Abstract

The wavelength response of a waveguide volume grating coupler (WVGC) is analyzed for coupling light from a slab waveguide into the superstrate. A leaky-mode approach is used in conjunction with rigorous coupled-wave analysis. A quantitative theoretical study of the effect of index modulation, waveguide index, and grating thickness on the wavelength bandpass of a WVGC is also presented. The FWHM wavelength bandpasses found for high-efficiency couplers range from 173 to 525 nm. The various Bragg conditions that can be used in designing a WVGC are also presented and compared. The use of the propagation constant of the mode being outcoupled as the incident wave vector in the Bragg condition is shown to produce the highest coupling efficiency.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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