Abstract

A recent development in ground-based remote sensing of atmospheric constituents by UV-visible absorption measurements of scattered light is the simultaneous use of several horizon viewing directions in addition to the traditional zenith-sky pointing. The different light paths through the atmosphere enable the vertical distribution of some atmospheric absorbers, such as NO2, BrO, or O3, to be retrieved. This approach has recently been implemented on an airborne platform. This novel instrument, the airborne multiaxis differential optical absorption spectrometer (AMAXDOAS), has been flown for the first time. In this study, the amount of profile information that can be retrieved from such measurements is investigated for the trace gas NO2. Sensitivity studies on synthetic data are performed for a variety of representative measurement conditions including two wavelengths, one in the UV and one in the visible, two different surface spectral reflectances, various lines of sight (LOSs), and for two different flight altitudes. The results demonstrate that the AMAXDOAS measurements contain useful profile information, mainly at flight altitude and below the aircraft. Depending on wavelength and LOS used, the vertical resolution of the retrieved profiles is as good as 2 km near flight altitude. Above 14 km the profile information content of AMAXDOAS measurements is sparse. Airborne multiaxis measurements are thus a promising tool for atmospheric studies in the troposphere and the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. L. Melamed, S. Solomon, J. S. Daniel, A. O. Langford, R. W. Portmann, T. B. Ryerson, D. K. Nicks, S. A. McKeen, “Measuring reactive nitrogen emissions from point sources using visible spectroscopy from aircraft,” J. Environ. Monit. 5, 29–34 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Ålesund,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6109–6145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “A numerical radiative transfer model for a spherical planetary atmosphere: combined differential-integral approach involving the Picard iterative approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 491–512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. C. Marquard, T. Wagner, U. Platt, “Improved air mass factor concepts for scattered radiation differential optical absorption spectroscopy of atmospheric species,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 1315–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Chipperfield, “Multiannual simulations with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1781–1805 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

F. Erle, A. Grendel, D. Perner, U. Platt, K. Pfeilsticker, “Evidence of heterogeneous bromine chemistry on cold stratospheric sulphate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4329–4332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, F. Wittrock, M. Eisinger, J. P. Burrows, “GOME observations of tropospheric BrO in northern hemispheric spring and summer 1997,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2683–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Satellite mapping of enhanced BrO concentrations in the troposphere,” Nature 395, 486–490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. E. Preston, R. L. Jones, H. K. Roscoe, “Retrieval of NO2 vertical profiles from ground-based UV-visible measurements: method and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19089–19098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. Brandtjen, T. Klüpfel, D. Perner, B. M. Knudsen, “Airborne measurements during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment: observation of OClO,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1363–1366 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Pfeilsticker, U. Platt, “Airborne measurements during the European Arctic stratospheric experiment: observation of O3 and NO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1375–1378 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. L. McKenzi, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, S. Solomon, “Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15499–15511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (4)

A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: technique and NO2 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 497–500 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: 3. BrO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 517–520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Schiller, A. Wahner, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, J. Callies, D. H. Ehhalt, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: 2. OClO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 501–504 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, D5, 5587–5595 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of nighttime OClO column during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, September 8, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11405–11411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of daytime column NO2 during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16619–16632 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

L. A. Barrie, J. W. Bottenheimer, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Crutzen, R. A. Rasmussen, “Ozone destruction and photochemical reactions at polar sunrise in the lower Arctic atmosphere,” Nature 334, 138–141 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “O3 and NO2 ground-based measurements by visible spectrometry during Arctic winter and spring 1988,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 891–894 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. L. McKenzi, P. V. Johnston, “Seasonal variations in stratospheric NO2 at 45 °S,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 1255–1258 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, R. S. Hyde, “Stratospheric NO2: 1. Observational method and behavior at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047–5065 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. F. Noxon, “Nitrogen dioxide in the stratosphere and troposphere measured by ground-based absorption spectroscopy,” Science 189, 547–549 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

A. W. Brewer, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, “Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere,” Nature 246, 129–133 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to lowtran 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (NTIS AD A206773) (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Anderson, G. P.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to lowtran 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (NTIS AD A206773) (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Barrie, L. A.

L. A. Barrie, J. W. Bottenheimer, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Crutzen, R. A. Rasmussen, “Ozone destruction and photochemical reactions at polar sunrise in the lower Arctic atmosphere,” Nature 334, 138–141 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bonaf, U.

Bortoli, D.

Bottenheimer, J. W.

L. A. Barrie, J. W. Bottenheimer, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Crutzen, R. A. Rasmussen, “Ozone destruction and photochemical reactions at polar sunrise in the lower Arctic atmosphere,” Nature 334, 138–141 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bovensmann, H.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brandtjen, R.

R. Brandtjen, T. Klüpfel, D. Perner, B. M. Knudsen, “Airborne measurements during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment: observation of OClO,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1363–1366 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, A. W.

A. W. Brewer, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, “Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere,” Nature 246, 129–133 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bruns, M.

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Hönninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. von Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” in ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-471, B. Warmbein, ed. (European Space Agency, Paris, 2001).

Buchwitz, M.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J. P.

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Ålesund,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6109–6145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “A numerical radiative transfer model for a spherical planetary atmosphere: combined differential-integral approach involving the Picard iterative approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 491–512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, F. Wittrock, M. Eisinger, J. P. Burrows, “GOME observations of tropospheric BrO in northern hemispheric spring and summer 1997,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2683–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Hönninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. von Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” in ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-471, B. Warmbein, ed. (European Space Agency, Paris, 2001).

Callies, J.

A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: 3. BrO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 517–520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Schiller, A. Wahner, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, J. Callies, D. H. Ehhalt, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: 2. OClO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 501–504 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: technique and NO2 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 497–500 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to lowtran 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (NTIS AD A206773) (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Chipperfield, M.

M. Chipperfield, “Multiannual simulations with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1781–1805 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to lowtran 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (NTIS AD A206773) (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Crutzen, P. J.

L. A. Barrie, J. W. Bottenheimer, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Crutzen, R. A. Rasmussen, “Ozone destruction and photochemical reactions at polar sunrise in the lower Arctic atmosphere,” Nature 334, 138–141 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Daniel, J. S.

M. L. Melamed, S. Solomon, J. S. Daniel, A. O. Langford, R. W. Portmann, T. B. Ryerson, D. K. Nicks, S. A. McKeen, “Measuring reactive nitrogen emissions from point sources using visible spectroscopy from aircraft,” J. Environ. Monit. 5, 29–34 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorn, H.-P.

A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: 3. BrO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 517–520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: technique and NO2 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 497–500 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Schiller, A. Wahner, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, J. Callies, D. H. Ehhalt, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: 2. OClO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 501–504 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ehhalt, D. H.

C. Schiller, A. Wahner, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, J. Callies, D. H. Ehhalt, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: 2. OClO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 501–504 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eisinger, M.

A. Richter, F. Wittrock, M. Eisinger, J. P. Burrows, “GOME observations of tropospheric BrO in northern hemispheric spring and summer 1997,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2683–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erle, F.

F. Erle, A. Grendel, D. Perner, U. Platt, K. Pfeilsticker, “Evidence of heterogeneous bromine chemistry on cold stratospheric sulphate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4329–4332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-79-0214, Project 7670 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Fietkau, S.

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Ålesund,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6109–6145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Hönninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. von Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” in ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-471, B. Warmbein, ed. (European Space Agency, Paris, 2001).

Finocchi, F.

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Hönninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. von Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” in ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-471, B. Warmbein, ed. (European Space Agency, Paris, 2001).

Frerick, J.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gallery, W. O.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to lowtran 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (NTIS AD A206773) (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Giovanelli, G.

Goede, A. H. P.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goutail, F.

J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “O3 and NO2 ground-based measurements by visible spectrometry during Arctic winter and spring 1988,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 891–894 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Grendel, A.

F. Erle, A. Grendel, D. Perner, U. Platt, K. Pfeilsticker, “Evidence of heterogeneous bromine chemistry on cold stratospheric sulphate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4329–4332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heue, K.-P.

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Hönninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. von Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” in ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-471, B. Warmbein, ed. (European Space Agency, Paris, 2001).

Hönninger, G.

G. Hönninger, U. Platt, “The role of BrO and its vertical distribution during surface ozone depletion at alert,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 2481–2489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Hönninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. von Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” in ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-471, B. Warmbein, ed. (European Space Agency, Paris, 2001).

Hyde, R. S.

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, R. S. Hyde, “Stratospheric NO2: 1. Observational method and behavior at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047–5065 (1979).
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Jakoubek, R. O.

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of nighttime OClO column during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, September 8, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11405–11411 (1989).
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A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of daytime column NO2 during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16619–16632 (1989).
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R. L. McKenzi, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, S. Solomon, “Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15499–15511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. L. McKenzi, P. V. Johnston, “Seasonal variations in stratospheric NO2 at 45 °S,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 1255–1258 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. L.

K. E. Preston, R. L. Jones, H. K. Roscoe, “Retrieval of NO2 vertical profiles from ground-based UV-visible measurements: method and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19089–19098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. B.

R. L. McKenzi, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, S. Solomon, “Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15499–15511 (1991).
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A. W. Brewer, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, “Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere,” Nature 246, 129–133 (1973).
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Klüpfel, T.

R. Brandtjen, T. Klüpfel, D. Perner, B. M. Knudsen, “Airborne measurements during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment: observation of OClO,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1363–1366 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kneizys, F. X.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to lowtran 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (NTIS AD A206773) (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Knudsen, B. M.

R. Brandtjen, T. Klüpfel, D. Perner, B. M. Knudsen, “Airborne measurements during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment: observation of OClO,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1363–1366 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kostadinov, I.

Langford, A. O.

M. L. Melamed, S. Solomon, J. S. Daniel, A. O. Langford, R. W. Portmann, T. B. Ryerson, D. K. Nicks, S. A. McKeen, “Measuring reactive nitrogen emissions from point sources using visible spectroscopy from aircraft,” J. Environ. Monit. 5, 29–34 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquard, L. C.

L. C. Marquard, T. Wagner, U. Platt, “Improved air mass factor concepts for scattered radiation differential optical absorption spectroscopy of atmospheric species,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 1315–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McElroy, C. T.

R. L. McKenzi, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, S. Solomon, “Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15499–15511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Brewer, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, “Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere,” Nature 246, 129–133 (1973).
[CrossRef]

McKeen, S. A.

M. L. Melamed, S. Solomon, J. S. Daniel, A. O. Langford, R. W. Portmann, T. B. Ryerson, D. K. Nicks, S. A. McKeen, “Measuring reactive nitrogen emissions from point sources using visible spectroscopy from aircraft,” J. Environ. Monit. 5, 29–34 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKenzi, R. L.

R. L. McKenzi, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, S. Solomon, “Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15499–15511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. L. McKenzi, P. V. Johnston, “Seasonal variations in stratospheric NO2 at 45 °S,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 1255–1258 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Medeke, T.

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Ålesund,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6109–6145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Melamed, M. L.

M. L. Melamed, S. Solomon, J. S. Daniel, A. O. Langford, R. W. Portmann, T. B. Ryerson, D. K. Nicks, S. A. McKeen, “Measuring reactive nitrogen emissions from point sources using visible spectroscopy from aircraft,” J. Environ. Monit. 5, 29–34 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mount, G. H.

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of daytime column NO2 during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16619–16632 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of nighttime OClO column during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, September 8, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11405–11411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nicks, D. K.

M. L. Melamed, S. Solomon, J. S. Daniel, A. O. Langford, R. W. Portmann, T. B. Ryerson, D. K. Nicks, S. A. McKeen, “Measuring reactive nitrogen emissions from point sources using visible spectroscopy from aircraft,” J. Environ. Monit. 5, 29–34 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noël, S.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noxon, J. F.

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, R. S. Hyde, “Stratospheric NO2: 1. Observational method and behavior at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047–5065 (1979).
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J. F. Noxon, “Nitrogen dioxide in the stratosphere and troposphere measured by ground-based absorption spectroscopy,” Science 189, 547–549 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oetjen, H.

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Ålesund,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6109–6145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oulanovsky, A.

Perner, D.

F. Erle, A. Grendel, D. Perner, U. Platt, K. Pfeilsticker, “Evidence of heterogeneous bromine chemistry on cold stratospheric sulphate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4329–4332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Brandtjen, T. Klüpfel, D. Perner, B. M. Knudsen, “Airborne measurements during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment: observation of OClO,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1363–1366 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petritoli, A.

Pfeilsticker, K.

F. Erle, A. Grendel, D. Perner, U. Platt, K. Pfeilsticker, “Evidence of heterogeneous bromine chemistry on cold stratospheric sulphate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4329–4332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Pfeilsticker, U. Platt, “Airborne measurements during the European Arctic stratospheric experiment: observation of O3 and NO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1375–1378 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Platt, U.

G. Hönninger, U. Platt, “The role of BrO and its vertical distribution during surface ozone depletion at alert,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 2481–2489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Marquard, T. Wagner, U. Platt, “Improved air mass factor concepts for scattered radiation differential optical absorption spectroscopy of atmospheric species,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 1315–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Erle, A. Grendel, D. Perner, U. Platt, K. Pfeilsticker, “Evidence of heterogeneous bromine chemistry on cold stratospheric sulphate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4329–4332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Satellite mapping of enhanced BrO concentrations in the troposphere,” Nature 395, 486–490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Pfeilsticker, U. Platt, “Airborne measurements during the European Arctic stratospheric experiment: observation of O3 and NO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1375–1378 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: technique and NO2 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 497–500 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Schiller, A. Wahner, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, J. Callies, D. H. Ehhalt, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: 2. OClO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 501–504 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: 3. BrO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 517–520 (1990).
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U. Platt, “Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS),” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed., Vol. 127 of Chemical Analysis Series (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 27–84.

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Hönninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. von Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” in ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-471, B. Warmbein, ed. (European Space Agency, Paris, 2001).

Pommereau, J. P.

J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “O3 and NO2 ground-based measurements by visible spectrometry during Arctic winter and spring 1988,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 891–894 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Portmann, R. W.

M. L. Melamed, S. Solomon, J. S. Daniel, A. O. Langford, R. W. Portmann, T. B. Ryerson, D. K. Nicks, S. A. McKeen, “Measuring reactive nitrogen emissions from point sources using visible spectroscopy from aircraft,” J. Environ. Monit. 5, 29–34 (2003).
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Preston, K. E.

K. E. Preston, R. L. Jones, H. K. Roscoe, “Retrieval of NO2 vertical profiles from ground-based UV-visible measurements: method and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19089–19098 (1997).
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K. E. Preston, “The retrieval of NO2 vertical profiles from ground-based twilight UV-visible measurements,” Ph.D. dissertation (Pembroke College, Cambridge, England, 1995).

Pundt, I.

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Hönninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. von Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” in ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-471, B. Warmbein, ed. (European Space Agency, Paris, 2001).

Rasmussen, R. A.

L. A. Barrie, J. W. Bottenheimer, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Crutzen, R. A. Rasmussen, “Ozone destruction and photochemical reactions at polar sunrise in the lower Arctic atmosphere,” Nature 334, 138–141 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ravegnani, F.

Ravishankara, A. R.

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of nighttime OClO column during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, September 8, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11405–11411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of daytime column NO2 during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16619–16632 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Richter, A.

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Ålesund,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6109–6145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, F. Wittrock, M. Eisinger, J. P. Burrows, “GOME observations of tropospheric BrO in northern hemispheric spring and summer 1997,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2683–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Hönninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. von Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” in ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-471, B. Warmbein, ed. (European Space Agency, Paris, 2001).

Rodgers, C. D.

C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, D5, 5587–5595 (1990).
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C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (World Scientific, London, 2000).

Rollenbeck, R.

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Hönninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. von Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” in ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-471, B. Warmbein, ed. (European Space Agency, Paris, 2001).

Roscoe, H. K.

K. E. Preston, R. L. Jones, H. K. Roscoe, “Retrieval of NO2 vertical profiles from ground-based UV-visible measurements: method and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19089–19098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rozanov, A.

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Ålesund,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6109–6145 (2003).
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A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “A numerical radiative transfer model for a spherical planetary atmosphere: combined differential-integral approach involving the Picard iterative approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 491–512 (2001).
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Rozanov, V.

A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “A numerical radiative transfer model for a spherical planetary atmosphere: combined differential-integral approach involving the Picard iterative approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 491–512 (2001).
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Rozanov, V. V.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ryerson, T. B.

M. L. Melamed, S. Solomon, J. S. Daniel, A. O. Langford, R. W. Portmann, T. B. Ryerson, D. K. Nicks, S. A. McKeen, “Measuring reactive nitrogen emissions from point sources using visible spectroscopy from aircraft,” J. Environ. Monit. 5, 29–34 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanders, R. W.

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, C.

C. Schiller, A. Wahner, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, J. Callies, D. H. Ehhalt, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: 2. OClO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 501–504 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: technique and NO2 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 497–500 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: 3. BrO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 517–520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schmeltekopf, A. L.

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of daytime column NO2 during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16619–16632 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of nighttime OClO column during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, September 8, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11405–11411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schnell, R. C.

L. A. Barrie, J. W. Bottenheimer, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Crutzen, R. A. Rasmussen, “Ozone destruction and photochemical reactions at polar sunrise in the lower Arctic atmosphere,” Nature 334, 138–141 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Selby, J. E. A.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to lowtran 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (NTIS AD A206773) (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Shettle, E. P.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to lowtran 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (NTIS AD A206773) (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-79-0214, Project 7670 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Solomon, S.

M. L. Melamed, S. Solomon, J. S. Daniel, A. O. Langford, R. W. Portmann, T. B. Ryerson, D. K. Nicks, S. A. McKeen, “Measuring reactive nitrogen emissions from point sources using visible spectroscopy from aircraft,” J. Environ. Monit. 5, 29–34 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. McKenzi, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, S. Solomon, “Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15499–15511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

von Friedeburg, C.

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Hönninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. von Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” in ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-471, B. Warmbein, ed. (European Space Agency, Paris, 2001).

Wagner, T.

L. C. Marquard, T. Wagner, U. Platt, “Improved air mass factor concepts for scattered radiation differential optical absorption spectroscopy of atmospheric species,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 1315–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Satellite mapping of enhanced BrO concentrations in the troposphere,” Nature 395, 486–490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Hönninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. von Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” in ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-471, B. Warmbein, ed. (European Space Agency, Paris, 2001).

Wahner, A.

A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: 3. BrO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 517–520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: technique and NO2 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 497–500 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Schiller, A. Wahner, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, J. Callies, D. H. Ehhalt, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition, January-February 1989: 2. OClO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 501–504 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of daytime column NO2 during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16619–16632 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of nighttime OClO column during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, September 8, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11405–11411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Whipple, E. C.

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, R. S. Hyde, “Stratospheric NO2: 1. Observational method and behavior at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047–5065 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wittrock, F.

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Ålesund,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6109–6145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, F. Wittrock, M. Eisinger, J. P. Burrows, “GOME observations of tropospheric BrO in northern hemispheric spring and summer 1997,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2683–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Xie, P.

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Hönninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. von Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” in ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-471, B. Warmbein, ed. (European Space Agency, Paris, 2001).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (1)

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Ålesund,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6109–6145 (2003).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of light paths observed by (a) an airborne and (b) a ground-based UV-visible skylight absorption spectrometer. The displayed light paths take into account single scattering only. In reality the light observed at a specific LOS originates from a variety of different light paths as a result of multiple scattering. The light gray layer represents a stratospheric trace gas layer, and the dark gray layer represents a tropospheric trace gas layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Averaging kernels for models 1 through 6.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Weighting functions for models 1, 2, 5, and 6. The NO2 profile is anticipated for mid-latitudes on the northern hemisphere in March at 51.6° SZA. Each weighting function corresponds to a different LOS. The magnitude of the weighting functions is small at the surface and above 15 km, revealing that the SCs are not sensitive to NO2 in these regions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retrieval errors for models 1, 2, 6, and 10.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Averaging kernels for models 7 and 8.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Averaging kernels for models 9 and 10.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Pointing accuracy: a, pointing error of -1° for model 9; b, pointing error of -0.5° for model 10; c, pointing error of -0.25° for model 10; d, pointing error of -0.1° for model 10. To characterize the decrease in quality of the retrieval we plotted the ratio of the retrieval error with and without pointing errors.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Models for the Sensitivity Studies

Tables Icon

Table 2 VR of the Considered Sensitivity Studies at 10-km Flight Altitude

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

AMFλ, j=1VODλ, jlnIλ, gas j=OFFIλ, gas j=ON,
SC=AMF×VC.
y=Fx, b+,
Δy=KΔx,
K=dy/dx.
xˆ=KTS-1K+Sa-1-1KTS-1y+Sa-1xa,
D=xˆy=SaKTKSaKT+S-1,
A=DK.
Stot=Sn+Sm+Sf,
Sn=A-ISaA-IT,
Sm=DSDT,

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