Abstract

A method that uses tunable diode lasers is developed for rapid temperature and concentration measurements of gases with highly broadened and congested spectra. Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection is utilized, because this derivative method offers benefits in dealing with blended spectral features. The 2f signal depends critically on the modulation depth of the laser a, which is increased to values above those typically achieved when wavelength modulation spectroscopy with diode lasers is performed. The 2f method with large modulation depths is validated by using near-IR diode lasers to probe pressure-broadened water-vapor features in the 1.4-μm region over a range of temperatures from 296 to 800 K and at pressures as high as 20 atm. Modulation depths as high as a = 0.8 cm-1 are attained at modulation frequencies of 50 kHz and measurement bandwidths of 15 kHz. Comparisons of experimental results with 2f simulations, based on the HITRAN spectral database, provide confirmation of the capability of this method for rapid measurements of gas temperature and species concentration.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2004 (1)

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 503–511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, V. Ebert, “Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2043–2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6728–6738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Fernholtz, H. Teichert, V. Ebert, “Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy in rapidly changing transmission conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 229–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (3)

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, F. K. Tittel, “Development of an automated diode laser based multicomponent gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4444–4450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in situ detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, “Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Kluczynski, O. Axner, “Theoretical description based on Fourier analysis of wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of analytical and background signals,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5803–5815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 789–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Furlong, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Combustion control and monitoring using a multiplexed diode-laser sensor system,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2851–2858 (1996).

1994 (2)

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

1981 (1)

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

R. Arndt, “Analytical line shapes for Lorentzian signals broadened by modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522–2524 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

G. V. H. Wilson, “Modulation broadening of NMR and ESR line shapes,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3276–3285 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

H. Wahlquist, “Modulation broadening of unsaturated Lorentzian lines,” J. Chem. Phys. 35, 1708–1710 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Adler-Golden, S.

Aizawa, T.

Allen, M. A.

M. A. Allen, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Tunable diode laser sensing and combustion control,” in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Hoeinghaus, J. B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor and Francis, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 479–498.

Allen, M. G.

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arndt, R.

R. Arndt, “Analytical line shapes for Lorentzian signals broadened by modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522–2524 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Arroyo, M. P.

Axner, O.

Baer, D. S.

S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, W. Z. Collison, T. Q. Ni, “HBr concentration and temperature measurements in a plasma etch reactor using diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 477–484 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 789–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Furlong, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Combustion control and monitoring using a multiplexed diode-laser sensor system,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2851–2858 (1996).

Baldwin, J. A.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bien, F.

Bomse, D. S.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. I.

S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, W. Z. Collison, T. Q. Ni, “HBr concentration and temperature measurements in a plasma etch reactor using diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 477–484 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Collison, W. Z.

S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, W. Z. Collison, T. Q. Ni, “HBr concentration and temperature measurements in a plasma etch reactor using diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 477–484 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DeBarber, P. A.

T. P. Jenkins, P. A. DeBarber, M. Oljaca, “A rugged low-cost diode laser sensor for H2O and temperature applied to a spray flame,” in Proceedings of the 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reno, Nev., 6–9 January 2003 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper AIAA 2003-0585.

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, V.

H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, V. Ebert, “Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2043–2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fernholtz, H. Teichert, V. Ebert, “Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy in rapidly changing transmission conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 229–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in situ detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fernholtz, T.

H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, V. Ebert, “Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2043–2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fernholtz, H. Teichert, V. Ebert, “Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy in rapidly changing transmission conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 229–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fernholz, T.

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in situ detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Furlong, E. R.

E. R. Furlong, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Combustion control and monitoring using a multiplexed diode-laser sensor system,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2851–2858 (1996).

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 789–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Furlong, “Diode-laser absorption spectroscopy applied for the active control of combustion,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1998).

M. A. Allen, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Tunable diode laser sensing and combustion control,” in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Hoeinghaus, J. B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor and Francis, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 479–498.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giesemann, C.

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in situ detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, N.

Hanson, R. K.

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 503–511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, W. Z. Collison, T. Q. Ni, “HBr concentration and temperature measurements in a plasma etch reactor using diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 477–484 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 789–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Furlong, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Combustion control and monitoring using a multiplexed diode-laser sensor system,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2851–2858 (1996).

M. P. Arroyo, R. K. Hanson, “Absorption measurements of water-vapor concentration, temperature, and line-shape parameters using a tunable InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6104–6116 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Philippe, R. K. Hanson, “Laser diode wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for simultaneous measurement of temperature, pressure, and velocity in shock-heated oxygen flows,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6090–6103 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Allen, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Tunable diode laser sensing and combustion control,” in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Hoeinghaus, J. B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor and Francis, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 479–498.

Hodges, J. T.

Hovde, D. C.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jaritz, H.

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in situ detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, J. B.

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 503–511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, T. P.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Jenkins, P. A. DeBarber, M. Oljaca, “A rugged low-cost diode laser sensor for H2O and temperature applied to a spray flame,” in Proceedings of the 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reno, Nev., 6–9 January 2003 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper AIAA 2003-0585.

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, “Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kluczynski, P.

Labrie, D.

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. G.

Lee, J.

Lenth, W.

Liu, J. T. C.

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 503–511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagali, V.

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 789–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ni, T. Q.

S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, W. Z. Collison, T. Q. Ni, “HBr concentration and temperature measurements in a plasma etch reactor using diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 477–484 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oljaca, M.

T. P. Jenkins, P. A. DeBarber, M. Oljaca, “A rugged low-cost diode laser sensor for H2O and temperature applied to a spray flame,” in Proceedings of the 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reno, Nev., 6–9 January 2003 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper AIAA 2003-0585.

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Philippe, L. C.

Pitz, H.

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in situ detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J.

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robert, P.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S. T.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scace, G. E.

Schilt, S.

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, A. S.

Supplee, J. M.

Tang, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Teichert, H.

H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, V. Ebert, “Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2043–2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fernholtz, H. Teichert, V. Ebert, “Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy in rapidly changing transmission conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 229–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in situ detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thevenaz, L.

Tittel, F. K.

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Toth, “Extensive measurements of H216O line frequencies and strengths: 5750–7965 cm-1,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4851–4867 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Wahlquist, H.

H. Wahlquist, “Modulation broadening of unsaturated Lorentzian lines,” J. Chem. Phys. 35, 1708–1710 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, E. A.

Wilson, G. V. H.

G. V. H. Wilson, “Modulation broadening of NMR and ESR line shapes,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3276–3285 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Wolfrum, J.

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in situ detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (1)

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 789–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (12)

D. S. Bomse, A. S. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Goldstein, S. Adler-Golden, J. Lee, F. Bien, “Measurement of molecular concentrations and line parameters using line-locked second harmonic spectroscopy with an AlGaAs diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3409–3415 (1992).
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L. C. Philippe, R. K. Hanson, “Laser diode wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for simultaneous measurement of temperature, pressure, and velocity in shock-heated oxygen flows,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6090–6103 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Arroyo, R. K. Hanson, “Absorption measurements of water-vapor concentration, temperature, and line-shape parameters using a tunable InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6104–6116 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Toth, “Extensive measurements of H216O line frequencies and strengths: 5750–7965 cm-1,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4851–4867 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Supplee, E. A. Whittaker, W. Lenth, “Theoretical description of frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6294–6302 (1994).
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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral simulation: 7185.6-cm-1 feature, 1% water vapor, 1-cm path length, T = 1000 K.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated 2f peak height versus modulation depth a: T = 1000 K, 1% water vapor, 7185.6-cm-1 feature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Etalon fringes on a sinusoidal waveform for determining laser modulation depth.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental characterization of laser modulation depth versus input waveform amplitude for a typical laser used in this study. Modulation frequency, 50 kHz. A best-fit line to the measured data is shown as well.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The 2f spectral simulation adjusted for intensity modulation effects: i 0 = (2/3)Ī 0, a = 0.5 cm-1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Approximate plot of the maximum-attainable modulation depth versus modulation frequency for a typical laser used in this study.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The 2f noise (rms) versus modulation frequency with a fixed lock-in filter bandwidth of 15 kHz.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The 2f peak height versus total pressure: 1371-nm (7294.1-cm-1) water-vapor feature, T = 296 K.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Simulated water-vapor spectra at various pressures: T = 296 K; 100-cm path length; mole fraction, 0.0008.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The 2f signal versus temperature (experimental and simulated): P = 10 atm, a = 0.5 cm-1, 1392- and 1371-nm features.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Simulated 2f peak height ratio versus temperature: P = 10 atm, a = 0.5 cm-1.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The 2f peak height versus T and P (for 1% water vapor in air): 1392 nm (7185.6 cm-1); water-vapor feature; a = 0.5 cm-1; path length, 1 cm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Measured and actual water-vapor mole fraction χwater versus total pressure.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

χwater2fwater versus total pressure: T = 296 K, a = 0.5 cm-1, 1371-nm (7294.2-cm-1) water feature.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Detection limit (mole fraction, path-length product χL) versus total pressure: T = 296 K, 15-kHz lock-in bandwidth, 1371-nm (7294.2 cm-1) water feature.

Equations (3)

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νt=ν¯+a cosωt,
I0t=I0¯+i0 cosωt+ψ.
ΔνL=P j χjγjT0T0Tnj,

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