop on Standoff Detection for Chemical and Biological Defense, Quebec City, Quebec, 10–15 June 2001.

Gittins, C. M.

C. M. Gittins, M. F. Hinds, W. G. Lawrence, P. A. Mulhall, W. J. Marinelli, “Remote sensing and selective detection of chemical vapour plumes by LWIR imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometry,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Va., 2001), p. 294.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, V. E.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, D. A. Howard, M. D. Lane, J. L. Piatek, S. W. Ruff, W. L. Stefanov, “A thermal emission spectral library of rock-forming minerals,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9735–9739 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harig, R.

A. B. Beil, R. Daum, R. Harig, G. Matz, “Remote sensing of atmospheric pollution by passive FTIR spectrometry,” in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring Techniques, K. Schafer, ed., Proc. SPIE3493, 32–43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hinds, M. F.

C. M. Gittins, M. F. Hinds, W. G. Lawrence, P. A. Mulhall, W. J. Marinelli, “Remote sensing and selective detection of chemical vapour plumes by LWIR imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometry,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Va., 2001), p. 294.

Howard, D. A.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, D. A. Howard, M. D. Lane, J. L. Piatek, S. W. Ruff, W. L. Stefanov, “A thermal emission spectral library of rock-forming minerals,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9735–9739 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. O.

J. O. Jensen, J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, C. Gittins, W. Marinelli, “Results from the Pronghorn field test using passive infrared spectroradiometers—CATSI and AIRIS,” presented at the Fifth Workshop on Standoff Detection for Chemical and Biological Defense, Quebec City, Quebec, 10–15 June 2001.

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kroutil, R. T.

J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, L. Moreau, R. J. Combs, R. T. Kroutil, C. T. Chaffin, T. L. Marshall, T. L. Thomas, “Remote monitoring of chemical vapors by differential FTIR radiometry: method and results for binary mixtures,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Va.2001), p. 345.

Lachance, R. L.

R. L. Lachance, J.-M. Thériault, C. Lafond, A. Villemaire, “Gaseous emanation detection algorithm using a Fourier-transform interferometer operating in differential mode,” in Electro-optical Technology for Remote Chemical Detection and Identification III, M. Fallahi, E. Howden, eds., Proc. SPIE3383, 124–132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lafond, C.

R. L. Lachance, J.-M. Thériault, C. Lafond, A. Villemaire, “Gaseous emanation detection algorithm using a Fourier-transform interferometer operating in differential mode,” in Electro-optical Technology for Remote Chemical Detection and Identification III, M. Fallahi, E. Howden, eds., Proc. SPIE3383, 124–132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lane, M. D.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, D. A. Howard, M. D. Lane, J. L. Piatek, S. W. Ruff, W. L. Stefanov, “A thermal emission spectral library of rock-forming minerals,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9735–9739 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, W. G.

C. M. Gittins, M. F. Hinds, W. G. Lawrence, P. A. Mulhall, W. J. Marinelli, “Remote sensing and selective detection of chemical vapour plumes by LWIR imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometry,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Va., 2001), p. 294.

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marinelli, W.

J. O. Jensen, J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, C. Gittins, W. Marinelli, “Results from the Pronghorn field test using passive infrared spectroradiometers—CATSI and AIRIS,” presented at the Fifth Workshop on Standoff Detection for Chemical and Biological Defense, Quebec City, Quebec, 10–15 June 2001.

Marinelli, W. J.

C. M. Gittins, M. F. Hinds, W. G. Lawrence, P. A. Mulhall, W. J. Marinelli, “Remote sensing and selective detection of chemical vapour plumes by LWIR imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometry,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Va., 2001), p. 294.

Marshall, T. L.

J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, L. Moreau, R. J. Combs, R. T. Kroutil, C. T. Chaffin, T. L. Marshall, T. L. Thomas, “Remote monitoring of chemical vapors by differential FTIR radiometry: method and results for binary mixtures,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Va.2001), p. 345.

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matz, G.

A. B. Beil, R. Daum, R. Harig, G. Matz, “Remote sensing of atmospheric pollution by passive FTIR spectrometry,” in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring Techniques, K. Schafer, ed., Proc. SPIE3493, 32–43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, L.

J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, L. Moreau, R. J. Combs, R. T. Kroutil, C. T. Chaffin, T. L. Marshall, T. L. Thomas, “Remote monitoring of chemical vapors by differential FTIR radiometry: method and results for binary mixtures,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Va.2001), p. 345.

Mulhall, P. A.

C. M. Gittins, M. F. Hinds, W. G. Lawrence, P. A. Mulhall, W. J. Marinelli, “Remote sensing and selective detection of chemical vapour plumes by LWIR imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometry,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Va., 2001), p. 294.

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Piatek, J. L.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, D. A. Howard, M. D. Lane, J. L. Piatek, S. W. Ruff, W. L. Stefanov, “A thermal emission spectral library of rock-forming minerals,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9735–9739 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, D. C.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: A moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. GL-TR-89-0122 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ruff, S. W.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, D. A. Howard, M. D. Lane, J. L. Piatek, S. W. Ruff, W. L. Stefanov, “A thermal emission spectral library of rock-forming minerals,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9735–9739 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stefanov, W. L.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, D. A. Howard, M. D. Lane, J. L. Piatek, S. W. Ruff, W. L. Stefanov, “A thermal emission spectral library of rock-forming minerals,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9735–9739 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).

Thériault, J.-M.

J.-M. Thériault, “Modeling the responsivity and self-emission of a double-beam Fourier-transform infrared interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 505–515 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Thériault, “Passive standoff detection of chemical vapors by differential FTIR radiometry,” DREV. TR-2000-156 (Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, 2001).

R. L. Lachance, J.-M. Thériault, C. Lafond, A. Villemaire, “Gaseous emanation detection algorithm using a Fourier-transform interferometer operating in differential mode,” in Electro-optical Technology for Remote Chemical Detection and Identification III, M. Fallahi, E. Howden, eds., Proc. SPIE3383, 124–132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Jensen, J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, C. Gittins, W. Marinelli, “Results from the Pronghorn field test using passive infrared spectroradiometers—CATSI and AIRIS,” presented at the Fifth Workshop on Standoff Detection for Chemical and Biological Defense, Quebec City, Quebec, 10–15 June 2001.

J.-M. Thériault, “Passive remote monitoring of chemical vapour concentration: method and results for ammonia,” in Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere V, J. E. Russell, K. Shafer, O. Lado-Bordowsky, eds., Proc. SPIE4168, 211–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, A. Villemaire, M. Chamberland, J. Giroux, “Differential detection with a double-beam interferometer,” in Electro-optical Technology for Remote Chemical Detection and Identification II, M. Fallahi, E. Howden, eds., Proc. SPIE3082, 65–75 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, L. Moreau, R. J. Combs, R. T. Kroutil, C. T. Chaffin, T. L. Marshall, T. L. Thomas, “Remote monitoring of chemical vapors by differential FTIR radiometry: method and results for binary mixtures,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Va.2001), p. 345.

Thomas, T. L.

J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, L. Moreau, R. J. Combs, R. T. Kroutil, C. T. Chaffin, T. L. Marshall, T. L. Thomas, “Remote monitoring of chemical vapors by differential FTIR radiometry: method and results for binary mixtures,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Va.2001), p. 345.

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).

Villemaire, A.

J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, A. Villemaire, M. Chamberland, J. Giroux, “Differential detection with a double-beam interferometer,” in Electro-optical Technology for Remote Chemical Detection and Identification II, M. Fallahi, E. Howden, eds., Proc. SPIE3082, 65–75 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Lachance, J.-M. Thériault, C. Lafond, A. Villemaire, “Gaseous emanation detection algorithm using a Fourier-transform interferometer operating in differential mode,” in Electro-optical Technology for Remote Chemical Detection and Identification III, M. Fallahi, E. Howden, eds., Proc. SPIE3383, 124–132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, D. A. Howard, M. D. Lane, J. L. Piatek, S. W. Ruff, W. L. Stefanov, “A thermal emission spectral library of rock-forming minerals,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9735–9739 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: A moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. GL-TR-89-0122 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).

J.-M. Thériault, “Passive standoff detection of chemical vapors by differential FTIR radiometry,” DREV. TR-2000-156 (Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, 2001).

J. O. Jensen, J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, C. Gittins, W. Marinelli, “Results from the Pronghorn field test using passive infrared spectroradiometers—CATSI and AIRIS,” presented at the Fifth Workshop on Standoff Detection for Chemical and Biological Defense, Quebec City, Quebec, 10–15 June 2001.

C. M. Gittins, M. F. Hinds, W. G. Lawrence, P. A. Mulhall, W. J. Marinelli, “Remote sensing and selective detection of chemical vapour plumes by LWIR imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometry,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Va., 2001), p. 294.

J.-M. Thériault, “Passive remote monitoring of chemical vapour concentration: method and results for ammonia,” in Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere V, J. E. Russell, K. Shafer, O. Lado-Bordowsky, eds., Proc. SPIE4168, 211–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, L. Moreau, R. J. Combs, R. T. Kroutil, C. T. Chaffin, T. L. Marshall, T. L. Thomas, “Remote monitoring of chemical vapors by differential FTIR radiometry: method and results for binary mixtures,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Science and Technology Corporation, Hampton, Va.2001), p. 345.

R. L. Lachance, J.-M. Thériault, C. Lafond, A. Villemaire, “Gaseous emanation detection algorithm using a Fourier-transform interferometer operating in differential mode,” in Electro-optical Technology for Remote Chemical Detection and Identification III, M. Fallahi, E. Howden, eds., Proc. SPIE3383, 124–132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Beil, R. Daum, R. Harig, G. Matz, “Remote sensing of atmospheric pollution by passive FTIR spectrometry,” in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring Techniques, K. Schafer, ed., Proc. SPIE3493, 32–43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Thériault, C. Bradette, A. Villemaire, M. Chamberland, J. Giroux, “Differential detection with a double-beam interferometer,” in Electro-optical Technology for Remote Chemical Detection and Identification II, M. Fallahi, E. Howden, eds., Proc. SPIE3082, 65–75 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram and the associated terminology that define the three-layer geometry for the differential detection with a dual-beam interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the CATSI sensor, with the optical head mounted on the tripod.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

GASEM monitoring algorithm; example of screen display acquired during the NTS trial, 19–25 June 2001. The four windows on the left portion of the display represent the time evolution of the fitting parameters; the right portion corresponds to the current measured and fitted spectra and the corresponding residual spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Photograph of the 1.5-km horizontal range and the emission stack at the NTS. The two areas within the squares are associated with the two fields of view of the CATSI sensor. (B) Absorption coefficients of two of the chemicals released during the NTS trial.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plots of measured and computed best-fit spectra for high and low concentrations of DMMP during the releases of DMMP-SF6 mixtures. The distance between the CATSI sensor and the stack is 1.5 km. Plots (A) and (B) compare the same measured spectrum (high concentration) with two different GASEM fit results. (A) A two-parameter GASEM fit (T gas and Δθ) is performed with the known reference Cl of DMMP and SF6 for the calculation. (B) A four-parameter fit is applied to retrieve T gas and Δθ, together with the Cl of DMMP and SF6. Plots (C) and (D) represent similar results but for a medium concentration of DMMP in the DMMP-SF6 gas mixture.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plots summarizing the GASEM results obtained with the two-parameter fit (by use of reference gas amounts) compared with those obtained with the four-parameter fit for six DMMP-SF6 mixture releases. (A) DMMP Cl results, (B) SF6 Cl results, (C) plume temperature results, (D) r 2 results.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(A) Transmittance spectra computed with the cylindrical-shaped and the rectangular-shaped plume distribution models. (B) Color contour plot obtained with the Gaussian plume model, which is currently under development. The brighter colors indicate the presence of larger amounts of chemical. FOV, field of view.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(A) Measurements and simulations of differential radiance in the absence of DMMP-SF6 mixtures. The measurements show the existence of an absorption feature near 900 cm-1 that is present for both positive and negative differential radiances. The measured positive differential radiance can be qualitatively explained by use of a combination of graybody and calcite emissivities. The measured negative differential radiance can be qualitatively explained by use of a combination of graybody and calcite-dolomite emissivities. For identification and clarity, the radiances pertaining to only the rock and ozone features are represented by the gray curves offset from the other spectra. (B) The spectral emissivities associated with calcite and dolomite14 that were incorporated in the modtran model.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

LP=Lfarτnearτgas+Bgas1-τgasτnear+Lnear,
τgas=exp-i αiνCil,
Lclear=Lfarτnear+Lnear,
δLcalc=1-τgasBgasτnear+Lnear-Lclear,
ΔLclear=Bθfar+Δθ-Bθfarτnear,
δLcalc=ΔLclear+1-τgasBgasτnear+Lnear-Lclear.
δLcalc=ΔLclear+f1-τgasBgasτnear+Lnear-Lclear)-ΔLclear.
minνminνmaxδLcalc-δLmeas2.
r2=i=1nchanxi-x¯yi-y¯2i=1nchanxi-x¯2i=1nchanyi-y¯2,

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