Abstract

We present three methods for deriving water-leaving radiance L w(λ) and remote-sensing reflectance using a hyperspectral tethered spectral radiometer buoy (HyperTSRB), profiled spectroradiometers, and Hydrolight simulations. Average agreement for 53 comparisons between HyperTSRB and spectroradiometric determinations of L w(λ) was 26%, 13%, and 17% at blue, green, and red wavelengths, respectively. Comparisons of HyperTSRB (and spectroradiometric) L w(λ) with Hydrolight simulations yielded percent differences of 17% (18%), 17% (18%), and 13% (20%) for blue, green, and red wavelengths, respectively. The differences can be accounted for by uncertainties in model assumptions and model input data (chlorophyll fluorescence quantum efficiency and the spectral chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficient for the red wavelengths, and scattering corrections for input ac-9 absorption data and volume scattering function measurements for blue wavelengths) as well as radiance measurement inaccuracies [largely differences in the depth of the L u(λ, z) sensor on the HyperTSRB].

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. O. Davis, “Remote sensing of bathymetry and seagrass in the Bahamas Banks using high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. R. V. Zaneveld, E. Boss, A. Barnard, “Influence of surface waves on measured and modeled irradiance profiles,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1442–1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Frette, S. R. Erga, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Optical remote sensing of waters with vertical structure,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1478–1487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. D. Mobley, “Self-shading correction for upwelling sea-surface radiance measurements made with buoyed instruments,” Opt. Exp. 8, 561–570 (2001); http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

A. D. Weidemann, D. J. Johnson, R. J. Holyer, W. S. Pegau, L. A. Jugan, J. C. Sandidge, “Remote imaging of internal solitons in the coastal ocean,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 260–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

1998

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Three-dimensional modelling of inherent optical properties in a coastal environment: coupling ocean colour imagery and in situ measurements,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2141–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, B. Johnson, “Influence of bubbles on scattering of light in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6525–6536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

K. J. Waters, “Effects of Raman scattering on the water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13151–13161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, B. G. Mitchell, “Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Tassan, “Local algorithms using SeaWiFS data for the retrieval of phytoplankton, pigments, suspended sediment, and yellow substance in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2369–2378 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1981

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Three-dimensional modelling of inherent optical properties in a coastal environment: coupling ocean colour imagery and in situ measurements,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2141–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barantage, F.

F. Barantage, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore. 97331 (personal communication, 2002).

Barnard, A.

Barnard, A. H.

A. H. Barnard, A. D. Weidemann, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. W. Rhea, C. O. Davis, “Hyperspectral remote sensing imagery and the detection of subsurface features,” presented at Ocean Optics XV, Monte Carlo, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Boss, E.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, E. Boss, A. Barnard, “Influence of surface waves on measured and modeled irradiance profiles,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1442–1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J.

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, J. Brown, The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Series, Vol. 17, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Carder, K. L.

M.-X. He, Z.-S. Liu, K.-P. Du, L.-P. Li, R. Chen, K. L. Carder, Z.-P. Lee, “Retrieval of chlorophyll from remote-sensing reflectance in the China seas,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2467–2474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G. C.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).

G. C. Chang, “Analyses of bio-optical variability related to physical processes on the southern New England continental shelf: July 1996–June 1997,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ocean Physics Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1999).

Chen, R.

Davis, C. O.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. O. Davis, “Remote sensing of bathymetry and seagrass in the Bahamas Banks using high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, A. D. Weidemann, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. W. Rhea, C. O. Davis, “Hyperspectral remote sensing imagery and the detection of subsurface features,” presented at Ocean Optics XV, Monte Carlo, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Dickey, T. D.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).

Dierssen, H. M.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. O. Davis, “Remote sensing of bathymetry and seagrass in the Bahamas Banks using high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ding, K.

H. R. Gordon, K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Downes, T. V.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. O. Davis, “Remote sensing of bathymetry and seagrass in the Bahamas Banks using high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. D. Mobley, “Self-shading correction for upwelling sea-surface radiance measurements made with buoyed instruments,” Opt. Exp. 8, 561–570 (2001); http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Du, K.-P.

Erga, S. R.

Frette, O.

Fry, E. S.

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, B. G. Mitchell, “Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, S. M.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).

Gordon, H. R.

Gould, R. W.

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Three-dimensional modelling of inherent optical properties in a coastal environment: coupling ocean colour imagery and in situ measurements,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2141–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

He, M.-X.

Holyer, R. J.

A. D. Weidemann, D. J. Johnson, R. J. Holyer, W. S. Pegau, L. A. Jugan, J. C. Sandidge, “Remote imaging of internal solitons in the coastal ocean,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 260–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, J. Brown, The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Series, Vol. 17, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Johnson, B.

Johnson, D. J.

A. D. Weidemann, D. J. Johnson, R. J. Holyer, W. S. Pegau, L. A. Jugan, J. C. Sandidge, “Remote imaging of internal solitons in the coastal ocean,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 260–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jugan, L. A.

A. D. Weidemann, D. J. Johnson, R. J. Holyer, W. S. Pegau, L. A. Jugan, J. C. Sandidge, “Remote imaging of internal solitons in the coastal ocean,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 260–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, D. D. R.

D. D. R. Kohler, W. D. Philpot, “Comparing in situ and remotely sensed measurements in optically shallow waters,” presented at Ocean Optics XV, Monte Carlo, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Lazin, G.

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, J. Brown, The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Series, Vol. 17, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Leathers, R. A.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. O. Davis, “Remote sensing of bathymetry and seagrass in the Bahamas Banks using high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. D. Mobley, “Self-shading correction for upwelling sea-surface radiance measurements made with buoyed instruments,” Opt. Exp. 8, 561–570 (2001); http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. E.

M. E. Lee, M. R. Lewis, “Measurement of the optical volume scattering function in the upper ocean,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., accepted for publication.

Lee, Z.-P.

Lewis, M.

Lewis, M. R.

M. E. Lee, M. R. Lewis, “Measurement of the optical volume scattering function in the upper ocean,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., accepted for publication.

Li, L.-P.

Liu, Z.-S.

Maritorena, S.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McLean, S.

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, J. Brown, The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Series, Vol. 17, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Menzies, D. W.

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, B. G. Mitchell, “Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. D. Mobley, “Self-shading correction for upwelling sea-surface radiance measurements made with buoyed instruments,” Opt. Exp. 8, 561–570 (2001); http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7442–7455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

Moline, M. A.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).

Moore, C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, M. J.

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).

A. D. Weidemann, D. J. Johnson, R. J. Holyer, W. S. Pegau, L. A. Jugan, J. C. Sandidge, “Remote imaging of internal solitons in the coastal ocean,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 260–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, A. D. Weidemann, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. W. Rhea, C. O. Davis, “Hyperspectral remote sensing imagery and the detection of subsurface features,” presented at Ocean Optics XV, Monte Carlo, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Perry, M. J.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” Tech. Rep. SIO 72-78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, Calif., 1972).

Philpot, W. D.

D. D. R. Kohler, W. D. Philpot, “Comparing in situ and remotely sensed measurements in optically shallow waters,” presented at Ocean Optics XV, Monte Carlo, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Pope, R. M.

Prieur, L.

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rhea, J. W.

A. H. Barnard, A. D. Weidemann, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. W. Rhea, C. O. Davis, “Hyperspectral remote sensing imagery and the detection of subsurface features,” presented at Ocean Optics XV, Monte Carlo, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sandidge, J. C.

A. D. Weidemann, D. J. Johnson, R. J. Holyer, W. S. Pegau, L. A. Jugan, J. C. Sandidge, “Remote imaging of internal solitons in the coastal ocean,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 260–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, O. M.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).

Sherman, J.

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, J. Brown, The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Series, Vol. 17, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel, D. W. Menzies, M. J. Neumann, R. C. Smith, “Remote-sensing reflectance determinations in the coastal ocean environment: impact of instrumental characteristics and environmental variability,” Appl. Opt. 39, 456–469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, B. G. Mitchell, “Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Small, M.

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, J. Brown, The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Series, Vol. 17, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Smith, R. C.

Stamnes, J. J.

Stamnes, K.

Sundman, L. K.

Tassan, S.

Toole, D. A.

Wang, M.

Waters, K. J.

K. J. Waters, “Effects of Raman scattering on the water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13151–13161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A. D.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).

A. D. Weidemann, D. J. Johnson, R. J. Holyer, W. S. Pegau, L. A. Jugan, J. C. Sandidge, “Remote imaging of internal solitons in the coastal ocean,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 260–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, A. D. Weidemann, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. W. Rhea, C. O. Davis, “Hyperspectral remote sensing imagery and the detection of subsurface features,” presented at Ocean Optics XV, Monte Carlo, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Westberry, T. K.

T. K. Westberry, “Phytoplankton natural fluorescence variability and primary production in the Sargasso Sea,” M.S. thesis (Institute for Computational Earth Systems, Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, Calif., 2001).

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, E. Boss, A. Barnard, “Influence of surface waves on measured and modeled irradiance profiles,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1442–1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, A. D. Weidemann, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. W. Rhea, C. O. Davis, “Hyperspectral remote sensing imagery and the detection of subsurface features,” presented at Ocean Optics XV, Monte Carlo, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Zhang, X.

Zibordi, G.

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, J. Brown, The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Series, Vol. 17, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Zimmerman, R. C.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. O. Davis, “Remote sensing of bathymetry and seagrass in the Bahamas Banks using high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Surface-roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. II. Error in the retrieved water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4261–4267 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tassan, “Local algorithms using SeaWiFS data for the retrieval of phytoplankton, pigments, suspended sediment, and yellow substance in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2369–2378 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, B. Johnson, “Influence of bubbles on scattering of light in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6525–6536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Contribution of Raman scattering to water-leaving radiance: a reexamination,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3166–3174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7442–7455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel, D. W. Menzies, M. J. Neumann, R. C. Smith, “Remote-sensing reflectance determinations in the coastal ocean environment: impact of instrumental characteristics and environmental variability,” Appl. Opt. 39, 456–469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M.-X. He, Z.-S. Liu, K.-P. Du, L.-P. Li, R. Chen, K. L. Carder, Z.-P. Lee, “Retrieval of chlorophyll from remote-sensing reflectance in the China seas,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2467–2474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, E. Boss, A. Barnard, “Influence of surface waves on measured and modeled irradiance profiles,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1442–1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Frette, S. R. Erga, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Optical remote sensing of waters with vertical structure,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1478–1487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Remote Sens.

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Three-dimensional modelling of inherent optical properties in a coastal environment: coupling ocean colour imagery and in situ measurements,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2141–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).

K. J. Waters, “Effects of Raman scattering on the water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13151–13161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. O. Davis, “Remote sensing of bathymetry and seagrass in the Bahamas Banks using high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, B. G. Mitchell, “Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp.

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. D. Mobley, “Self-shading correction for upwelling sea-surface radiance measurements made with buoyed instruments,” Opt. Exp. 8, 561–570 (2001); http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

A. D. Weidemann, D. J. Johnson, R. J. Holyer, W. S. Pegau, L. A. Jugan, J. C. Sandidge, “Remote imaging of internal solitons in the coastal ocean,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 260–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. D. R. Kohler, W. D. Philpot, “Comparing in situ and remotely sensed measurements in optically shallow waters,” presented at Ocean Optics XV, Monte Carlo, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

A. H. Barnard, A. D. Weidemann, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. W. Rhea, C. O. Davis, “Hyperspectral remote sensing imagery and the detection of subsurface features,” presented at Ocean Optics XV, Monte Carlo, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

M. Lewis, Satlantic, http://www.satlantic.com/ .

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

H. Van Zee, “Underwater optical sensors—WET Labs,” http://www.wetlabs.com .

G. C. Chang, “Analyses of bio-optical variability related to physical processes on the southern New England continental shelf: July 1996–June 1997,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ocean Physics Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1999).

M. E. Lee, M. R. Lewis, “Measurement of the optical volume scattering function in the upper ocean,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., accepted for publication.

F. Barantage, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore. 97331 (personal communication, 2002).

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, J. Brown, The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Series, Vol. 17, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” Tech. Rep. SIO 72-78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, Calif., 1972).

T. K. Westberry, “Phytoplankton natural fluorescence variability and primary production in the Sargasso Sea,” M.S. thesis (Institute for Computational Earth Systems, Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, Calif., 2001).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LEO-15 site map showing the locations of the 53 measurements made during the HyCODE experiment between 21 and 27 July 2000. Depth contours and location of the turbidity front are approximate. OSU, Oregon State University.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

R rs(λ) = L u (λ, 0.66 m)/E d (λ, 0+ m) (dashed curve with crosses) compared with R rs(λ) = L w (λ, 0+ m)/E d (λ, 0+ m) (solid curves with symbols) for measurements ∼5 km offshore of the turbidity front (39.41 °N, 74.20 °W). HyperTSRB data are shown in (a) and (b) and OCP data are illustrated in (c) and (d). Differences were computed by Eq. (4) and are shown in the right-hand column.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

HyperTSRB (solid curves), OCP (open circles), and Hydrolight-computed (dashed curves) comparisons of L u (λ, 0.66 m) at the SeaWiFS wavelengths: (a) and (b) ∼5 km offshore of the turbidity front (39.37° N, 74.21 °W); (c) and (d) ∼5 km inshore of the front (39.46 °N, 74.26 °W), (e) and (f) at the turbidity front (39.41 °N, 74.20 °W); (g) and (h) ∼12 km offshore of the turbidity front (39.37 °N, 74.13 °W). Differences among the three methods, calculated by Eq. (4), are shown in the right-hand column.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparisons of HyperTSRB (solid curves), OCP (open circles), and Hydrolight-computed (dashed curves) L w (λ): (a) and (b) ∼5 km offshore of the turbidity front (39.37 °N, 74.21 °W); (c) and (d) ∼5 km inshore of the front (39.46 °N, 74.26 °W); (e) and (f) at the turbidity front (39.41 °N, 74.20 °W); (g) and (h) ∼12 km offshore of the turbidity front (39.37 °N, 74.13 °W). Differences among the three methods, calculated by Eq. (4), are shown in the right-hand column.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

R rs(λ) derived from HyperTSRB (solid curves) and OCP (open circles) measurements and Hydrolight simulations (dashed curves): (a) and (b) ∼5 km offshore of the turbidity front (39.37 °N, 74.21 °W); (c) and (d) ∼5 km inshore of the front (39.46 °N, 74.26 °W); (e) and (f) at the turbidity front (39.41 °N, 74.20 °W); (g) and (h) ∼12 km offshore of the turbidity front (39.37 °N, 74.13 °W). Differences among the methods, calculated by Eq. (4), are shown in the right-hand column.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average Absolute Value of Percent Differences Computed with Eq. (4) and r2 Values between HyperTSRB and OCP Lu(λ, 0.66 m)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Average Absolute Value of Percent Differences Computed with Eq. (4) and r2 Values between HyperTSRB and OCP Lw(λ)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Average Absolute Value of Percent Differences Computed with Eq. (4) and r2 Values between HyperTSRB and Hydrolight and OCP and Hydrolight (in parentheses) for Lu(λ, 0.66 m)

Tables Icon

Table 4 Average Absolute Value of Percent Differences Calculated with Eq. (4) and r2 Values between HyperTSRB and Hydrolight and OCP and Hydrolight (in parentheses) for Lw(λ)

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Rrsλ=LwλEdλ
KLλ=-ddzln Luλ, z,
=-1ΔzlnLuλ, z2Luλ, z1,
Lwλ=tn2 Luλ, 0-,
diffλ=100×Luλ, z1-Luλ, z20.5Luλ, z1+Luλ, z2,

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