Abstract

We introduce a new six-degrees-of-freedom alignment technique that enables the precise alignment of two optical device planes. The method combines linear diffraction gratings and cylindrical Fresnel lenses that allow the diagnosis of misalignment in each degree of freedom independently. The technique was used to align two 20 mm × 20 mm fused-silica substrates separated by 17 mm. The worst-case alignment precision was found to be better than ±5 μm laterally, ±20 μm longitudinally, ±0.036° rotationally, and ±0.007° in tilt.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, M. H. Ayliffe, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect for photonic backplane applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1541–1555 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. T. Neilson, “Tolerance of optical interconnections to misalignment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2282–2290 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, P. Khurana, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal and optomechanical packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. Yamamoto, J. D. Ahearn, “512-channel vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based free-space optical link,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5552–5561 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. T. Neilson, E. Schenfeld, “Plastic modules for free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2944–2952 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Tuteleers, A. Kirk, M. Châteauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, H. Thienpont, “Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Brussels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 73–77.
  8. M. H. Ayliffe, M. Châteauneuf, D. R. Rolston, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Six-degrees-of-freedom alignment of two-dimensional array components by use of off-axis linear Fresnel zone plates,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6515–6526 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. C. Craft, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnects based on arrays of surface-emitting lasers and lenslets,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1735–1739 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Boudreau, “Passive optical alignment methods,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Advanced Packaging Materials Processes, Properties, and Interfaces (Catalog No. 97TH8263 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 180–181.
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5170 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. T. Neilson, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, F. A. P. Tooley, “Optical design of a 1024-channel free-space sorting demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9243–9252 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Mizukami, K. Koyabu, M. Fukui, K. Kitayama, “Free-space optical module configuration using a guide-frame assembly method,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1783–1787 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Tagizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Châteauneuf, M. H. Ayliffe, A. G. Kirk, “In situ technique for measuring the orthogonality of a plane wave to a substrate,” Opt. Lett. 28, 677–679 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

D. T. Neilson, “Tolerance of optical interconnections to misalignment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2282–2290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, P. Khurana, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal and optomechanical packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

1996 (2)

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

Ahearn, J. D.

Ayliffe, M. H.

M. Châteauneuf, M. H. Ayliffe, A. G. Kirk, “In situ technique for measuring the orthogonality of a plane wave to a substrate,” Opt. Lett. 28, 677–679 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, M. H. Ayliffe, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect for photonic backplane applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1541–1555 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Ayliffe, M. Châteauneuf, D. R. Rolston, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Six-degrees-of-freedom alignment of two-dimensional array components by use of off-axis linear Fresnel zone plates,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6515–6526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, P. Khurana, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal and optomechanical packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baillie, D. A.

Baukens, V.

P. Tuteleers, A. Kirk, M. Châteauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, H. Thienpont, “Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Brussels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 73–77.

Bernier, E.

F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, M. H. Ayliffe, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect for photonic backplane applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1541–1555 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, P. Khurana, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal and optomechanical packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bisaillon, E.

E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boisset, G. C.

Boudreau, R.

R. Boudreau, “Passive optical alignment methods,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Advanced Packaging Materials Processes, Properties, and Interfaces (Catalog No. 97TH8263 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 180–181.
[CrossRef]

Brosseau, D. F.

E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brubaker, J. L.

Châteauneuf, M.

Cloonan, T. J.

Craft, N. C.

Crisci, R. J.

Debaes, C.

P. Tuteleers, A. Kirk, M. Châteauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, H. Thienpont, “Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Brussels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 73–77.

Feldblum, A. Y.

Fukui, M.

Goodwill, D.

E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goodwill, D. J.

Hermanne, A.

P. Tuteleers, A. Kirk, M. Châteauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, H. Thienpont, “Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Brussels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 73–77.

Hinterlong, S. J.

Hinton, H. S.

Hirabayashi, K.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Iyer, R.

Kabal, D.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, P. Khurana, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal and optomechanical packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kerbis, E.

Khurana, P.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, P. Khurana, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal and optomechanical packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, A.

P. Tuteleers, A. Kirk, M. Châteauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, H. Thienpont, “Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Brussels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 73–77.

Kirk, A. G.

M. Châteauneuf, M. H. Ayliffe, A. G. Kirk, “In situ technique for measuring the orthogonality of a plane wave to a substrate,” Opt. Lett. 28, 677–679 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. Yamamoto, J. D. Ahearn, “512-channel vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based free-space optical link,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5552–5561 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, M. H. Ayliffe, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect for photonic backplane applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1541–1555 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, M. Châteauneuf, D. R. Rolston, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Six-degrees-of-freedom alignment of two-dimensional array components by use of off-axis linear Fresnel zone plates,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6515–6526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, P. Khurana, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal and optomechanical packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K.

Koyabu, K.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Mizukami, K. Koyabu, M. Fukui, K. Kitayama, “Free-space optical module configuration using a guide-frame assembly method,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1783–1787 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacroix, F.

Lentine, A. L.

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y. S.

Matsuo, S.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, F. B.

Mizukami, M.

Mony, M.

E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

Neilson, D. T.

Novotny, R. A.

Ottevaere, H.

P. Tuteleers, A. Kirk, M. Châteauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, H. Thienpont, “Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Brussels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 73–77.

Pavlasek, D.

Plant, D. V.

F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, M. H. Ayliffe, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect for photonic backplane applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1541–1555 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. Yamamoto, J. D. Ahearn, “512-channel vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based free-space optical link,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5552–5561 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, M. Châteauneuf, D. R. Rolston, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Six-degrees-of-freedom alignment of two-dimensional array components by use of off-axis linear Fresnel zone plates,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6515–6526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, P. Khurana, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal and optomechanical packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Tagizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prince, S. M.

Robertson, B.

Rolston, D. R.

Sasian, J. M.

Schenfeld, E.

Tagizadeh, M. R.

Thienpont, H.

P. Tuteleers, A. Kirk, M. Châteauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, H. Thienpont, “Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Brussels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 73–77.

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, M. H. Ayliffe, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect for photonic backplane applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1541–1555 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, P. Khurana, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal and optomechanical packaging of large 2D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Neilson, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, F. A. P. Tooley, “Optical design of a 1024-channel free-space sorting demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9243–9252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5170 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuteleers, P.

P. Tuteleers, A. Kirk, M. Châteauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, H. Thienpont, “Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Brussels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 73–77.

Veretennicoff, I.

P. Tuteleers, A. Kirk, M. Châteauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, H. Thienpont, “Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Brussels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 73–77.

Vervaeke, M.

P. Tuteleers, A. Kirk, M. Châteauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, H. Thienpont, “Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Brussels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 73–77.

Walker, S. L.

Yamaguchi, M.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. Yamamoto, J. D. Ahearn, “512-channel vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based free-space optical link,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5552–5561 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (12)

F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, M. H. Ayliffe, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect for photonic backplane applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1541–1555 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Neilson, “Tolerance of optical interconnections to misalignment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2282–2290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Six-DOFs (x, y, z, θx, θy, θz) alignment of two optical elements or an optical element to an OE-VLSI chip.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the pairs of alignment features: (a) one reflection (N = 1) and (b) N = 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Layout of the alignment features required for accuracy in six-DOFs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup. The first substrate is also used to measure the orthogonality of the incident plane wave with off-axis FZPs.19

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental results (a) Δz = 850 μm, (b) Δx = 100 μm, (c) Δθ y = 0.085°, (d) the metal alignment targets, present in the other figures, but not visible. The lateral misalignment of (b) is measured relative to the markers in (d).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Worst-Case Misalignments

Equations (6)

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Δz=sztanΩ.
Δlθ=f tan2N+1/2 * Δθx,y.
Δθx,y=arctansθf2N2+1/2-2N1+1/2,
Δx, y=Δl+f tan β.
Δθz=arcsinΔx1-Δx2L.
δ=fλ/a.

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