Abstract

Adaptive shaping of time-dependent polarization pulses is performed by reference to the analyzed results of dual-channel spectral interferometry. The desired pulses can be generated only by use of such a polarization-characterization technique. We demonstrate the generation of shaped femtosecond pulses whose ellipticity increases at a constant rate. The relative error between the shaped pulse and the target pulse is less than 6% over the main part of the pulse. Shaped time-dependent polarization pulses have many potential applications.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2004 (1)

T. Suzuki, S. Minemoto, T. Kanai, H. Sakai, “Optimal control of multiphoton ionization processes in aligned I2 molecules with time-dependent polarization pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

T. Brixner, “Poincare representation of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 531–540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Daniel, J. Full, L. González, C. Lupulescu, J. Manz, A. Merli, Š. Vajda, L. Wöste, “Deciphering the reaction dynamics underlying optimal control laser fields,” Science 299, 536–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sakai, S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, “Controlling the orientation of polar molecules with combined electrostatic and pulsed, nonresonant laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, H. Sakai, “Observation of molecular orientation by the combination of electrostatic and nonresonant, pulsed laser fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 118, 4052–4059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, “Orientation of polar molecules with combined electrostatic and pulsed, nonresonant laser fields,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 33–37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, G. Gerber, “Adaptive shaping of femtosecond polarization profiles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 878–881 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, G. Gerber, “Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S133–S144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. J. Levis, G. M. Menkir, H. Rabitz, “Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses,” Science 292, 709–713 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brixner, G. Gerber, “Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 26, 557–559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929–1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

Y. Fujimura, L. González, K. Hoki, J. Manz, Y. Ohtsuki, “Selective preparation of enantiomers by laser pulses: quantum model simulation for H2 POSH,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 306, 1–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, J. J. Larsen, K. M. Hilligsøe, K. Hald, H. Stapelfeldt, “Controlling the alignment of neutral molecules by a strong laser field,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 10235–10238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Larsen, H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, I. Wendt-Larsen, H. Stapelfeldt, “Aligning molecules with intense nonresonant laser fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 7774–7781 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282, 919–922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

1992 (1)

R. S. Judson, H. Rabitz, “Teaching lasers to control molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500–1503 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assion, A.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282, 919–922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumert, T.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282, 919–922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergt, M.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282, 919–922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowie, J. L.

Brixner, T.

T. Brixner, “Poincare representation of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 531–540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, G. Gerber, “Adaptive shaping of femtosecond polarization profiles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 878–881 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, G. Gerber, “Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S133–S144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, G. Gerber, “Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 26, 557–559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282, 919–922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, N. H.

Corkum, P. B.

Damrauer, N. H.

Daniel, C.

C. Daniel, J. Full, L. González, C. Lupulescu, J. Manz, A. Merli, Š. Vajda, L. Wöste, “Deciphering the reaction dynamics underlying optimal control laser fields,” Science 299, 536–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeLong, K. W.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Fujimura, Y.

Y. Fujimura, L. González, K. Hoki, J. Manz, Y. Ohtsuki, “Selective preparation of enantiomers by laser pulses: quantum model simulation for H2 POSH,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 306, 1–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Full, J.

C. Daniel, J. Full, L. González, C. Lupulescu, J. Manz, A. Merli, Š. Vajda, L. Wöste, “Deciphering the reaction dynamics underlying optimal control laser fields,” Science 299, 536–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerber, G.

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, G. Gerber, “Adaptive shaping of femtosecond polarization profiles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 878–881 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, G. Gerber, “Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S133–S144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, G. Gerber, “Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 26, 557–559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282, 919–922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

González, L.

C. Daniel, J. Full, L. González, C. Lupulescu, J. Manz, A. Merli, Š. Vajda, L. Wöste, “Deciphering the reaction dynamics underlying optimal control laser fields,” Science 299, 536–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fujimura, L. González, K. Hoki, J. Manz, Y. Ohtsuki, “Selective preparation of enantiomers by laser pulses: quantum model simulation for H2 POSH,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 306, 1–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hald, K.

H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, J. J. Larsen, K. M. Hilligsøe, K. Hald, H. Stapelfeldt, “Controlling the alignment of neutral molecules by a strong laser field,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 10235–10238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hilligsøe, K. M.

H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, J. J. Larsen, K. M. Hilligsøe, K. Hald, H. Stapelfeldt, “Controlling the alignment of neutral molecules by a strong laser field,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 10235–10238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoki, K.

Y. Fujimura, L. González, K. Hoki, J. Manz, Y. Ohtsuki, “Selective preparation of enantiomers by laser pulses: quantum model simulation for H2 POSH,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 306, 1–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, J.

Ivanov, M. Yu.

Jennings, R. T.

Judson, R. S.

R. S. Judson, H. Rabitz, “Teaching lasers to control molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500–1503 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanai, T.

T. Suzuki, S. Minemoto, T. Kanai, H. Sakai, “Optimal control of multiphoton ionization processes in aligned I2 molecules with time-dependent polarization pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, H. Sakai, “Control of tunnel ionization in molecules by intense femtosecond laser pulses with time-dependent polarization,” presented at the 14th International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Niigata, Japan, 25–30 July 2004.

Kiefer, B.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282, 919–922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krampert, G.

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, G. Gerber, “Adaptive shaping of femtosecond polarization profiles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 878–881 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, G. Gerber, “Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S133–S144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krumbügel, M. A.

Larsen, J. J.

H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, J. J. Larsen, K. M. Hilligsøe, K. Hald, H. Stapelfeldt, “Controlling the alignment of neutral molecules by a strong laser field,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 10235–10238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Larsen, H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, I. Wendt-Larsen, H. Stapelfeldt, “Aligning molecules with intense nonresonant laser fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 7774–7781 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Levis, R. J.

R. J. Levis, G. M. Menkir, H. Rabitz, “Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses,” Science 292, 709–713 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lupulescu, C.

C. Daniel, J. Full, L. González, C. Lupulescu, J. Manz, A. Merli, Š. Vajda, L. Wöste, “Deciphering the reaction dynamics underlying optimal control laser fields,” Science 299, 536–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manz, J.

C. Daniel, J. Full, L. González, C. Lupulescu, J. Manz, A. Merli, Š. Vajda, L. Wöste, “Deciphering the reaction dynamics underlying optimal control laser fields,” Science 299, 536–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fujimura, L. González, K. Hoki, J. Manz, Y. Ohtsuki, “Selective preparation of enantiomers by laser pulses: quantum model simulation for H2 POSH,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 306, 1–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Menkir, G. M.

R. J. Levis, G. M. Menkir, H. Rabitz, “Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses,” Science 292, 709–713 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merli, A.

C. Daniel, J. Full, L. González, C. Lupulescu, J. Manz, A. Merli, Š. Vajda, L. Wöste, “Deciphering the reaction dynamics underlying optimal control laser fields,” Science 299, 536–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michielssen, E.

D. S. Weile, E. Michielssen, “Genetic algorithm optimization applied to electromagnetics: a review,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 343–353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Minemoto, S.

T. Suzuki, S. Minemoto, T. Kanai, H. Sakai, “Optimal control of multiphoton ionization processes in aligned I2 molecules with time-dependent polarization pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, “Controlling the orientation of polar molecules with combined electrostatic and pulsed, nonresonant laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, H. Sakai, “Observation of molecular orientation by the combination of electrostatic and nonresonant, pulsed laser fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 118, 4052–4059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, “Orientation of polar molecules with combined electrostatic and pulsed, nonresonant laser fields,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 33–37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, H. Sakai, “Control of tunnel ionization in molecules by intense femtosecond laser pulses with time-dependent polarization,” presented at the 14th International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Niigata, Japan, 25–30 July 2004.

Nanjo, H.

H. Sakai, S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, “Orientation of polar molecules with combined electrostatic and pulsed, nonresonant laser fields,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 33–37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, H. Sakai, “Observation of molecular orientation by the combination of electrostatic and nonresonant, pulsed laser fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 118, 4052–4059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, “Controlling the orientation of polar molecules with combined electrostatic and pulsed, nonresonant laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niklaus, P.

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, G. Gerber, “Adaptive shaping of femtosecond polarization profiles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 878–881 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, G. Gerber, “Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S133–S144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuki, Y.

Y. Fujimura, L. González, K. Hoki, J. Manz, Y. Ohtsuki, “Selective preparation of enantiomers by laser pulses: quantum model simulation for H2 POSH,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 306, 1–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rabitz, H.

R. J. Levis, G. M. Menkir, H. Rabitz, “Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses,” Science 292, 709–713 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Judson, H. Rabitz, “Teaching lasers to control molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500–1503 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safvan, C. P.

J. J. Larsen, H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, I. Wendt-Larsen, H. Stapelfeldt, “Aligning molecules with intense nonresonant laser fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 7774–7781 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, J. J. Larsen, K. M. Hilligsøe, K. Hald, H. Stapelfeldt, “Controlling the alignment of neutral molecules by a strong laser field,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 10235–10238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

T. Suzuki, S. Minemoto, T. Kanai, H. Sakai, “Optimal control of multiphoton ionization processes in aligned I2 molecules with time-dependent polarization pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, “Controlling the orientation of polar molecules with combined electrostatic and pulsed, nonresonant laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, H. Sakai, “Observation of molecular orientation by the combination of electrostatic and nonresonant, pulsed laser fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 118, 4052–4059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, “Orientation of polar molecules with combined electrostatic and pulsed, nonresonant laser fields,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 33–37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, J. J. Larsen, K. M. Hilligsøe, K. Hald, H. Stapelfeldt, “Controlling the alignment of neutral molecules by a strong laser field,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 10235–10238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Larsen, H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, I. Wendt-Larsen, H. Stapelfeldt, “Aligning molecules with intense nonresonant laser fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 7774–7781 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, H. Sakai, “Control of tunnel ionization in molecules by intense femtosecond laser pulses with time-dependent polarization,” presented at the 14th International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Niigata, Japan, 25–30 July 2004.

Seyfried, V.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282, 919–922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirl, A. L.

Stapelfeldt, H.

H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, J. J. Larsen, K. M. Hilligsøe, K. Hald, H. Stapelfeldt, “Controlling the alignment of neutral molecules by a strong laser field,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 10235–10238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Larsen, H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, I. Wendt-Larsen, H. Stapelfeldt, “Aligning molecules with intense nonresonant laser fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 7774–7781 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Strehle, M.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282, 919–922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, S. Minemoto, T. Kanai, H. Sakai, “Optimal control of multiphoton ionization processes in aligned I2 molecules with time-dependent polarization pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, “Controlling the orientation of polar molecules with combined electrostatic and pulsed, nonresonant laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, H. Sakai, “Observation of molecular orientation by the combination of electrostatic and nonresonant, pulsed laser fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 118, 4052–4059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, “Orientation of polar molecules with combined electrostatic and pulsed, nonresonant laser fields,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 33–37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J. N.

Tanji, H.

H. Sakai, S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, “Orientation of polar molecules with combined electrostatic and pulsed, nonresonant laser fields,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 33–37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, H. Sakai, “Observation of molecular orientation by the combination of electrostatic and nonresonant, pulsed laser fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 118, 4052–4059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, S. Minemoto, H. Nanjo, H. Tanji, T. Suzuki, “Controlling the orientation of polar molecules with combined electrostatic and pulsed, nonresonant laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

Vajda, Š.

C. Daniel, J. Full, L. González, C. Lupulescu, J. Manz, A. Merli, Š. Vajda, L. Wöste, “Deciphering the reaction dynamics underlying optimal control laser fields,” Science 299, 536–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walecki, W. J.

Walmsley, I. A.

Weile, D. S.

D. S. Weile, E. Michielssen, “Genetic algorithm optimization applied to electromagnetics: a review,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 343–353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929–1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wendt-Larsen, I.

J. J. Larsen, H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, I. Wendt-Larsen, H. Stapelfeldt, “Aligning molecules with intense nonresonant laser fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 7774–7781 (1999).
[CrossRef]

White, W. E.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup, which consists of the three parts labeled Pulse shaper, POLLIWOG, and Optimization. Ellipticity ∊ and orientation angle θ are illustrated in the inset.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Evolution of fitness F 1 as a function of generation number and intensity profiles at (b) the 10th, (c) the 20th, (d) the 30th, and (e) the 50th generation. (b)–(e) Dashed and solid curves represent the target and the shaped pulses, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Evolution of fitness F 2 as a function of generation number. (b) Measured ellipticity ∊ and orientation angle θ of the shaped pulse achieved at the 150th generation of the GA. The ellipticity of the target increases at a constant rate of α = 3.44 × 10-3 fs-1, which is represented by a solid curve. The sign of ∊ is related to the helicity of the elliptical polarization. The intensity profile of the shaped pulse is also depicted (dashed curve).

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