Abstract

Bend losses of bent multimode waveguides have been experimentally studied. The results experimentally verify a simple analytical expression based on ray optics that can be used to determine bend losses in bent multimode waveguides. We have also shown that bend-induced losses in such multimode optical waveguides are wavelength independent.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Winkler, J. D. Love, A. K. Ghatak, “Loss calculations in bent multimode optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 173–183 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Israel, R. Baets, N. Shaw, M. J. Goodwin, “Study of multimode polymeric waveguide bends for backplane optical interconnect,” in Fourth Micro-Optics Conference and Eleventh Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, Japan, 1993).
  3. A. Borreman, S. Musa, A. A. M. Kok, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Driessen, “Fabrication of polymeric multimode waveguides and devices in SU-8 photoresist using selective polymerization,” in Proceedings 2002 Seventh Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 83–86.
  4. E. A. J. Marcatili, “Bends in optical dielectric guides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103–2132 (1969).
    [CrossRef]

1979 (1)

C. Winkler, J. D. Love, A. K. Ghatak, “Loss calculations in bent multimode optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 173–183 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Bends in optical dielectric guides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103–2132 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

D. Israel, R. Baets, N. Shaw, M. J. Goodwin, “Study of multimode polymeric waveguide bends for backplane optical interconnect,” in Fourth Micro-Optics Conference and Eleventh Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, Japan, 1993).

Borreman, A.

A. Borreman, S. Musa, A. A. M. Kok, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Driessen, “Fabrication of polymeric multimode waveguides and devices in SU-8 photoresist using selective polymerization,” in Proceedings 2002 Seventh Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 83–86.

Diemeer, M. B. J.

A. Borreman, S. Musa, A. A. M. Kok, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Driessen, “Fabrication of polymeric multimode waveguides and devices in SU-8 photoresist using selective polymerization,” in Proceedings 2002 Seventh Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 83–86.

Driessen, A.

A. Borreman, S. Musa, A. A. M. Kok, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Driessen, “Fabrication of polymeric multimode waveguides and devices in SU-8 photoresist using selective polymerization,” in Proceedings 2002 Seventh Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 83–86.

Ghatak, A. K.

C. Winkler, J. D. Love, A. K. Ghatak, “Loss calculations in bent multimode optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 173–183 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Goodwin, M. J.

D. Israel, R. Baets, N. Shaw, M. J. Goodwin, “Study of multimode polymeric waveguide bends for backplane optical interconnect,” in Fourth Micro-Optics Conference and Eleventh Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, Japan, 1993).

Israel, D.

D. Israel, R. Baets, N. Shaw, M. J. Goodwin, “Study of multimode polymeric waveguide bends for backplane optical interconnect,” in Fourth Micro-Optics Conference and Eleventh Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, Japan, 1993).

Kok, A. A. M.

A. Borreman, S. Musa, A. A. M. Kok, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Driessen, “Fabrication of polymeric multimode waveguides and devices in SU-8 photoresist using selective polymerization,” in Proceedings 2002 Seventh Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 83–86.

Love, J. D.

C. Winkler, J. D. Love, A. K. Ghatak, “Loss calculations in bent multimode optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 173–183 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Bends in optical dielectric guides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103–2132 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Musa, S.

A. Borreman, S. Musa, A. A. M. Kok, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Driessen, “Fabrication of polymeric multimode waveguides and devices in SU-8 photoresist using selective polymerization,” in Proceedings 2002 Seventh Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 83–86.

Shaw, N.

D. Israel, R. Baets, N. Shaw, M. J. Goodwin, “Study of multimode polymeric waveguide bends for backplane optical interconnect,” in Fourth Micro-Optics Conference and Eleventh Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, Japan, 1993).

Winkler, C.

C. Winkler, J. D. Love, A. K. Ghatak, “Loss calculations in bent multimode optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 173–183 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Bends in optical dielectric guides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103–2132 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Winkler, J. D. Love, A. K. Ghatak, “Loss calculations in bent multimode optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 173–183 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Israel, R. Baets, N. Shaw, M. J. Goodwin, “Study of multimode polymeric waveguide bends for backplane optical interconnect,” in Fourth Micro-Optics Conference and Eleventh Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, Japan, 1993).

A. Borreman, S. Musa, A. A. M. Kok, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Driessen, “Fabrication of polymeric multimode waveguides and devices in SU-8 photoresist using selective polymerization,” in Proceedings 2002 Seventh Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 83–86.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Bend losses as function of radius of curvature for three types of bent multimode waveguide. The wavelength is 850 nm. The solid curves are fits to the measured data by use of Eq. (1).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength dependence of bend losses of a 40 × 40 μm2 waveguide with NA = 0.2, with the bend radius as a parameter.

Equations (1)

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T= PoutPin=1- 12 K- 16 K2- 18 K3- 18 K4+OK5,

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