Abstract

We demonstrate high-performance unidirectional and single-frequency ring-laser operation based on a diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 bounce amplifier, obtained in a ring system both with and without a Faraday rotating element. Ring-laser operation with intracavity Faraday unidirectional element produces 15-W cw output in a TEM00 and single-longitudinal mode with beam propagation parameter M 2 < 1.1 with 35-W diode pumping. A novel non-Faraday-based ring laser uses a polarization-dependent output coupler and asymmetric polarization state in the birefringent Nd:YVO4 gain medium and is demonstrated to produce highly unidirectional (1200:1) single-frequency output of 14 W in a TEM00 mode with beam propagation factor M 2 < 1.2 at 30 W of diode pumping.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. A. de Mars, “Spectral output and spiking behaviour of solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. 34, 2289–2295 (1963).
  2. M. Tröbs, T. Graf, “Compact, dual-configuration, single-frequency, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 187, 385–388 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. J. Kane, R. L. Byer, “Monolithic, unidirectional single-mode Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 10, 65–67 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. R. Trutna, D. K. Donald, M. Nazarathy, “Unidirectional diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser with a small magnetic-field,” Opt. Lett. 12, 248–250 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Acoustooptically induced unidirectional single-mode operation of a Q-switched miniature Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 375–378 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. A. Clarkson, A. B. Neilson, D. C. Hanna, “Unidirectional operation of ring lasers via the acoustooptic effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 311–325 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Roy, P. A. Schulz, A. Walther, “Acoustooptic modulator as an electronically selectable unidirectional device in a ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 12, 672–674 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Neev, F. V. Kowalski, “Unidirectional device for a ring laser using an acoustooptic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 13, 375–377 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Slavov, M. Deneva, E. Stoykova, M. Nenchev, R. Barbe, J. C. Keller, “Output control of a ring laser using bi-directional injection: a new approach for unidirectional pulse generation at a reference atomic absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 157, 343–351 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Deneva, M. N. Nenchev, R. Barbe, J. C. Keller, “Unidirectional ring Ti3+:Al2O3 laser generation at the wavelength of an atomic absorption line by bidirectional passive self-injection locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 131–133 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Shi, M. Sejka, O. Poulsen, “A unidirectional Er3+-doped fiber ring laser without isolator,” IEEE Photonic Tech. Lett. 7, 290–292 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Stoykova, M. Nenchev, “Strong optical asymmetry of an interference wedge with unequal-reflectivity mirrors and its use in unidirectional ring laser designs,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1925–1927 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. A. Betin, K. V. Ergakov, O. V. Mitropolsky, “The possibility of unidirectional generation in a ring laser without nonreciprocal elements,” Opt. Commun. 86, 491–496 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. E. Bernard, E. Mccullough, A. J. Alcock, “High-gain, diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 slab amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 109, 109–114 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. J. Damzen, M. Trew, E. Rosas, G. J. Crofts, “Continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 grazing-incidence laser with 22.5 W output power and 64% conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 196, 237–241 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Minassian, B. Thompson, M. J. Damzen, “Ultrahigh-efficiency TEM00 diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 341–343 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr5(PO4)3F and Sr5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 41–52.

2003 (1)

A. Minassian, B. Thompson, M. J. Damzen, “Ultrahigh-efficiency TEM00 diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 341–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. J. Damzen, M. Trew, E. Rosas, G. J. Crofts, “Continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 grazing-incidence laser with 22.5 W output power and 64% conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 196, 237–241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Tröbs, T. Graf, “Compact, dual-configuration, single-frequency, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 187, 385–388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. A. Deneva, M. N. Nenchev, R. Barbe, J. C. Keller, “Unidirectional ring Ti3+:Al2O3 laser generation at the wavelength of an atomic absorption line by bidirectional passive self-injection locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 131–133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Slavov, M. Deneva, E. Stoykova, M. Nenchev, R. Barbe, J. C. Keller, “Output control of a ring laser using bi-directional injection: a new approach for unidirectional pulse generation at a reference atomic absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 157, 343–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

W. A. Clarkson, A. B. Neilson, D. C. Hanna, “Unidirectional operation of ring lasers via the acoustooptic effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 311–325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Shi, M. Sejka, O. Poulsen, “A unidirectional Er3+-doped fiber ring laser without isolator,” IEEE Photonic Tech. Lett. 7, 290–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1991 (2)

A. A. Betin, K. V. Ergakov, O. V. Mitropolsky, “The possibility of unidirectional generation in a ring laser without nonreciprocal elements,” Opt. Commun. 86, 491–496 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Acoustooptically induced unidirectional single-mode operation of a Q-switched miniature Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 375–378 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

1985 (1)

1963 (1)

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. A. de Mars, “Spectral output and spiking behaviour of solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. 34, 2289–2295 (1963).

Alcock, A. J.

J. E. Bernard, E. Mccullough, A. J. Alcock, “High-gain, diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 slab amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 109, 109–114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, R.

M. A. Deneva, M. N. Nenchev, R. Barbe, J. C. Keller, “Unidirectional ring Ti3+:Al2O3 laser generation at the wavelength of an atomic absorption line by bidirectional passive self-injection locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 131–133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Slavov, M. Deneva, E. Stoykova, M. Nenchev, R. Barbe, J. C. Keller, “Output control of a ring laser using bi-directional injection: a new approach for unidirectional pulse generation at a reference atomic absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 157, 343–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, J. E.

J. E. Bernard, E. Mccullough, A. J. Alcock, “High-gain, diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 slab amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 109, 109–114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Betin, A. A.

A. A. Betin, K. V. Ergakov, O. V. Mitropolsky, “The possibility of unidirectional generation in a ring laser without nonreciprocal elements,” Opt. Commun. 86, 491–496 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Chai, B. H. T.

B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr5(PO4)3F and Sr5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 41–52.

Clarkson, W. A.

W. A. Clarkson, A. B. Neilson, D. C. Hanna, “Unidirectional operation of ring lasers via the acoustooptic effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 311–325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Acoustooptically induced unidirectional single-mode operation of a Q-switched miniature Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 375–378 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Crofts, G. J.

M. J. Damzen, M. Trew, E. Rosas, G. J. Crofts, “Continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 grazing-incidence laser with 22.5 W output power and 64% conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 196, 237–241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Damzen, M. J.

A. Minassian, B. Thompson, M. J. Damzen, “Ultrahigh-efficiency TEM00 diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 341–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Damzen, M. Trew, E. Rosas, G. J. Crofts, “Continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 grazing-incidence laser with 22.5 W output power and 64% conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 196, 237–241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Mars, G. A.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. A. de Mars, “Spectral output and spiking behaviour of solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. 34, 2289–2295 (1963).

Deneva, M.

D. Slavov, M. Deneva, E. Stoykova, M. Nenchev, R. Barbe, J. C. Keller, “Output control of a ring laser using bi-directional injection: a new approach for unidirectional pulse generation at a reference atomic absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 157, 343–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deneva, M. A.

M. A. Deneva, M. N. Nenchev, R. Barbe, J. C. Keller, “Unidirectional ring Ti3+:Al2O3 laser generation at the wavelength of an atomic absorption line by bidirectional passive self-injection locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 131–133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Donald, D. K.

Ergakov, K. V.

A. A. Betin, K. V. Ergakov, O. V. Mitropolsky, “The possibility of unidirectional generation in a ring laser without nonreciprocal elements,” Opt. Commun. 86, 491–496 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Graf, T.

M. Tröbs, T. Graf, “Compact, dual-configuration, single-frequency, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 187, 385–388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

W. A. Clarkson, A. B. Neilson, D. C. Hanna, “Unidirectional operation of ring lasers via the acoustooptic effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 311–325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Acoustooptically induced unidirectional single-mode operation of a Q-switched miniature Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 375–378 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kane, T. J.

Keller, J. C.

M. A. Deneva, M. N. Nenchev, R. Barbe, J. C. Keller, “Unidirectional ring Ti3+:Al2O3 laser generation at the wavelength of an atomic absorption line by bidirectional passive self-injection locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 131–133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Slavov, M. Deneva, E. Stoykova, M. Nenchev, R. Barbe, J. C. Keller, “Output control of a ring laser using bi-directional injection: a new approach for unidirectional pulse generation at a reference atomic absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 157, 343–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

Lefaucheur, J.

B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr5(PO4)3F and Sr5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 41–52.

Loutts, G.

B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr5(PO4)3F and Sr5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 41–52.

Mccullough, E.

J. E. Bernard, E. Mccullough, A. J. Alcock, “High-gain, diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 slab amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 109, 109–114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Minassian, A.

A. Minassian, B. Thompson, M. J. Damzen, “Ultrahigh-efficiency TEM00 diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 341–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mitropolsky, O. V.

A. A. Betin, K. V. Ergakov, O. V. Mitropolsky, “The possibility of unidirectional generation in a ring laser without nonreciprocal elements,” Opt. Commun. 86, 491–496 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nazarathy, M.

Neev, J.

Neilson, A. B.

W. A. Clarkson, A. B. Neilson, D. C. Hanna, “Unidirectional operation of ring lasers via the acoustooptic effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 311–325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nenchev, M.

D. Slavov, M. Deneva, E. Stoykova, M. Nenchev, R. Barbe, J. C. Keller, “Output control of a ring laser using bi-directional injection: a new approach for unidirectional pulse generation at a reference atomic absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 157, 343–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Stoykova, M. Nenchev, “Strong optical asymmetry of an interference wedge with unequal-reflectivity mirrors and its use in unidirectional ring laser designs,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1925–1927 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nenchev, M. N.

M. A. Deneva, M. N. Nenchev, R. Barbe, J. C. Keller, “Unidirectional ring Ti3+:Al2O3 laser generation at the wavelength of an atomic absorption line by bidirectional passive self-injection locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 131–133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, O.

Y. Shi, M. Sejka, O. Poulsen, “A unidirectional Er3+-doped fiber ring laser without isolator,” IEEE Photonic Tech. Lett. 7, 290–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rosas, E.

M. J. Damzen, M. Trew, E. Rosas, G. J. Crofts, “Continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 grazing-incidence laser with 22.5 W output power and 64% conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 196, 237–241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

Schulz, P. A.

Sejka, M.

Y. Shi, M. Sejka, O. Poulsen, “A unidirectional Er3+-doped fiber ring laser without isolator,” IEEE Photonic Tech. Lett. 7, 290–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, M. Sejka, O. Poulsen, “A unidirectional Er3+-doped fiber ring laser without isolator,” IEEE Photonic Tech. Lett. 7, 290–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Slavov, D.

D. Slavov, M. Deneva, E. Stoykova, M. Nenchev, R. Barbe, J. C. Keller, “Output control of a ring laser using bi-directional injection: a new approach for unidirectional pulse generation at a reference atomic absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 157, 343–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Statz, H.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. A. de Mars, “Spectral output and spiking behaviour of solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. 34, 2289–2295 (1963).

Stoykova, E.

D. Slavov, M. Deneva, E. Stoykova, M. Nenchev, R. Barbe, J. C. Keller, “Output control of a ring laser using bi-directional injection: a new approach for unidirectional pulse generation at a reference atomic absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 157, 343–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Stoykova, M. Nenchev, “Strong optical asymmetry of an interference wedge with unequal-reflectivity mirrors and its use in unidirectional ring laser designs,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1925–1927 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, C. L.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. A. de Mars, “Spectral output and spiking behaviour of solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. 34, 2289–2295 (1963).

Thompson, B.

A. Minassian, B. Thompson, M. J. Damzen, “Ultrahigh-efficiency TEM00 diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 341–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trew, M.

M. J. Damzen, M. Trew, E. Rosas, G. J. Crofts, “Continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 grazing-incidence laser with 22.5 W output power and 64% conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 196, 237–241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tröbs, M.

M. Tröbs, T. Graf, “Compact, dual-configuration, single-frequency, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 187, 385–388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trutna, W. R.

Walther, A.

Zhang, X. X.

B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr5(PO4)3F and Sr5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 41–52.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Minassian, B. Thompson, M. J. Damzen, “Ultrahigh-efficiency TEM00 diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 341–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. A. Deneva, M. N. Nenchev, R. Barbe, J. C. Keller, “Unidirectional ring Ti3+:Al2O3 laser generation at the wavelength of an atomic absorption line by bidirectional passive self-injection locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 131–133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. A. Clarkson, A. B. Neilson, D. C. Hanna, “Unidirectional operation of ring lasers via the acoustooptic effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 311–325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonic Tech. Lett. (1)

Y. Shi, M. Sejka, O. Poulsen, “A unidirectional Er3+-doped fiber ring laser without isolator,” IEEE Photonic Tech. Lett. 7, 290–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (6)

A. A. Betin, K. V. Ergakov, O. V. Mitropolsky, “The possibility of unidirectional generation in a ring laser without nonreciprocal elements,” Opt. Commun. 86, 491–496 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bernard, E. Mccullough, A. J. Alcock, “High-gain, diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 slab amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 109, 109–114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Damzen, M. Trew, E. Rosas, G. J. Crofts, “Continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 grazing-incidence laser with 22.5 W output power and 64% conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 196, 237–241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Slavov, M. Deneva, E. Stoykova, M. Nenchev, R. Barbe, J. C. Keller, “Output control of a ring laser using bi-directional injection: a new approach for unidirectional pulse generation at a reference atomic absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 157, 343–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Tröbs, T. Graf, “Compact, dual-configuration, single-frequency, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 187, 385–388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Acoustooptically induced unidirectional single-mode operation of a Q-switched miniature Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 375–378 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. (1)

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. A. de Mars, “Spectral output and spiking behaviour of solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. 34, 2289–2295 (1963).

Other (1)

B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr5(PO4)3F and Sr5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 41–52.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Faraday-based unidirectional ring oscillator. A, amplifying medium; OC, output coupler; λ/2, half-wave retardation plate; FR, Faraday rotator; VCL1 and VCL2, vertical cylindrical lenses; HCL, horizontal cylindrical lens; PCW and PACW, output power in the clockwise and anticlockwise directions, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Non-Faraday-based unidirectional ring oscillator. A, Nd:YVO4 amplifying medium; λ/2, half-wave retardation plate; P, thin-film polarizing mirror; VCL1 and VCL2, vertical cylindrical lenses; HCL, horizontal cylindrical lens; PCW and PACW, output power in the clockwise and anticlockwise directions, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental graph of output power P as a function of waveplate angle θλ/2 for the clockwise (square points) and anticlockwise (circular points) directions with a diode-pump power of 30 W.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral ring pattern from a Fabry-Perot etalon showing single longitudinal mode operation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental graph of output power P as a function of waveplate angle θλ/2 for the clockwise (square points) and anticlockwise (circular points) directions with a diode-pump power of 10 W.

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