Abstract

A nonparaxial vector-field method is used to describe the behavior of low-f-number microlenses by use of ray propagation, Fresnel coefficients and the solution of Maxwell equations to determine the field propagating through the lens boundaries, followed by use of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld method to find the diffracted field behind the lenses. This approach enables the phase, the amplitude, and the polarization of the diffracted fields to be determined. Numerical simulations for a convex-plano lens illustrate the effects of the radii of curvature, the lens apertures, the index of refraction, and the wavelength on the variations of the focal length, the focal plane field distribution, and the cross polarization of the field in the focal plane.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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