Abstract

The nonlinear transmission and the excited-state absorption spectra of three fluorene derivatives exhibiting large two-photon absorptivity were measured by the third harmonic of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser. We analyzed their capability for exhibiting stimulated emission in polar solvents and found that asymmetrical fluorene compounds with a diphenylamino substituent exhibited large Stokes shifts (∼8000 cm-1), high quantum yields (∼0.9 – 1.0), and no optical gain over their entire fluorescence spectral region. In contrast, a symmetrical fluorene derivative with vinylphenylbenzothiazole substituents in positions 2 and 7 underwent lasing under one-photon excitation by use of picosecond pulsed irradiation.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, L. S. Tan, “Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various π-electron acceptors,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1896–1904 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. W. Baur, M. D. Alexander, J. M. Banach, L. R. Denny, B. A. Reinhardt, R. A. Vaia, P. A. Fleitz, S. M. Kirkpatrick, “Molecular environment effects on two-photon-absorbing heterocyclic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 11, 2899–2906 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. D. Belfield, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, K. J. Schafer, R. A. Negres, “New two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives: synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization,” Org. Lett. 1, 1575–1578 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, B. A. Reinhardt, “Synthesis of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives via Cu-mediated Ullmann condensations,” J. Org. Chem. 65, 4475–4481 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Y. Chiang, P. A. Padmawar, T. Canteenwala, L. S. Tan, G. S. He, R. Kannan, R. A. Vaia, T. C. Lin, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, “Synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene dyad with large 2PA cross-sections and efficient intramolecular two-photon energy transfer,” Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 17, 1854–1855 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, Y. Liu, J. Liu, X. Ren, E. W. Van Stryland, “Multiphoton-absorbing organic materials for microfabrication, emerging optical applications and nondestructive three-dimensional imaging,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 837–849 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, C. Andraud, “Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391–5396 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. D. Bhawalkar, N. D. Kumar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon photodynamic therapy,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 15, 201–204 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  9. X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, Q. Gong, “Large femtosecond third-order nonlinear optical response in a novel donor-acceptor copolymer consisting of ethynylfluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1540–1544 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, Q. Gong, “Femtosecond third-order optical nonlinearity of conjugated polymers consisting of fluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units: structure-property relationships,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1884–1888 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. K. Bazyl, “Experimental and theoretical study of electron-excited states, spectral-luminescent properties, and generating ability of fluorene and of its phenylethynyl substituents,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 45, 921–924 (1986).
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    [CrossRef]
  15. E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, in Ultrashort Light Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed., Vol. 18 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 83–122.
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, “Spectral properties of several fluorene derivatives with potential as two-photon fluorescent dyes,” J. Lumin. 97, 141–146 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives,” Chem. Mater.16, (to be published).
  18. K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Linear and two-photon photophysical properties of a series of symmetrical diphenylaminofluorenes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 2267–2273 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, J. M. Hales, A. R. Morales, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “One- and two-photon fluorescence anisotropy of fluorene derivatives,” J. Fluoresc. (to be published).
  20. F. P. Schafer, ed., Dye Lasers, Vol. 1 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1973).
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  22. S. Reindl, A. Penzkofer, “Higher excited-state photoisomerization and singlet to triplet intersystem-crossing in DODCI,” Chem. Phys. 230, 83–96 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Linear and two-photon photophysical properties of a series of symmetrical diphenylaminofluorenes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 2267–2273 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, Q. Gong, “Femtosecond third-order optical nonlinearity of conjugated polymers consisting of fluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units: structure-property relationships,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1884–1888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, “Spectral properties of several fluorene derivatives with potential as two-photon fluorescent dyes,” J. Lumin. 97, 141–146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chiang, P. A. Padmawar, T. Canteenwala, L. S. Tan, G. S. He, R. Kannan, R. A. Vaia, T. C. Lin, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, “Synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene dyad with large 2PA cross-sections and efficient intramolecular two-photon energy transfer,” Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 17, 1854–1855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, L. S. Tan, “Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various π-electron acceptors,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1896–1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, C. Andraud, “Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391–5396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, Q. Gong, “Large femtosecond third-order nonlinear optical response in a novel donor-acceptor copolymer consisting of ethynylfluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1540–1544 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Przhonska, M. V. Bondar, Yu. L. Slominskii, “Effect of optical limiting in polymethine dyes,” Sci. Appl. Photog. 43, 71–83 (2001).

2000 (2)

K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, B. A. Reinhardt, “Synthesis of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives via Cu-mediated Ullmann condensations,” J. Org. Chem. 65, 4475–4481 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, Y. Liu, J. Liu, X. Ren, E. W. Van Stryland, “Multiphoton-absorbing organic materials for microfabrication, emerging optical applications and nondestructive three-dimensional imaging,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 837–849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. W. Baur, M. D. Alexander, J. M. Banach, L. R. Denny, B. A. Reinhardt, R. A. Vaia, P. A. Fleitz, S. M. Kirkpatrick, “Molecular environment effects on two-photon-absorbing heterocyclic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 11, 2899–2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, K. J. Schafer, R. A. Negres, “New two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives: synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization,” Org. Lett. 1, 1575–1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Reindl, A. Penzkofer, “Higher excited-state photoisomerization and singlet to triplet intersystem-crossing in DODCI,” Chem. Phys. 230, 83–96 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. D. Bhawalkar, N. D. Kumar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon photodynamic therapy,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 15, 201–204 (1997).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

O. K. Bazyl, “Experimental and theoretical study of electron-excited states, spectral-luminescent properties, and generating ability of fluorene and of its phenylethynyl substituents,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 45, 921–924 (1986).

1977 (1)

O. R. Wood, L. H. Szeto, W. T. Silfvast, “UV dye lasers optically pumped by a CO2-laser-produced plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1956–1962 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, M. D.

J. W. Baur, M. D. Alexander, J. M. Banach, L. R. Denny, B. A. Reinhardt, R. A. Vaia, P. A. Fleitz, S. M. Kirkpatrick, “Molecular environment effects on two-photon-absorbing heterocyclic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 11, 2899–2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Andraud, C.

Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, C. Andraud, “Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391–5396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baldeck, P. L.

Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, C. Andraud, “Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391–5396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Banach, J. M.

J. W. Baur, M. D. Alexander, J. M. Banach, L. R. Denny, B. A. Reinhardt, R. A. Vaia, P. A. Fleitz, S. M. Kirkpatrick, “Molecular environment effects on two-photon-absorbing heterocyclic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 11, 2899–2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baur, J. W.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, L. S. Tan, “Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various π-electron acceptors,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1896–1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Baur, M. D. Alexander, J. M. Banach, L. R. Denny, B. A. Reinhardt, R. A. Vaia, P. A. Fleitz, S. M. Kirkpatrick, “Molecular environment effects on two-photon-absorbing heterocyclic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 11, 2899–2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bazyl, O. K.

O. K. Bazyl, “Experimental and theoretical study of electron-excited states, spectral-luminescent properties, and generating ability of fluorene and of its phenylethynyl substituents,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 45, 921–924 (1986).

Belfield, K. D.

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Linear and two-photon photophysical properties of a series of symmetrical diphenylaminofluorenes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 2267–2273 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, “Spectral properties of several fluorene derivatives with potential as two-photon fluorescent dyes,” J. Lumin. 97, 141–146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, B. A. Reinhardt, “Synthesis of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives via Cu-mediated Ullmann condensations,” J. Org. Chem. 65, 4475–4481 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, Y. Liu, J. Liu, X. Ren, E. W. Van Stryland, “Multiphoton-absorbing organic materials for microfabrication, emerging optical applications and nondestructive three-dimensional imaging,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 837–849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, K. J. Schafer, R. A. Negres, “New two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives: synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization,” Org. Lett. 1, 1575–1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives,” Chem. Mater.16, (to be published).

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, J. M. Hales, A. R. Morales, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “One- and two-photon fluorescence anisotropy of fluorene derivatives,” J. Fluoresc. (to be published).

Bhawalkar, J. D.

J. D. Bhawalkar, N. D. Kumar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon photodynamic therapy,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 15, 201–204 (1997).
[PubMed]

Bondar, M. V.

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, “Spectral properties of several fluorene derivatives with potential as two-photon fluorescent dyes,” J. Lumin. 97, 141–146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Przhonska, M. V. Bondar, Yu. L. Slominskii, “Effect of optical limiting in polymethine dyes,” Sci. Appl. Photog. 43, 71–83 (2001).

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, J. M. Hales, A. R. Morales, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “One- and two-photon fluorescence anisotropy of fluorene derivatives,” J. Fluoresc. (to be published).

Canteenwala, T.

L. Y. Chiang, P. A. Padmawar, T. Canteenwala, L. S. Tan, G. S. He, R. Kannan, R. A. Vaia, T. C. Lin, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, “Synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene dyad with large 2PA cross-sections and efficient intramolecular two-photon energy transfer,” Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 17, 1854–1855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chapela, V. M.

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Linear and two-photon photophysical properties of a series of symmetrical diphenylaminofluorenes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 2267–2273 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives,” Chem. Mater.16, (to be published).

Chiang, L. Y.

L. Y. Chiang, P. A. Padmawar, T. Canteenwala, L. S. Tan, G. S. He, R. Kannan, R. A. Vaia, T. C. Lin, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, “Synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene dyad with large 2PA cross-sections and efficient intramolecular two-photon energy transfer,” Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 17, 1854–1855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Denny, L. R.

J. W. Baur, M. D. Alexander, J. M. Banach, L. R. Denny, B. A. Reinhardt, R. A. Vaia, P. A. Fleitz, S. M. Kirkpatrick, “Molecular environment effects on two-photon-absorbing heterocyclic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 11, 2899–2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dombroskie, A. G.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, L. S. Tan, “Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various π-electron acceptors,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1896–1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fleitz, P. A.

J. W. Baur, M. D. Alexander, J. M. Banach, L. R. Denny, B. A. Reinhardt, R. A. Vaia, P. A. Fleitz, S. M. Kirkpatrick, “Molecular environment effects on two-photon-absorbing heterocyclic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 11, 2899–2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, Q. Gong, “Femtosecond third-order optical nonlinearity of conjugated polymers consisting of fluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units: structure-property relationships,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1884–1888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, Q. Gong, “Large femtosecond third-order nonlinear optical response in a novel donor-acceptor copolymer consisting of ethynylfluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1540–1544 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Linear and two-photon photophysical properties of a series of symmetrical diphenylaminofluorenes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 2267–2273 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, K. J. Schafer, R. A. Negres, “New two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives: synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization,” Org. Lett. 1, 1575–1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, J. M. Hales, A. R. Morales, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “One- and two-photon fluorescence anisotropy of fluorene derivatives,” J. Fluoresc. (to be published).

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives,” Chem. Mater.16, (to be published).

Hales, J. M.

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Linear and two-photon photophysical properties of a series of symmetrical diphenylaminofluorenes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 2267–2273 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, J. M. Hales, A. R. Morales, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “One- and two-photon fluorescence anisotropy of fluorene derivatives,” J. Fluoresc. (to be published).

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives,” Chem. Mater.16, (to be published).

He, G. S.

L. Y. Chiang, P. A. Padmawar, T. Canteenwala, L. S. Tan, G. S. He, R. Kannan, R. A. Vaia, T. C. Lin, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, “Synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene dyad with large 2PA cross-sections and efficient intramolecular two-photon energy transfer,” Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 17, 1854–1855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, L. S. Tan, “Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various π-electron acceptors,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1896–1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, Q. Gong, “Femtosecond third-order optical nonlinearity of conjugated polymers consisting of fluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units: structure-property relationships,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1884–1888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, Q. Gong, “Large femtosecond third-order nonlinear optical response in a novel donor-acceptor copolymer consisting of ethynylfluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1540–1544 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, in Ultrashort Light Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed., Vol. 18 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 83–122.
[CrossRef]

Irimia, A.

Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, C. Andraud, “Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391–5396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kang, B.-S.

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Linear and two-photon photophysical properties of a series of symmetrical diphenylaminofluorenes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 2267–2273 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives,” Chem. Mater.16, (to be published).

Kannan, R.

L. Y. Chiang, P. A. Padmawar, T. Canteenwala, L. S. Tan, G. S. He, R. Kannan, R. A. Vaia, T. C. Lin, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, “Synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene dyad with large 2PA cross-sections and efficient intramolecular two-photon energy transfer,” Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 17, 1854–1855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, L. S. Tan, “Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various π-electron acceptors,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1896–1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kervella, Y.

Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, C. Andraud, “Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391–5396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, S. M.

J. W. Baur, M. D. Alexander, J. M. Banach, L. R. Denny, B. A. Reinhardt, R. A. Vaia, P. A. Fleitz, S. M. Kirkpatrick, “Molecular environment effects on two-photon-absorbing heterocyclic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 11, 2899–2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, N. D.

J. D. Bhawalkar, N. D. Kumar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon photodynamic therapy,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 15, 201–204 (1997).
[PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Kluwer Academic-Plenum, New York, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. C.

L. Y. Chiang, P. A. Padmawar, T. Canteenwala, L. S. Tan, G. S. He, R. Kannan, R. A. Vaia, T. C. Lin, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, “Synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene dyad with large 2PA cross-sections and efficient intramolecular two-photon energy transfer,” Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 17, 1854–1855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, Y. Liu, J. Liu, X. Ren, E. W. Van Stryland, “Multiphoton-absorbing organic materials for microfabrication, emerging optical applications and nondestructive three-dimensional imaging,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 837–849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, Q. Gong, “Femtosecond third-order optical nonlinearity of conjugated polymers consisting of fluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units: structure-property relationships,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1884–1888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, Q. Gong, “Large femtosecond third-order nonlinear optical response in a novel donor-acceptor copolymer consisting of ethynylfluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1540–1544 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, Y. Liu, J. Liu, X. Ren, E. W. Van Stryland, “Multiphoton-absorbing organic materials for microfabrication, emerging optical applications and nondestructive three-dimensional imaging,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 837–849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morales, A. R.

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Linear and two-photon photophysical properties of a series of symmetrical diphenylaminofluorenes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 2267–2273 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, J. M. Hales, A. R. Morales, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “One- and two-photon fluorescence anisotropy of fluorene derivatives,” J. Fluoresc. (to be published).

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives,” Chem. Mater.16, (to be published).

Morel, Y.

Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, C. Andraud, “Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391–5396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mourad, W.

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, “Spectral properties of several fluorene derivatives with potential as two-photon fluorescent dyes,” J. Lumin. 97, 141–146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, B. A. Reinhardt, “Synthesis of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives via Cu-mediated Ullmann condensations,” J. Org. Chem. 65, 4475–4481 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Najechalski, P.

Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, C. Andraud, “Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391–5396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Negres, R. A.

K. D. Belfield, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, K. J. Schafer, R. A. Negres, “New two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives: synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization,” Org. Lett. 1, 1575–1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Padmawar, P. A.

L. Y. Chiang, P. A. Padmawar, T. Canteenwala, L. S. Tan, G. S. He, R. Kannan, R. A. Vaia, T. C. Lin, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, “Synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene dyad with large 2PA cross-sections and efficient intramolecular two-photon energy transfer,” Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 17, 1854–1855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Penzkofer, A.

S. Reindl, A. Penzkofer, “Higher excited-state photoisomerization and singlet to triplet intersystem-crossing in DODCI,” Chem. Phys. 230, 83–96 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Percino, J.

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Linear and two-photon photophysical properties of a series of symmetrical diphenylaminofluorenes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 2267–2273 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives,” Chem. Mater.16, (to be published).

Prasad, P. N.

L. Y. Chiang, P. A. Padmawar, T. Canteenwala, L. S. Tan, G. S. He, R. Kannan, R. A. Vaia, T. C. Lin, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, “Synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene dyad with large 2PA cross-sections and efficient intramolecular two-photon energy transfer,” Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 17, 1854–1855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, L. S. Tan, “Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various π-electron acceptors,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1896–1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bhawalkar, N. D. Kumar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon photodynamic therapy,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 15, 201–204 (1997).
[PubMed]

Przhonska, O. V.

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, “Spectral properties of several fluorene derivatives with potential as two-photon fluorescent dyes,” J. Lumin. 97, 141–146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Przhonska, M. V. Bondar, Yu. L. Slominskii, “Effect of optical limiting in polymethine dyes,” Sci. Appl. Photog. 43, 71–83 (2001).

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, J. M. Hales, A. R. Morales, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “One- and two-photon fluorescence anisotropy of fluorene derivatives,” J. Fluoresc. (to be published).

Reindl, S.

S. Reindl, A. Penzkofer, “Higher excited-state photoisomerization and singlet to triplet intersystem-crossing in DODCI,” Chem. Phys. 230, 83–96 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, B. A.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, L. S. Tan, “Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various π-electron acceptors,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1896–1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, B. A. Reinhardt, “Synthesis of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives via Cu-mediated Ullmann condensations,” J. Org. Chem. 65, 4475–4481 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Baur, M. D. Alexander, J. M. Banach, L. R. Denny, B. A. Reinhardt, R. A. Vaia, P. A. Fleitz, S. M. Kirkpatrick, “Molecular environment effects on two-photon-absorbing heterocyclic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 11, 2899–2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ren, X.

K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, Y. Liu, J. Liu, X. Ren, E. W. Van Stryland, “Multiphoton-absorbing organic materials for microfabrication, emerging optical applications and nondestructive three-dimensional imaging,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 837–849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K. J.

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, “Spectral properties of several fluorene derivatives with potential as two-photon fluorescent dyes,” J. Lumin. 97, 141–146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, B. A. Reinhardt, “Synthesis of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives via Cu-mediated Ullmann condensations,” J. Org. Chem. 65, 4475–4481 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, Y. Liu, J. Liu, X. Ren, E. W. Van Stryland, “Multiphoton-absorbing organic materials for microfabrication, emerging optical applications and nondestructive three-dimensional imaging,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 837–849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, K. J. Schafer, R. A. Negres, “New two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives: synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization,” Org. Lett. 1, 1575–1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, J. M. Hales, A. R. Morales, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “One- and two-photon fluorescence anisotropy of fluorene derivatives,” J. Fluoresc. (to be published).

Shank, C. V.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, in Ultrashort Light Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed., Vol. 18 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 83–122.
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Silfvast, W. T.

O. R. Wood, L. H. Szeto, W. T. Silfvast, “UV dye lasers optically pumped by a CO2-laser-produced plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1956–1962 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Slominskii, Yu. L.

O. V. Przhonska, M. V. Bondar, Yu. L. Slominskii, “Effect of optical limiting in polymethine dyes,” Sci. Appl. Photog. 43, 71–83 (2001).

Stephan, O.

Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, C. Andraud, “Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391–5396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Szeto, L. H.

O. R. Wood, L. H. Szeto, W. T. Silfvast, “UV dye lasers optically pumped by a CO2-laser-produced plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1956–1962 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tan, L. S.

L. Y. Chiang, P. A. Padmawar, T. Canteenwala, L. S. Tan, G. S. He, R. Kannan, R. A. Vaia, T. C. Lin, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, “Synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene dyad with large 2PA cross-sections and efficient intramolecular two-photon energy transfer,” Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 17, 1854–1855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, L. S. Tan, “Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various π-electron acceptors,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1896–1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vaia, R. A.

L. Y. Chiang, P. A. Padmawar, T. Canteenwala, L. S. Tan, G. S. He, R. Kannan, R. A. Vaia, T. C. Lin, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, “Synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene dyad with large 2PA cross-sections and efficient intramolecular two-photon energy transfer,” Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 17, 1854–1855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, L. S. Tan, “Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various π-electron acceptors,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1896–1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Baur, M. D. Alexander, J. M. Banach, L. R. Denny, B. A. Reinhardt, R. A. Vaia, P. A. Fleitz, S. M. Kirkpatrick, “Molecular environment effects on two-photon-absorbing heterocyclic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 11, 2899–2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Linear and two-photon photophysical properties of a series of symmetrical diphenylaminofluorenes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 2267–2273 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, Y. Liu, J. Liu, X. Ren, E. W. Van Stryland, “Multiphoton-absorbing organic materials for microfabrication, emerging optical applications and nondestructive three-dimensional imaging,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 837–849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, K. J. Schafer, R. A. Negres, “New two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives: synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization,” Org. Lett. 1, 1575–1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, J. M. Hales, A. R. Morales, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “One- and two-photon fluorescence anisotropy of fluorene derivatives,” J. Fluoresc. (to be published).

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives,” Chem. Mater.16, (to be published).

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wood, O. R.

O. R. Wood, L. H. Szeto, W. T. Silfvast, “UV dye lasers optically pumped by a CO2-laser-produced plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1956–1962 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, L. S. Tan, “Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various π-electron acceptors,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1896–1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, L. S. Tan, “Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various π-electron acceptors,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1896–1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, X.

X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, Q. Gong, “Femtosecond third-order optical nonlinearity of conjugated polymers consisting of fluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units: structure-property relationships,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1884–1888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, Q. Gong, “Large femtosecond third-order nonlinear optical response in a novel donor-acceptor copolymer consisting of ethynylfluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1540–1544 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C. F.

J. D. Bhawalkar, N. D. Kumar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon photodynamic therapy,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 15, 201–204 (1997).
[PubMed]

Zheng, Q.

L. Y. Chiang, P. A. Padmawar, T. Canteenwala, L. S. Tan, G. S. He, R. Kannan, R. A. Vaia, T. C. Lin, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, “Synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene dyad with large 2PA cross-sections and efficient intramolecular two-photon energy transfer,” Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 17, 1854–1855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D.

X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, Q. Gong, “Femtosecond third-order optical nonlinearity of conjugated polymers consisting of fluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units: structure-property relationships,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1884–1888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, Q. Gong, “Large femtosecond third-order nonlinear optical response in a novel donor-acceptor copolymer consisting of ethynylfluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1540–1544 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) (1)

L. Y. Chiang, P. A. Padmawar, T. Canteenwala, L. S. Tan, G. S. He, R. Kannan, R. A. Vaia, T. C. Lin, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, “Synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene dyad with large 2PA cross-sections and efficient intramolecular two-photon energy transfer,” Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 17, 1854–1855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (4)

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, L. S. Tan, “Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various π-electron acceptors,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1896–1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Baur, M. D. Alexander, J. M. Banach, L. R. Denny, B. A. Reinhardt, R. A. Vaia, P. A. Fleitz, S. M. Kirkpatrick, “Molecular environment effects on two-photon-absorbing heterocyclic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 11, 2899–2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, Q. Gong, “Large femtosecond third-order nonlinear optical response in a novel donor-acceptor copolymer consisting of ethynylfluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1540–1544 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Linear and two-photon photophysical properties of a series of symmetrical diphenylaminofluorenes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 2267–2273 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Reindl, A. Penzkofer, “Higher excited-state photoisomerization and singlet to triplet intersystem-crossing in DODCI,” Chem. Phys. 230, 83–96 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

O. R. Wood, L. H. Szeto, W. T. Silfvast, “UV dye lasers optically pumped by a CO2-laser-produced plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1956–1962 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, C. Andraud, “Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391–5396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. (1)

J. D. Bhawalkar, N. D. Kumar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon photodynamic therapy,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 15, 201–204 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. Lumin. (1)

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, “Spectral properties of several fluorene derivatives with potential as two-photon fluorescent dyes,” J. Lumin. 97, 141–146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Org. Chem. (1)

K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, B. A. Reinhardt, “Synthesis of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives via Cu-mediated Ullmann condensations,” J. Org. Chem. 65, 4475–4481 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, Q. Gong, “Femtosecond third-order optical nonlinearity of conjugated polymers consisting of fluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units: structure-property relationships,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1884–1888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Org. Chem. (1)

K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, Y. Liu, J. Liu, X. Ren, E. W. Van Stryland, “Multiphoton-absorbing organic materials for microfabrication, emerging optical applications and nondestructive three-dimensional imaging,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 837–849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Org. Lett. (1)

K. D. Belfield, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, K. J. Schafer, R. A. Negres, “New two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives: synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization,” Org. Lett. 1, 1575–1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Appl. Photog. (1)

O. V. Przhonska, M. V. Bondar, Yu. L. Slominskii, “Effect of optical limiting in polymethine dyes,” Sci. Appl. Photog. 43, 71–83 (2001).

Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. (1)

O. K. Bazyl, “Experimental and theoretical study of electron-excited states, spectral-luminescent properties, and generating ability of fluorene and of its phenylethynyl substituents,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 45, 921–924 (1986).

Other (5)

K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, J. Percino, “Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives,” Chem. Mater.16, (to be published).

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, J. M. Hales, A. R. Morales, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “One- and two-photon fluorescence anisotropy of fluorene derivatives,” J. Fluoresc. (to be published).

F. P. Schafer, ed., Dye Lasers, Vol. 1 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1973).

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Kluwer Academic-Plenum, New York, 1999).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, in Ultrashort Light Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed., Vol. 18 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 83–122.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structures of fluorene derivatives 1–3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup for pump-probe measurements: L, lens; PD, photodiode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized absorption (curves 1–3) and normalized anisotropy (curves 1′–3′) of derivatives 1 (curves 1 and 1′) and 2 (curves 2 and 2′) in ACN, and derivative 3 (curves 3 and 3′) in THF. The maximum anisotropy values are 0.016 (derivative 1 in ACN), 0.023 (derivative 2 in ACN), and 0.132 (derivative 3 in THF).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Excited-state absorption spectra of derivatives 1 (curve 1) and 2 (curve 2) in ACN, derivative 3 (curve 3) in THF, and Rhodamine 6G (curve 4) in ethanol. Normalized fluorescence of derivatives 1 (curve 1′) and 2 (curve 2′) in ACN, and derivative 3 (curve 3′) in THF. The fluorescence spectrum of Rhodamine 6G in ethanol (curve 4′) is normalized to its maximum of amplification (curve 4). Pump energy, E p ≈ 350 μJ, at excitation wavelength λ p = 355 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Nonlinear transmittance versus input for derivatives 1 (curve 1) and 2 (curve 2) in ACN and derivative 3 (curve 3) in THF.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of the fluorescence intensity, I fl on the absorbed pump energy, E p p = 355 nm), for derivative 2 in ACN.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Wavelength, λ, and Energy, E, of Absorption S 0S 1, S 0S 2, S 0S 3 and Emission S 1S 0 Electronic Transitions; Stokes Shift, Δν; and Fluorescence Quantum Yield, Φ, for Derivatives 1–3

Metrics