Abstract

We describe a soft-x-ray laser interferometry technique that allows two-dimensional diagnosis of plasma electron density with picosecond time resolution. It consists of the combination of a robust high-throughput amplitude-division interferometer and a 14.7-nm transient-inversion soft-x-ray laser that produces ∼5-ps pulses. Because of its picosecond resolution and short-wavelength scalability, this technique has the potential for extending the high inherent precision of soft-x-ray laser interferometry to the study of very dense plasmas of significant fundamental and practical interest, such as those investigated for inertial confinement fusion. Results of its use in the diagnostics of dense large-scale laser-created plasmas are presented.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  26. R. S. Craxton, F. S. Turner, R. Hoefen, C. Darrow, E. F. Gabl, G. E. Busch, “Characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419–4431 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, “Refraction effects on x-ray and ultraviolet interferometric probing of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 254–259 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (4)

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. R. Hunter, J. Nilsen, S. Hubert, S. Jacquemot, C. Remond, R. Marmoret, M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, L. Vanbostal, “Longitudinal coherence measurement of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2261–2263 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, E. Jankowska, E. C. Hammarsten, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Two-dimensional effects in laser-created plasmas measured with soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, S. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, “Refraction effects on x-ray and ultraviolet interferometric probing of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 254–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft-x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

J. J. Rocca, C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 24, 420–422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Y. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Pershin, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804–5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, R. M. N. Pert, G. J. O’Rourke, R. Smith, E. Wolfrum, “Gain saturation of Ni-like x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 158, 55–60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Zeitoun, F. Albert, P. Jaegle, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, J. C. Lagron, D. Ros, S. Sebban, A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Investigation of strong electric-field induced surface phenomena by xuv laser interferometry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 416, 189–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. P. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, “Interferograms obtained with an x-ray laser by means of a wavefront division interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 142, 184–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (3)

1993 (1)

R. S. Craxton, F. S. Turner, R. Hoefen, C. Darrow, E. F. Gabl, G. E. Busch, “Characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419–4431 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Albert, F.

Ph. Zeitoun, F. Albert, P. Jaegle, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, J. C. Lagron, D. Ros, S. Sebban, A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Investigation of strong electric-field induced surface phenomena by xuv laser interferometry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 416, 189–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. P. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, “Interferograms obtained with an x-ray laser by means of a wavefront division interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 142, 184–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alpher, R. A.

R. A. Alpher, D. R. White, “Optical Interferometry,” in Plasma Diagnostic Techniques, R. H. Huddlestone, S. L. Leonard, eds. (Academic, New York, 1965), pp. 431–476.

Attwood, D.

D. Attwood, “Soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation,” in Physics of Hot Dense Plasmas (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England, 2000), p. 239.

Bach, B.

Barbee, T. W.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft-x-ray laser beam illuminating a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, J. C. Moreno, S. Mrowka, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Extreme-ultraviolet interferometry at 15.5 nm using multilayer optics,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6389–6392 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benware, B. R.

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804–5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Booth, R.

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Shepherd, R. Booth, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Temporal characterization of a picosecond laser-pumped x-ray laser for applications,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill, S. Suckewar, eds., Proc. SPIE5197, 51–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, “Elements of the theory of interference and interferometers,” in Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999), pp. 286–411.

M. Born, E. Wolf, “Elements of the theory of diffraction,” in Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999), pp. 412–516.

Boussoukaya, M.

Ph. Zeitoun, F. Albert, P. Jaegle, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, J. C. Lagron, D. Ros, S. Sebban, A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Investigation of strong electric-field induced surface phenomena by xuv laser interferometry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 416, 189–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Busch, G. E.

R. S. Craxton, F. S. Turner, R. Hoefen, C. Darrow, E. F. Gabl, G. E. Busch, “Characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419–4431 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carillon, A.

Ph. Zeitoun, F. Albert, P. Jaegle, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, J. C. Lagron, D. Ros, S. Sebban, A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Investigation of strong electric-field induced surface phenomena by xuv laser interferometry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 416, 189–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. P. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, “Interferograms obtained with an x-ray laser by means of a wavefront division interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 142, 184–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cauble, R.

Celliers, P.

Chauvineau, J. P.

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. P. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, “Interferograms obtained with an x-ray laser by means of a wavefront division interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 142, 184–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chilla, J. L. A.

Ciarlo, D.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, J. C. Moreno, S. Mrowka, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Extreme-ultraviolet interferometry at 15.5 nm using multilayer optics,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6389–6392 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craxton, R. S.

R. S. Craxton, F. S. Turner, R. Hoefen, C. Darrow, E. F. Gabl, G. E. Busch, “Characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419–4431 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, L. B.

Darrow, C.

R. S. Craxton, F. S. Turner, R. Hoefen, C. Darrow, E. F. Gabl, G. E. Busch, “Characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419–4431 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Depine, R. A.

Dunn, J.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, “Refraction effects on x-ray and ultraviolet interferometric probing of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 254–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. R. Hunter, J. Nilsen, S. Hubert, S. Jacquemot, C. Remond, R. Marmoret, M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, L. Vanbostal, “Longitudinal coherence measurement of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2261–2263 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Shepherd, R. Booth, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Temporal characterization of a picosecond laser-pumped x-ray laser for applications,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill, S. Suckewar, eds., Proc. SPIE5197, 51–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fajardo, M.

Filevich, J.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, “Refraction effects on x-ray and ultraviolet interferometric probing of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 254–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, E. Jankowska, E. C. Hammarsten, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Two-dimensional effects in laser-created plasmas measured with soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, S. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft-x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gabl, E. F.

R. S. Craxton, F. S. Turner, R. Hoefen, C. Darrow, E. F. Gabl, G. E. Busch, “Characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419–4431 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hammarsten, E. C.

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, S. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, E. Jankowska, E. C. Hammarsten, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Two-dimensional effects in laser-created plasmas measured with soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoefen, R.

R. S. Craxton, F. S. Turner, R. Hoefen, C. Darrow, E. F. Gabl, G. E. Busch, “Characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419–4431 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hubert, S.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. R. Hunter, J. Nilsen, S. Hubert, S. Jacquemot, C. Remond, R. Marmoret, M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, L. Vanbostal, “Longitudinal coherence measurement of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2261–2263 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ph. Zeitoun, F. Albert, P. Jaegle, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, J. C. Lagron, D. Ros, S. Sebban, A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Investigation of strong electric-field induced surface phenomena by xuv laser interferometry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 416, 189–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, T. P.

T. P. Hughes, Plasma and Laser Light (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Hunter, J. R.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. R. Hunter, J. Nilsen, S. Hubert, S. Jacquemot, C. Remond, R. Marmoret, M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, L. Vanbostal, “Longitudinal coherence measurement of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2261–2263 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, “Refraction effects on x-ray and ultraviolet interferometric probing of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 254–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Shepherd, R. Booth, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Temporal characterization of a picosecond laser-pumped x-ray laser for applications,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill, S. Suckewar, eds., Proc. SPIE5197, 51–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemot, S.

Jaegle, P.

Ph. Zeitoun, F. Albert, P. Jaegle, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, J. C. Lagron, D. Ros, S. Sebban, A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Investigation of strong electric-field induced surface phenomena by xuv laser interferometry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 416, 189–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. P. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, “Interferograms obtained with an x-ray laser by means of a wavefront division interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 142, 184–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jamelot, G.

Ph. Zeitoun, F. Albert, P. Jaegle, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, J. C. Lagron, D. Ros, S. Sebban, A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Investigation of strong electric-field induced surface phenomena by xuv laser interferometry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 416, 189–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. P. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, “Interferograms obtained with an x-ray laser by means of a wavefront division interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 142, 184–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jankowska, E.

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, S. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, E. Jankowska, E. C. Hammarsten, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Two-dimensional effects in laser-created plasmas measured with soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joyeux, D.

Ph. Zeitoun, F. Albert, P. Jaegle, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, J. C. Lagron, D. Ros, S. Sebban, A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Investigation of strong electric-field induced surface phenomena by xuv laser interferometry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 416, 189–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. P. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, “Interferograms obtained with an x-ray laser by means of a wavefront division interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 142, 184–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kanizay, K.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, E. Jankowska, E. C. Hammarsten, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Two-dimensional effects in laser-created plasmas measured with soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft-x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 24, 420–422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Y. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Pershin, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klisnick, A.

Ph. Zeitoun, F. Albert, P. Jaegle, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, J. C. Lagron, D. Ros, S. Sebban, A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Investigation of strong electric-field induced surface phenomena by xuv laser interferometry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 416, 189–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. P. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, “Interferograms obtained with an x-ray laser by means of a wavefront division interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 142, 184–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lagron, J. C.

Ph. Zeitoun, F. Albert, P. Jaegle, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, J. C. Lagron, D. Ros, S. Sebban, A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Investigation of strong electric-field induced surface phenomena by xuv laser interferometry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 416, 189–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. P. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, “Interferograms obtained with an x-ray laser by means of a wavefront division interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 142, 184–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C. L. S.

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, R. M. N. Pert, G. J. O’Rourke, R. Smith, E. Wolfrum, “Gain saturation of Ni-like x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 158, 55–60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Libby, S.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, R. M. N. Pert, G. J. O’Rourke, R. Smith, E. Wolfrum, “Gain saturation of Ni-like x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 158, 55–60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

London, R. A.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macchietto, C. D.

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804–5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

MacPhee, A. G.

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, R. M. N. Pert, G. J. O’Rourke, R. Smith, E. Wolfrum, “Gain saturation of Ni-like x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 158, 55–60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marconi, M. C.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, E. Jankowska, E. C. Hammarsten, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Two-dimensional effects in laser-created plasmas measured with soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, S. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, “Refraction effects on x-ray and ultraviolet interferometric probing of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 254–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft-x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 24, 420–422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Y. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Pershin, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, O. E. Martinez, M. C. Marconi, “Soft x-ray interferometer for single-shot laser linewidth measurements,” Opt. Lett. 21, 955–957 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marmoret, R.

Martinez, O. E.

Matthews, D.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, S.

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, S. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, S. J.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, E. Jankowska, E. C. Hammarsten, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Two-dimensional effects in laser-created plasmas measured with soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, C. H.

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Y. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Pershin, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 24, 420–422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804–5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, J. C.

Mrowka, S.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, J. C. Moreno, S. Mrowka, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Extreme-ultraviolet interferometry at 15.5 nm using multilayer optics,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6389–6392 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neely, D.

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, R. M. N. Pert, G. J. O’Rourke, R. Smith, E. Wolfrum, “Gain saturation of Ni-like x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 158, 55–60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, J.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. R. Hunter, J. Nilsen, S. Hubert, S. Jacquemot, C. Remond, R. Marmoret, M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, L. Vanbostal, “Longitudinal coherence measurement of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2261–2263 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, “Refraction effects on x-ray and ultraviolet interferometric probing of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 254–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, R. M. N. Pert, G. J. O’Rourke, R. Smith, E. Wolfrum, “Gain saturation of Ni-like x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 158, 55–60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Shepherd, R. Booth, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Temporal characterization of a picosecond laser-pumped x-ray laser for applications,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill, S. Suckewar, eds., Proc. SPIE5197, 51–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O’Rourke, G. J.

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, R. M. N. Pert, G. J. O’Rourke, R. Smith, E. Wolfrum, “Gain saturation of Ni-like x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 158, 55–60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Osterheld, A. L.

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pershin, Y. A.

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Y. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Pershin, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pert, R. M. N.

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, R. M. N. Pert, G. J. O’Rourke, R. Smith, E. Wolfrum, “Gain saturation of Ni-like x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 158, 55–60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phalippou, D.

Ph. Zeitoun, F. Albert, P. Jaegle, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, J. C. Lagron, D. Ros, S. Sebban, A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Investigation of strong electric-field induced surface phenomena by xuv laser interferometry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 416, 189–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. P. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, “Interferograms obtained with an x-ray laser by means of a wavefront division interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 142, 184–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Remond, C.

Ress, D.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rocca, J. J.

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, S. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, E. Jankowska, E. C. Hammarsten, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Two-dimensional effects in laser-created plasmas measured with soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, “Refraction effects on x-ray and ultraviolet interferometric probing of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 254–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Seminario, J. J. Rocca, R. A. Depine, B. Bach, B. Bach, “Characterization of diffraction gratings by use of a tabletop soft-x-ray laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5539–5544 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft-x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 24, 420–422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Y. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Pershin, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804–5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, O. E. Martinez, M. C. Marconi, “Soft x-ray interferometer for single-shot laser linewidth measurements,” Opt. Lett. 21, 955–957 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ros, D.

Ph. Zeitoun, F. Albert, P. Jaegle, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, J. C. Lagron, D. Ros, S. Sebban, A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Investigation of strong electric-field induced surface phenomena by xuv laser interferometry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 416, 189–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. P. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, “Interferograms obtained with an x-ray laser by means of a wavefront division interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 142, 184–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sebban, S.

Ph. Zeitoun, F. Albert, P. Jaegle, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, J. C. Lagron, D. Ros, S. Sebban, A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Investigation of strong electric-field induced surface phenomena by xuv laser interferometry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 416, 189–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. P. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, “Interferograms obtained with an x-ray laser by means of a wavefront division interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 142, 184–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seminario, M.

Shepherd, R.

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Shepherd, R. Booth, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Temporal characterization of a picosecond laser-pumped x-ray laser for applications,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill, S. Suckewar, eds., Proc. SPIE5197, 51–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, E. Jankowska, E. C. Hammarsten, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Two-dimensional effects in laser-created plasmas measured with soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, S. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, “Refraction effects on x-ray and ultraviolet interferometric probing of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 254–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Shepherd, R. Booth, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Temporal characterization of a picosecond laser-pumped x-ray laser for applications,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill, S. Suckewar, eds., Proc. SPIE5197, 51–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, R. M. N. Pert, G. J. O’Rourke, R. Smith, E. Wolfrum, “Gain saturation of Ni-like x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 158, 55–60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. F.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. R. Hunter, J. Nilsen, S. Hubert, S. Jacquemot, C. Remond, R. Marmoret, M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, L. Vanbostal, “Longitudinal coherence measurement of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2261–2263 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, “Refraction effects on x-ray and ultraviolet interferometric probing of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 254–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Shepherd, R. Booth, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Temporal characterization of a picosecond laser-pumped x-ray laser for applications,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill, S. Suckewar, eds., Proc. SPIE5197, 51–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tallents, G. J.

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, R. M. N. Pert, G. J. O’Rourke, R. Smith, E. Wolfrum, “Gain saturation of Ni-like x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 158, 55–60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trebes, J. E.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, J. C. Moreno, S. Mrowka, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Extreme-ultraviolet interferometry at 15.5 nm using multilayer optics,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6389–6392 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, F. S.

R. S. Craxton, F. S. Turner, R. Hoefen, C. Darrow, E. F. Gabl, G. E. Busch, “Characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419–4431 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Uspenskii, Y. A.

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Y. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Pershin, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vanbostal, L.

Vinogradov, A. V.

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Y. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Pershin, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wan, A. S.

Weber, F.

White, D. R.

R. A. Alpher, D. R. White, “Optical Interferometry,” in Plasma Diagnostic Techniques, R. H. Huddlestone, S. L. Leonard, eds. (Academic, New York, 1965), pp. 431–476.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, “Elements of the theory of diffraction,” in Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999), pp. 412–516.

M. Born, E. Wolf, “Elements of the theory of interference and interferometers,” in Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999), pp. 286–411.

Wolfrum, E.

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, R. M. N. Pert, G. J. O’Rourke, R. Smith, E. Wolfrum, “Gain saturation of Ni-like x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 158, 55–60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zeitoun, P.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. R. Hunter, J. Nilsen, S. Hubert, S. Jacquemot, C. Remond, R. Marmoret, M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, L. Vanbostal, “Longitudinal coherence measurement of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2261–2263 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. P. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, “Interferograms obtained with an x-ray laser by means of a wavefront division interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 142, 184–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zeitoun, Ph.

Ph. Zeitoun, F. Albert, P. Jaegle, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, J. C. Lagron, D. Ros, S. Sebban, A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Investigation of strong electric-field induced surface phenomena by xuv laser interferometry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 416, 189–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zeitoun-Fakiris, A.

Ph. Zeitoun, F. Albert, P. Jaegle, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, J. C. Lagron, D. Ros, S. Sebban, A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Investigation of strong electric-field induced surface phenomena by xuv laser interferometry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 416, 189–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, R. M. N. Pert, G. J. O’Rourke, R. Smith, E. Wolfrum, “Gain saturation of Ni-like x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 158, 55–60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

Ph. Zeitoun, F. Albert, P. Jaegle, D. Joyeux, M. Boussoukaya, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, D. Phalippou, J. C. Lagron, D. Ros, S. Sebban, A. Zeitoun-Fakiris, “Investigation of strong electric-field induced surface phenomena by xuv laser interferometry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 416, 189–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Y. Lin, G. J. Tallents, J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, R. M. N. Pert, G. J. O’Rourke, R. Smith, E. Wolfrum, “Gain saturation of Ni-like x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 158, 55–60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. P. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, “Interferograms obtained with an x-ray laser by means of a wavefront division interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 142, 184–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Fluids B (1)

R. S. Craxton, F. S. Turner, R. Hoefen, C. Darrow, E. F. Gabl, G. E. Busch, “Characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419–4431 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas (1)

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, S. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Y. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Pershin, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, E. Jankowska, E. C. Hammarsten, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Two-dimensional effects in laser-created plasmas measured with soft-x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of dense plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804–5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

T. P. Hughes, Plasma and Laser Light (Wiley, New York, 1975).

R. A. Alpher, D. R. White, “Optical Interferometry,” in Plasma Diagnostic Techniques, R. H. Huddlestone, S. L. Leonard, eds. (Academic, New York, 1965), pp. 431–476.

M. Born, E. Wolf, “Elements of the theory of diffraction,” in Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999), pp. 412–516.

M. Born, E. Wolf, “Elements of the theory of interference and interferometers,” in Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999), pp. 286–411.

Laser diode SDL-5401-GL by SDL (JDS Uniphase http://www.jdsu.com ).

Princeton Instruments PI-SX:1k. Roper Scientific, Inc., 3660 Quakerbridge Road, Trenton, N.J. 08619.

J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Shepherd, R. Booth, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Temporal characterization of a picosecond laser-pumped x-ray laser for applications,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill, S. Suckewar, eds., Proc. SPIE5197, 51–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, “Soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation,” in Physics of Hot Dense Plasmas (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England, 2000), p. 239.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup showing the DGI. The soft-x-ray laser enters and exits the interferometer through the lower right-hand side. For definitions of notation used, please see text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal profile of the Ni-like Pd 14.7-nm x-ray laser probe emitted from a 1-cm target and pumped by a 6.7-ps short pulse. Pulse shape is approximately Gaussian with 4.7 ps (FWHM).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Interferogram obtained without the plasma present, (b) intensity and fringe visibility plots versus the distance away from the target surface between points A and A′.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interferograms showing the evolution of a Ti plasma heated with a 600-ps, 1.1-J, 20-μm-wide × 3.1-mm-long line focus. The times shown are measured from the peak of the heating pulse. The targets are 1 mm long.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electron-density maps obtained from the interferograms shown in Fig. 4. The contour density lines represent a one-digit step.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Reference interferogram showing a 100 μm × 200 μm Al groove target; (b) interferogram taken at 1.25 ns from the peak of the 600-ps, 3-J, line-focus plasma heating beam into the groove target; (c) electron-density map obtained from the interferogram in part (b) showing a maximum density of ∼9 × 1020 cm-3 measured near the walls.

Equations (1)

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Nfringe=δϕ2π=1λ0L1-nrefdlne2ncritLλ,

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