Abstract

Laser therapy for cutaneous hypervascular malformations such as port-wine stain birthmarks is currently not feasible for dark-skinned individuals. We study the effects of pulse duration, radiant exposure, and cryogen spray cooling (CSC) on the thermal response of skin, using a Monte Carlo based optical-thermal model. Thermal injury to the epidermis decreases with increasing pulse duration during irradiation at a constant radiant exposure; however, maintaining vascular injury requires that the radiant exposure also increase. At short pulse durations, only a minimal increase in radiant exposure is necessary for a therapeutic effect to be achieved because thermal diffusion from the vessels is minimal. However, at longer pulse durations the radiant exposure must be greatly increased. There exists an optimum pulse duration at which minimal damage to the epidermis and significant injury within the targeted vasculature occur. For example, the model predicts optimum pulse durations of approximately 1.5, 6, and 20 ms for vessel diameters of 40, 80, and 120 μm, respectively. Optimization of laser pulse duration and radiant exposure in combination with CSC may offer a means to treat cutaneous lesions in dark-skinned individuals.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2002

W. S. Ho, H. H. Chan, S. Y. Ying, P. C. Chan, “Laser treatment of congenital facial port-wine stains: long-term efficacy and complication in Chinese patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 44–47 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kelly, V. S. Nanda, J. S. Nelson, “Treatment of port-wine stain birthmarks using the 1.5-msec pulsed dye laser at high fluences in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling,” Dermatol. Surg. 28, 309–313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, J. H. Torres, B. Anvari, “Methodology for estimation of time-dependent surface heat flux due to cryogen spray cooling,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 30, 19–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, D. Cao, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. S. Nelson, “Vascular response to laser photothermolysis as a function of pulse duration, vessel type, and diameter: implications for port wine stain laser therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 160–169 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

B. Majaron, S. Kimel, W. Verkruysse, G. Aguilar, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling in laser dermatology: effects of ambient humidity and frost formation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 469–476 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Aguilar, B. Majaron, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Influence of nozzle-to-skin distance in cryogen spray cooling for dermatologic laser surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 113–120 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Pikkula, J. H. Torres, J. W. Tunnell, B. Anvari, “Cryogen spray cooling: effects of droplet size and spray density on heat removal,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 103–112 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. Im, K. B. Lee, S. Sohn, W. H. Kang, “Application of computerized image analysis in pigmentary skin diseases,” Int. J. Dermatol. 40, 45–49 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Loze, C. D. Wright, “Temperature distributions in laser-heated biological tissue with application to birthmark removal,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 74–85 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Torres, J. W. Tunnell, B. M. Pikkula, B. Anvari, “An analysis of heat removal during cryogen spray cooling and effects of simultaneous airflow application,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 477–486 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

T. J. Pfefer, D. J. Smithies, T. E. Milner, M. J. van Gemert, J. S. Nelson, A. J. Welch, “Bioheat transfer analysis of cryogen spray cooling during laser treatment of port wine stains,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 145–157 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, J. S. Nelson, J. H. Torres, B. Anvari, “Epidermal protection with cryogen spray cooling during high fluence pulsed dye laser irradiation: an ex vivo study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27, 373–383 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, B. Majaron, B. S. Tanenbaum, J. S. Nelson, “Optimal cryogen spray cooling parameters for pulsed laser treatment of port wine stains,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27, 165–170 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Anvari, B. V. Steeg, B. S. Tanenbaum, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling: a preliminary study during 532 nm laser irradiation of port wine stains,” Cosmet. Dermatol. 13, 22–26 (2000).

1999

C. J. Chang, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling and higher fluence pulsed dye laser treatment improve port-wine stain clearance while minimizing epidermal damage,” Dermatol. Surg. 25, 767–772 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, G. Liang, “Absorption distribution of an optical beam focused into a turbid medium,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4951–4958 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Torres, J. S. Nelson, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. Milner, D. M. Goodman, B. Anvari, “Estimation of internal skin temperatures in response to cryogen spray cooling: implications for laser therapy of port wine stains,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1058–1066 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

L. V. Wang, R. E. Nordquist, W. R. Chen, “Optimal beam size for light delivery to absorption-enhanced tumors buried in biological tissues and effect of multiple-beam enhanced delivery: a Monte Carlo study,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8286–8291 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Andersen, R. R. Labadie, J. Bhawan, “Histopathology of solar lentigines of the face: a quantitative study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 36, 444–447 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. van Gemert, D. J. Smithies, W. Verkruysse, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, “Wavelengths for port wine stain laser treatment: influence of vessel radius and skin anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 41–50 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

G. W. Lucassen, W. Verkruysse, M. Keijzer, M. J. van Gemert, “Light distributions in a port wine stain model containing multiple cylindrical and curved blood vessels,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 345–357 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sturesson, S. Andersson-Engels, “Mathematical modelling of dynamic cooling and pre-heating, used to increase the depth of selective damage to blood vessels in laser treatment of port wine stains,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 413–428 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wlotzke, U. Hohenleutner, T. A. Abd-El-Raheem, W. Baumler, M. Landthaler, “Side-effects and complications of flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser therapy of port-wine stains. A prospective study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 134, 475–480 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, B. Anvari, B. S. Tanenbaum, L. O. Svaasand, S. Kimel, “Dynamic epidermal cooling in conjunction with laser-induced photothermolysis of port wine stain blood vessels,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 224–229 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lu, C. Edwards, S. Gaskell, A. Pearse, R. Marks, “Melanin content and distribution in the surface corneocyte with skin phototypes,” Br. J. Dermatol. 135, 263–267 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bhawan, W. Andersen, J. Lee, R. Labadie, G. Solares, “Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin,” J. Cutan. Pathol. 22, 154–159 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Anvari, T. E. Milner, B. S. Tanenbaum, S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “Dynamic epidermal cooling in conjunction with laser treatment of port-wine stains: theoretical and preliminary clinical evaluations,” Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Anvari, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. E. Milner, S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “A theoretical study of the thermal response of skin to cryogen spray cooling and pulsed laser irradiation: implications for treatment of port wine stain birthmarks,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1451–1465 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

W. Verkruysse, J. W. Pickering, J. F. Beek, M. Keijzer, M. J. van Gemert, “Modeling the effect of wavelength on the pulsed dye laser treatment of port wine stains,” Appl. Opt. 32, 393–398 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Miller, A. R. Veitch, “Optical modelling of light distributions in skin tissue following laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 565–571 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

J. Bhawan, A. Gonzalez-Serva, K. Nehal, R. Labadie, L. Lufrano, E. G. Thorne, B. A. Gilchrest, “Effects of tretinoin on photodamaged skin. A histologic study,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 666–672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

B. A. Reyes, R. Geronemus, “Treatment of port-wine stains during childhood with the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 23, 1142–1148 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

M. J. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Selective photothermolysis: precise microsurgery by selective absorption of pulsed radiation,” Science 220, 524–527 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Wilson, G. Adam, “A Monte Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue,” Med. Phys. 10, 824–830 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

J. L. Finley, S. H. Barsky, D. E. Geer, B. R. Kamat, J. M. Noe, S. Rosen, “Healing of port-wine stains after argon laser therapy,” Arch. Dermatol. 117, 486–489 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

A. J. Welch, E. H. Wissler, L. A. Priebe, “Significance of blood flow in calculations of temperature in laser irradiated tissue,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 27, 164–166 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, J. M. Noe, “The nature and evolution of port wine stains: a computer-assisted study,” J. Invest Dermatol. 74, 154–157 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969

J. A. Weaver, A. M. Stoll, “Mathematical model of skin exposed to thermal radiation,” Aerosp. Med. 40, 24–30 (1969).
[PubMed]

Abd-El-Raheem, T. A.

U. Wlotzke, U. Hohenleutner, T. A. Abd-El-Raheem, W. Baumler, M. Landthaler, “Side-effects and complications of flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser therapy of port-wine stains. A prospective study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 134, 475–480 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adam, G.

B. C. Wilson, G. Adam, “A Monte Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue,” Med. Phys. 10, 824–830 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguilar, G.

B. Majaron, S. Kimel, W. Verkruysse, G. Aguilar, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling in laser dermatology: effects of ambient humidity and frost formation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 469–476 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Aguilar, B. Majaron, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Influence of nozzle-to-skin distance in cryogen spray cooling for dermatologic laser surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 113–120 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, B. Majaron, G. Aguilar, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “Dynamics of cryogen spray deposition relative to heat extraction rate during cryogen spray cooling,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems X, R. R. Anderson, K. Bartels, L. S. Bass, eds., Proc. SPIE3907, 37–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, W.

J. Bhawan, W. Andersen, J. Lee, R. Labadie, G. Solares, “Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin,” J. Cutan. Pathol. 22, 154–159 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, W. K.

W. K. Andersen, R. R. Labadie, J. Bhawan, “Histopathology of solar lentigines of the face: a quantitative study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 36, 444–447 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Selective photothermolysis: precise microsurgery by selective absorption of pulsed radiation,” Science 220, 524–527 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

C. Sturesson, S. Andersson-Engels, “Mathematical modelling of dynamic cooling and pre-heating, used to increase the depth of selective damage to blood vessels in laser treatment of port wine stains,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 413–428 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anvari, B.

J. W. Tunnell, J. H. Torres, B. Anvari, “Methodology for estimation of time-dependent surface heat flux due to cryogen spray cooling,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 30, 19–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Pikkula, J. H. Torres, J. W. Tunnell, B. Anvari, “Cryogen spray cooling: effects of droplet size and spray density on heat removal,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 103–112 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Torres, J. W. Tunnell, B. M. Pikkula, B. Anvari, “An analysis of heat removal during cryogen spray cooling and effects of simultaneous airflow application,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 477–486 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, J. S. Nelson, J. H. Torres, B. Anvari, “Epidermal protection with cryogen spray cooling during high fluence pulsed dye laser irradiation: an ex vivo study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27, 373–383 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Anvari, B. V. Steeg, B. S. Tanenbaum, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling: a preliminary study during 532 nm laser irradiation of port wine stains,” Cosmet. Dermatol. 13, 22–26 (2000).

J. H. Torres, J. S. Nelson, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. Milner, D. M. Goodman, B. Anvari, “Estimation of internal skin temperatures in response to cryogen spray cooling: implications for laser therapy of port wine stains,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1058–1066 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, B. Anvari, B. S. Tanenbaum, L. O. Svaasand, S. Kimel, “Dynamic epidermal cooling in conjunction with laser-induced photothermolysis of port wine stain blood vessels,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 224–229 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Anvari, T. E. Milner, B. S. Tanenbaum, S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “Dynamic epidermal cooling in conjunction with laser treatment of port-wine stains: theoretical and preliminary clinical evaluations,” Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Anvari, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. E. Milner, S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “A theoretical study of the thermal response of skin to cryogen spray cooling and pulsed laser irradiation: implications for treatment of port wine stain birthmarks,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1451–1465 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. Patrick, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, B. Anvari, “In vivo study of epidermal protection by cryogen spray cooling during pulsed laser irradiation at high radiant exposures,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems XII, L. S. Bass, N. Kollias, eds., Proc. SPIE4609, 67–74 (2002).

Barsky, S. H.

J. L. Finley, S. H. Barsky, D. E. Geer, B. R. Kamat, J. M. Noe, S. Rosen, “Healing of port-wine stains after argon laser therapy,” Arch. Dermatol. 117, 486–489 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, J. M. Noe, “The nature and evolution of port wine stains: a computer-assisted study,” J. Invest Dermatol. 74, 154–157 (1980).
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U. Wlotzke, U. Hohenleutner, T. A. Abd-El-Raheem, W. Baumler, M. Landthaler, “Side-effects and complications of flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser therapy of port-wine stains. A prospective study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 134, 475–480 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Bhawan, J.

W. K. Andersen, R. R. Labadie, J. Bhawan, “Histopathology of solar lentigines of the face: a quantitative study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 36, 444–447 (1997).
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J. Bhawan, W. Andersen, J. Lee, R. Labadie, G. Solares, “Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin,” J. Cutan. Pathol. 22, 154–159 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bhawan, A. Gonzalez-Serva, K. Nehal, R. Labadie, L. Lufrano, E. G. Thorne, B. A. Gilchrest, “Effects of tretinoin on photodamaged skin. A histologic study,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 666–672 (1991).
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Cao, D.

S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, D. Cao, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. S. Nelson, “Vascular response to laser photothermolysis as a function of pulse duration, vessel type, and diameter: implications for port wine stain laser therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 160–169 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. S. Ho, H. H. Chan, S. Y. Ying, P. C. Chan, “Laser treatment of congenital facial port-wine stains: long-term efficacy and complication in Chinese patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 44–47 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. S. Ho, H. H. Chan, S. Y. Ying, P. C. Chan, “Laser treatment of congenital facial port-wine stains: long-term efficacy and complication in Chinese patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 44–47 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. J. Chang, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling and higher fluence pulsed dye laser treatment improve port-wine stain clearance while minimizing epidermal damage,” Dermatol. Surg. 25, 767–772 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. Patrick, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, B. Anvari, “In vivo study of epidermal protection by cryogen spray cooling during pulsed laser irradiation at high radiant exposures,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems XII, L. S. Bass, N. Kollias, eds., Proc. SPIE4609, 67–74 (2002).

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H. Lu, C. Edwards, S. Gaskell, A. Pearse, R. Marks, “Melanin content and distribution in the surface corneocyte with skin phototypes,” Br. J. Dermatol. 135, 263–267 (1996).
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J. L. Finley, S. H. Barsky, D. E. Geer, B. R. Kamat, J. M. Noe, S. Rosen, “Healing of port-wine stains after argon laser therapy,” Arch. Dermatol. 117, 486–489 (1981).
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H. Lu, C. Edwards, S. Gaskell, A. Pearse, R. Marks, “Melanin content and distribution in the surface corneocyte with skin phototypes,” Br. J. Dermatol. 135, 263–267 (1996).
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J. L. Finley, S. H. Barsky, D. E. Geer, B. R. Kamat, J. M. Noe, S. Rosen, “Healing of port-wine stains after argon laser therapy,” Arch. Dermatol. 117, 486–489 (1981).
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S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, J. M. Noe, “The nature and evolution of port wine stains: a computer-assisted study,” J. Invest Dermatol. 74, 154–157 (1980).
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B. A. Reyes, R. Geronemus, “Treatment of port-wine stains during childhood with the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 23, 1142–1148 (1990).
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J. Bhawan, A. Gonzalez-Serva, K. Nehal, R. Labadie, L. Lufrano, E. G. Thorne, B. A. Gilchrest, “Effects of tretinoin on photodamaged skin. A histologic study,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 666–672 (1991).
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J. Bhawan, A. Gonzalez-Serva, K. Nehal, R. Labadie, L. Lufrano, E. G. Thorne, B. A. Gilchrest, “Effects of tretinoin on photodamaged skin. A histologic study,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 666–672 (1991).
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J. H. Torres, J. S. Nelson, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. Milner, D. M. Goodman, B. Anvari, “Estimation of internal skin temperatures in response to cryogen spray cooling: implications for laser therapy of port wine stains,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1058–1066 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hammer-Wilson, M. J.

S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, D. Cao, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. S. Nelson, “Vascular response to laser photothermolysis as a function of pulse duration, vessel type, and diameter: implications for port wine stain laser therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 160–169 (2002).
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W. S. Ho, H. H. Chan, S. Y. Ying, P. C. Chan, “Laser treatment of congenital facial port-wine stains: long-term efficacy and complication in Chinese patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 44–47 (2002).
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U. Wlotzke, U. Hohenleutner, T. A. Abd-El-Raheem, W. Baumler, M. Landthaler, “Side-effects and complications of flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser therapy of port-wine stains. A prospective study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 134, 475–480 (1996).
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E. S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. Im, K. B. Lee, S. Sohn, W. H. Kang, “Application of computerized image analysis in pigmentary skin diseases,” Int. J. Dermatol. 40, 45–49 (2001).
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J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. Patrick, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, B. Anvari, “In vivo study of epidermal protection by cryogen spray cooling during pulsed laser irradiation at high radiant exposures,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems XII, L. S. Bass, N. Kollias, eds., Proc. SPIE4609, 67–74 (2002).

Kamat, B. R.

J. L. Finley, S. H. Barsky, D. E. Geer, B. R. Kamat, J. M. Noe, S. Rosen, “Healing of port-wine stains after argon laser therapy,” Arch. Dermatol. 117, 486–489 (1981).
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Kang, W. H.

E. S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. Im, K. B. Lee, S. Sohn, W. H. Kang, “Application of computerized image analysis in pigmentary skin diseases,” Int. J. Dermatol. 40, 45–49 (2001).
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Keijzer, M.

G. W. Lucassen, W. Verkruysse, M. Keijzer, M. J. van Gemert, “Light distributions in a port wine stain model containing multiple cylindrical and curved blood vessels,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 345–357 (1996).
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W. Verkruysse, J. W. Pickering, J. F. Beek, M. Keijzer, M. J. van Gemert, “Modeling the effect of wavelength on the pulsed dye laser treatment of port wine stains,” Appl. Opt. 32, 393–398 (1993).
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K. M. Kelly, V. S. Nanda, J. S. Nelson, “Treatment of port-wine stain birthmarks using the 1.5-msec pulsed dye laser at high fluences in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling,” Dermatol. Surg. 28, 309–313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. H.

E. S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. Im, K. B. Lee, S. Sohn, W. H. Kang, “Application of computerized image analysis in pigmentary skin diseases,” Int. J. Dermatol. 40, 45–49 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimel, S.

S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, D. Cao, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. S. Nelson, “Vascular response to laser photothermolysis as a function of pulse duration, vessel type, and diameter: implications for port wine stain laser therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 160–169 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Majaron, S. Kimel, W. Verkruysse, G. Aguilar, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling in laser dermatology: effects of ambient humidity and frost formation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 469–476 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, B. Anvari, B. S. Tanenbaum, L. O. Svaasand, S. Kimel, “Dynamic epidermal cooling in conjunction with laser-induced photothermolysis of port wine stain blood vessels,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 224–229 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Anvari, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. E. Milner, S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “A theoretical study of the thermal response of skin to cryogen spray cooling and pulsed laser irradiation: implications for treatment of port wine stain birthmarks,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1451–1465 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Anvari, T. E. Milner, B. S. Tanenbaum, S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “Dynamic epidermal cooling in conjunction with laser treatment of port-wine stains: theoretical and preliminary clinical evaluations,” Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Labadie, R.

J. Bhawan, W. Andersen, J. Lee, R. Labadie, G. Solares, “Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin,” J. Cutan. Pathol. 22, 154–159 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bhawan, A. Gonzalez-Serva, K. Nehal, R. Labadie, L. Lufrano, E. G. Thorne, B. A. Gilchrest, “Effects of tretinoin on photodamaged skin. A histologic study,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 666–672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Labadie, R. R.

W. K. Andersen, R. R. Labadie, J. Bhawan, “Histopathology of solar lentigines of the face: a quantitative study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 36, 444–447 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landthaler, M.

U. Wlotzke, U. Hohenleutner, T. A. Abd-El-Raheem, W. Baumler, M. Landthaler, “Side-effects and complications of flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser therapy of port-wine stains. A prospective study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 134, 475–480 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavernia, E. J.

B. Majaron, S. Kimel, W. Verkruysse, G. Aguilar, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling in laser dermatology: effects of ambient humidity and frost formation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 469–476 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Aguilar, B. Majaron, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Influence of nozzle-to-skin distance in cryogen spray cooling for dermatologic laser surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 113–120 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, E. S.

E. S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. Im, K. B. Lee, S. Sohn, W. H. Kang, “Application of computerized image analysis in pigmentary skin diseases,” Int. J. Dermatol. 40, 45–49 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

J. Bhawan, W. Andersen, J. Lee, R. Labadie, G. Solares, “Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin,” J. Cutan. Pathol. 22, 154–159 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. B.

E. S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. Im, K. B. Lee, S. Sohn, W. H. Kang, “Application of computerized image analysis in pigmentary skin diseases,” Int. J. Dermatol. 40, 45–49 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, G.

Loze, M. K.

M. K. Loze, C. D. Wright, “Temperature distributions in laser-heated biological tissue with application to birthmark removal,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 74–85 (2001).
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Lu, H.

H. Lu, C. Edwards, S. Gaskell, A. Pearse, R. Marks, “Melanin content and distribution in the surface corneocyte with skin phototypes,” Br. J. Dermatol. 135, 263–267 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucassen, G. W.

G. W. Lucassen, W. Verkruysse, M. Keijzer, M. J. van Gemert, “Light distributions in a port wine stain model containing multiple cylindrical and curved blood vessels,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 345–357 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lufrano, L.

J. Bhawan, A. Gonzalez-Serva, K. Nehal, R. Labadie, L. Lufrano, E. G. Thorne, B. A. Gilchrest, “Effects of tretinoin on photodamaged skin. A histologic study,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 666–672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Majaron, B.

G. Aguilar, B. Majaron, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Influence of nozzle-to-skin distance in cryogen spray cooling for dermatologic laser surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 113–120 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Majaron, S. Kimel, W. Verkruysse, G. Aguilar, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling in laser dermatology: effects of ambient humidity and frost formation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 469–476 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, B. Majaron, B. S. Tanenbaum, J. S. Nelson, “Optimal cryogen spray cooling parameters for pulsed laser treatment of port wine stains,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27, 165–170 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, B. Majaron, G. Aguilar, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “Dynamics of cryogen spray deposition relative to heat extraction rate during cryogen spray cooling,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems X, R. R. Anderson, K. Bartels, L. S. Bass, eds., Proc. SPIE3907, 37–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R.

H. Lu, C. Edwards, S. Gaskell, A. Pearse, R. Marks, “Melanin content and distribution in the surface corneocyte with skin phototypes,” Br. J. Dermatol. 135, 263–267 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. D. Miller, A. R. Veitch, “Optical modelling of light distributions in skin tissue following laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 565–571 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. Patrick, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, B. Anvari, “In vivo study of epidermal protection by cryogen spray cooling during pulsed laser irradiation at high radiant exposures,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems XII, L. S. Bass, N. Kollias, eds., Proc. SPIE4609, 67–74 (2002).

Milner, T.

J. H. Torres, J. S. Nelson, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. Milner, D. M. Goodman, B. Anvari, “Estimation of internal skin temperatures in response to cryogen spray cooling: implications for laser therapy of port wine stains,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1058–1066 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

T. J. Pfefer, D. J. Smithies, T. E. Milner, M. J. van Gemert, J. S. Nelson, A. J. Welch, “Bioheat transfer analysis of cryogen spray cooling during laser treatment of port wine stains,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 145–157 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. van Gemert, D. J. Smithies, W. Verkruysse, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, “Wavelengths for port wine stain laser treatment: influence of vessel radius and skin anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 41–50 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, B. Anvari, B. S. Tanenbaum, L. O. Svaasand, S. Kimel, “Dynamic epidermal cooling in conjunction with laser-induced photothermolysis of port wine stain blood vessels,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 224–229 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Anvari, T. E. Milner, B. S. Tanenbaum, S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “Dynamic epidermal cooling in conjunction with laser treatment of port-wine stains: theoretical and preliminary clinical evaluations,” Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Anvari, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. E. Milner, S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “A theoretical study of the thermal response of skin to cryogen spray cooling and pulsed laser irradiation: implications for treatment of port wine stain birthmarks,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1451–1465 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanda, V. S.

K. M. Kelly, V. S. Nanda, J. S. Nelson, “Treatment of port-wine stain birthmarks using the 1.5-msec pulsed dye laser at high fluences in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling,” Dermatol. Surg. 28, 309–313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nehal, K.

J. Bhawan, A. Gonzalez-Serva, K. Nehal, R. Labadie, L. Lufrano, E. G. Thorne, B. A. Gilchrest, “Effects of tretinoin on photodamaged skin. A histologic study,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 666–672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

K. M. Kelly, V. S. Nanda, J. S. Nelson, “Treatment of port-wine stain birthmarks using the 1.5-msec pulsed dye laser at high fluences in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling,” Dermatol. Surg. 28, 309–313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, D. Cao, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. S. Nelson, “Vascular response to laser photothermolysis as a function of pulse duration, vessel type, and diameter: implications for port wine stain laser therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 160–169 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Aguilar, B. Majaron, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Influence of nozzle-to-skin distance in cryogen spray cooling for dermatologic laser surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 113–120 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Majaron, S. Kimel, W. Verkruysse, G. Aguilar, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling in laser dermatology: effects of ambient humidity and frost formation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 469–476 (2001).
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B. Anvari, B. V. Steeg, B. S. Tanenbaum, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling: a preliminary study during 532 nm laser irradiation of port wine stains,” Cosmet. Dermatol. 13, 22–26 (2000).

W. Verkruysse, B. Majaron, B. S. Tanenbaum, J. S. Nelson, “Optimal cryogen spray cooling parameters for pulsed laser treatment of port wine stains,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27, 165–170 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, D. J. Smithies, T. E. Milner, M. J. van Gemert, J. S. Nelson, A. J. Welch, “Bioheat transfer analysis of cryogen spray cooling during laser treatment of port wine stains,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 145–157 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, J. S. Nelson, J. H. Torres, B. Anvari, “Epidermal protection with cryogen spray cooling during high fluence pulsed dye laser irradiation: an ex vivo study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27, 373–383 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Chang, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling and higher fluence pulsed dye laser treatment improve port-wine stain clearance while minimizing epidermal damage,” Dermatol. Surg. 25, 767–772 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Torres, J. S. Nelson, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. Milner, D. M. Goodman, B. Anvari, “Estimation of internal skin temperatures in response to cryogen spray cooling: implications for laser therapy of port wine stains,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1058–1066 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. van Gemert, D. J. Smithies, W. Verkruysse, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, “Wavelengths for port wine stain laser treatment: influence of vessel radius and skin anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 41–50 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, B. Anvari, B. S. Tanenbaum, L. O. Svaasand, S. Kimel, “Dynamic epidermal cooling in conjunction with laser-induced photothermolysis of port wine stain blood vessels,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 224–229 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Anvari, T. E. Milner, B. S. Tanenbaum, S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “Dynamic epidermal cooling in conjunction with laser treatment of port-wine stains: theoretical and preliminary clinical evaluations,” Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Anvari, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. E. Milner, S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “A theoretical study of the thermal response of skin to cryogen spray cooling and pulsed laser irradiation: implications for treatment of port wine stain birthmarks,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1451–1465 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, B. Majaron, G. Aguilar, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “Dynamics of cryogen spray deposition relative to heat extraction rate during cryogen spray cooling,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems X, R. R. Anderson, K. Bartels, L. S. Bass, eds., Proc. SPIE3907, 37–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noe, J. M.

J. L. Finley, S. H. Barsky, D. E. Geer, B. R. Kamat, J. M. Noe, S. Rosen, “Healing of port-wine stains after argon laser therapy,” Arch. Dermatol. 117, 486–489 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, J. M. Noe, “The nature and evolution of port wine stains: a computer-assisted study,” J. Invest Dermatol. 74, 154–157 (1980).
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Ozisik, M. N.

M. N. Ozisik, Heat Conduction (Wiley, New York, 1993).

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J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. Patrick, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, B. Anvari, “In vivo study of epidermal protection by cryogen spray cooling during pulsed laser irradiation at high radiant exposures,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems XII, L. S. Bass, N. Kollias, eds., Proc. SPIE4609, 67–74 (2002).

Pearce, J.

J. Pearce, S. L. Thomsen, “Rate process analysis of thermal damage,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), pp. 561–606.
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Pearse, A.

H. Lu, C. Edwards, S. Gaskell, A. Pearse, R. Marks, “Melanin content and distribution in the surface corneocyte with skin phototypes,” Br. J. Dermatol. 135, 263–267 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfefer, T. J.

T. J. Pfefer, D. J. Smithies, T. E. Milner, M. J. van Gemert, J. S. Nelson, A. J. Welch, “Bioheat transfer analysis of cryogen spray cooling during laser treatment of port wine stains,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 145–157 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickering, J. W.

W. Verkruysse, J. W. Pickering, J. F. Beek, M. Keijzer, M. J. van Gemert, “Modeling the effect of wavelength on the pulsed dye laser treatment of port wine stains,” Appl. Opt. 32, 393–398 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, J. W. Pickering, O. T. Tan, “Laser treatment of port-wine stains,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), pp. 789–830.
[CrossRef]

Pikkula, B. M.

J. H. Torres, J. W. Tunnell, B. M. Pikkula, B. Anvari, “An analysis of heat removal during cryogen spray cooling and effects of simultaneous airflow application,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 477–486 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Pikkula, J. H. Torres, J. W. Tunnell, B. Anvari, “Cryogen spray cooling: effects of droplet size and spray density on heat removal,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 103–112 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pope, K.

G. Aguilar, B. Majaron, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Influence of nozzle-to-skin distance in cryogen spray cooling for dermatologic laser surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 113–120 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Majaron, S. Kimel, W. Verkruysse, G. Aguilar, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling in laser dermatology: effects of ambient humidity and frost formation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 469–476 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priebe, L. A.

A. J. Welch, E. H. Wissler, L. A. Priebe, “Significance of blood flow in calculations of temperature in laser irradiated tissue,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 27, 164–166 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reyes, B. A.

B. A. Reyes, R. Geronemus, “Treatment of port-wine stains during childhood with the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 23, 1142–1148 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, S.

J. L. Finley, S. H. Barsky, D. E. Geer, B. R. Kamat, J. M. Noe, S. Rosen, “Healing of port-wine stains after argon laser therapy,” Arch. Dermatol. 117, 486–489 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, J. M. Noe, “The nature and evolution of port wine stains: a computer-assisted study,” J. Invest Dermatol. 74, 154–157 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smithies, D. J.

T. J. Pfefer, D. J. Smithies, T. E. Milner, M. J. van Gemert, J. S. Nelson, A. J. Welch, “Bioheat transfer analysis of cryogen spray cooling during laser treatment of port wine stains,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 145–157 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. van Gemert, D. J. Smithies, W. Verkruysse, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, “Wavelengths for port wine stain laser treatment: influence of vessel radius and skin anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 41–50 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohn, S.

E. S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. Im, K. B. Lee, S. Sohn, W. H. Kang, “Application of computerized image analysis in pigmentary skin diseases,” Int. J. Dermatol. 40, 45–49 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solares, G.

J. Bhawan, W. Andersen, J. Lee, R. Labadie, G. Solares, “Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin,” J. Cutan. Pathol. 22, 154–159 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Star, W. M.

M. J. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steeg, B. V.

B. Anvari, B. V. Steeg, B. S. Tanenbaum, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling: a preliminary study during 532 nm laser irradiation of port wine stains,” Cosmet. Dermatol. 13, 22–26 (2000).

Sterenborg, H. J.

M. J. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoll, A. M.

J. A. Weaver, A. M. Stoll, “Mathematical model of skin exposed to thermal radiation,” Aerosp. Med. 40, 24–30 (1969).
[PubMed]

Sturesson, C.

C. Sturesson, S. Andersson-Engels, “Mathematical modelling of dynamic cooling and pre-heating, used to increase the depth of selective damage to blood vessels in laser treatment of port wine stains,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 413–428 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svaasand, L. O.

S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, D. Cao, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. S. Nelson, “Vascular response to laser photothermolysis as a function of pulse duration, vessel type, and diameter: implications for port wine stain laser therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 160–169 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Aguilar, B. Majaron, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Influence of nozzle-to-skin distance in cryogen spray cooling for dermatologic laser surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 113–120 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Majaron, S. Kimel, W. Verkruysse, G. Aguilar, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling in laser dermatology: effects of ambient humidity and frost formation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 469–476 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, B. Anvari, B. S. Tanenbaum, L. O. Svaasand, S. Kimel, “Dynamic epidermal cooling in conjunction with laser-induced photothermolysis of port wine stain blood vessels,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 224–229 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Anvari, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. E. Milner, S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “A theoretical study of the thermal response of skin to cryogen spray cooling and pulsed laser irradiation: implications for treatment of port wine stain birthmarks,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1451–1465 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Anvari, T. E. Milner, B. S. Tanenbaum, S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “Dynamic epidermal cooling in conjunction with laser treatment of port-wine stains: theoretical and preliminary clinical evaluations,” Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Verkruysse, B. Majaron, G. Aguilar, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “Dynamics of cryogen spray deposition relative to heat extraction rate during cryogen spray cooling,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems X, R. R. Anderson, K. Bartels, L. S. Bass, eds., Proc. SPIE3907, 37–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tan, O. T.

M. J. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, J. W. Pickering, O. T. Tan, “Laser treatment of port-wine stains,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), pp. 789–830.
[CrossRef]

Tanenbaum, B. S.

W. Verkruysse, B. Majaron, B. S. Tanenbaum, J. S. Nelson, “Optimal cryogen spray cooling parameters for pulsed laser treatment of port wine stains,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27, 165–170 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Anvari, B. V. Steeg, B. S. Tanenbaum, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling: a preliminary study during 532 nm laser irradiation of port wine stains,” Cosmet. Dermatol. 13, 22–26 (2000).

J. H. Torres, J. S. Nelson, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. Milner, D. M. Goodman, B. Anvari, “Estimation of internal skin temperatures in response to cryogen spray cooling: implications for laser therapy of port wine stains,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1058–1066 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, B. Anvari, B. S. Tanenbaum, L. O. Svaasand, S. Kimel, “Dynamic epidermal cooling in conjunction with laser-induced photothermolysis of port wine stain blood vessels,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 224–229 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Anvari, T. E. Milner, B. S. Tanenbaum, S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “Dynamic epidermal cooling in conjunction with laser treatment of port-wine stains: theoretical and preliminary clinical evaluations,” Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Anvari, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. E. Milner, S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “A theoretical study of the thermal response of skin to cryogen spray cooling and pulsed laser irradiation: implications for treatment of port wine stain birthmarks,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1451–1465 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, S. L.

J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. Patrick, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, B. Anvari, “In vivo study of epidermal protection by cryogen spray cooling during pulsed laser irradiation at high radiant exposures,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems XII, L. S. Bass, N. Kollias, eds., Proc. SPIE4609, 67–74 (2002).

J. Pearce, S. L. Thomsen, “Rate process analysis of thermal damage,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), pp. 561–606.
[CrossRef]

Thorne, E. G.

J. Bhawan, A. Gonzalez-Serva, K. Nehal, R. Labadie, L. Lufrano, E. G. Thorne, B. A. Gilchrest, “Effects of tretinoin on photodamaged skin. A histologic study,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 666–672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres, J. H.

J. W. Tunnell, J. H. Torres, B. Anvari, “Methodology for estimation of time-dependent surface heat flux due to cryogen spray cooling,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 30, 19–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Pikkula, J. H. Torres, J. W. Tunnell, B. Anvari, “Cryogen spray cooling: effects of droplet size and spray density on heat removal,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 103–112 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Torres, J. W. Tunnell, B. M. Pikkula, B. Anvari, “An analysis of heat removal during cryogen spray cooling and effects of simultaneous airflow application,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 477–486 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, J. S. Nelson, J. H. Torres, B. Anvari, “Epidermal protection with cryogen spray cooling during high fluence pulsed dye laser irradiation: an ex vivo study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27, 373–383 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Torres, J. S. Nelson, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. Milner, D. M. Goodman, B. Anvari, “Estimation of internal skin temperatures in response to cryogen spray cooling: implications for laser therapy of port wine stains,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1058–1066 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. Patrick, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, B. Anvari, “In vivo study of epidermal protection by cryogen spray cooling during pulsed laser irradiation at high radiant exposures,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems XII, L. S. Bass, N. Kollias, eds., Proc. SPIE4609, 67–74 (2002).

Tunnell, J. W.

J. W. Tunnell, J. H. Torres, B. Anvari, “Methodology for estimation of time-dependent surface heat flux due to cryogen spray cooling,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 30, 19–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Pikkula, J. H. Torres, J. W. Tunnell, B. Anvari, “Cryogen spray cooling: effects of droplet size and spray density on heat removal,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 103–112 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Torres, J. W. Tunnell, B. M. Pikkula, B. Anvari, “An analysis of heat removal during cryogen spray cooling and effects of simultaneous airflow application,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 477–486 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, J. S. Nelson, J. H. Torres, B. Anvari, “Epidermal protection with cryogen spray cooling during high fluence pulsed dye laser irradiation: an ex vivo study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27, 373–383 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. Patrick, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, B. Anvari, “In vivo study of epidermal protection by cryogen spray cooling during pulsed laser irradiation at high radiant exposures,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems XII, L. S. Bass, N. Kollias, eds., Proc. SPIE4609, 67–74 (2002).

van Gemert, M. J.

T. J. Pfefer, D. J. Smithies, T. E. Milner, M. J. van Gemert, J. S. Nelson, A. J. Welch, “Bioheat transfer analysis of cryogen spray cooling during laser treatment of port wine stains,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 145–157 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. van Gemert, D. J. Smithies, W. Verkruysse, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, “Wavelengths for port wine stain laser treatment: influence of vessel radius and skin anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 41–50 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Lucassen, W. Verkruysse, M. Keijzer, M. J. van Gemert, “Light distributions in a port wine stain model containing multiple cylindrical and curved blood vessels,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 345–357 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, J. W. Pickering, J. F. Beek, M. Keijzer, M. J. van Gemert, “Modeling the effect of wavelength on the pulsed dye laser treatment of port wine stains,” Appl. Opt. 32, 393–398 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, J. W. Pickering, O. T. Tan, “Laser treatment of port-wine stains,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), pp. 789–830.
[CrossRef]

Veitch, A. R.

I. D. Miller, A. R. Veitch, “Optical modelling of light distributions in skin tissue following laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 565–571 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verkruysse, W.

B. Majaron, S. Kimel, W. Verkruysse, G. Aguilar, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling in laser dermatology: effects of ambient humidity and frost formation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 469–476 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, B. Majaron, B. S. Tanenbaum, J. S. Nelson, “Optimal cryogen spray cooling parameters for pulsed laser treatment of port wine stains,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27, 165–170 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. van Gemert, D. J. Smithies, W. Verkruysse, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, “Wavelengths for port wine stain laser treatment: influence of vessel radius and skin anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 41–50 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Lucassen, W. Verkruysse, M. Keijzer, M. J. van Gemert, “Light distributions in a port wine stain model containing multiple cylindrical and curved blood vessels,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 345–357 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, J. W. Pickering, J. F. Beek, M. Keijzer, M. J. van Gemert, “Modeling the effect of wavelength on the pulsed dye laser treatment of port wine stains,” Appl. Opt. 32, 393–398 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, B. Majaron, G. Aguilar, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “Dynamics of cryogen spray deposition relative to heat extraction rate during cryogen spray cooling,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems X, R. R. Anderson, K. Bartels, L. S. Bass, eds., Proc. SPIE3907, 37–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

Weaver, J. A.

J. A. Weaver, A. M. Stoll, “Mathematical model of skin exposed to thermal radiation,” Aerosp. Med. 40, 24–30 (1969).
[PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

T. J. Pfefer, D. J. Smithies, T. E. Milner, M. J. van Gemert, J. S. Nelson, A. J. Welch, “Bioheat transfer analysis of cryogen spray cooling during laser treatment of port wine stains,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 145–157 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Welch, E. H. Wissler, L. A. Priebe, “Significance of blood flow in calculations of temperature in laser irradiated tissue,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 27, 164–166 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, J. W. Pickering, O. T. Tan, “Laser treatment of port-wine stains,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), pp. 789–830.
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

B. C. Wilson, G. Adam, “A Monte Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue,” Med. Phys. 10, 824–830 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wissler, E. H.

A. J. Welch, E. H. Wissler, L. A. Priebe, “Significance of blood flow in calculations of temperature in laser irradiated tissue,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 27, 164–166 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wlotzke, U.

U. Wlotzke, U. Hohenleutner, T. A. Abd-El-Raheem, W. Baumler, M. Landthaler, “Side-effects and complications of flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser therapy of port-wine stains. A prospective study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 134, 475–480 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, C. D.

M. K. Loze, C. D. Wright, “Temperature distributions in laser-heated biological tissue with application to birthmark removal,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 74–85 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ying, S. Y.

W. S. Ho, H. H. Chan, S. Y. Ying, P. C. Chan, “Laser treatment of congenital facial port-wine stains: long-term efficacy and complication in Chinese patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 44–47 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aerosp. Med.

J. A. Weaver, A. M. Stoll, “Mathematical model of skin exposed to thermal radiation,” Aerosp. Med. 40, 24–30 (1969).
[PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng.

J. W. Tunnell, J. H. Torres, B. Anvari, “Methodology for estimation of time-dependent surface heat flux due to cryogen spray cooling,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 30, 19–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Dermatol.

J. L. Finley, S. H. Barsky, D. E. Geer, B. R. Kamat, J. M. Noe, S. Rosen, “Healing of port-wine stains after argon laser therapy,” Arch. Dermatol. 117, 486–489 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bhawan, A. Gonzalez-Serva, K. Nehal, R. Labadie, L. Lufrano, E. G. Thorne, B. A. Gilchrest, “Effects of tretinoin on photodamaged skin. A histologic study,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 666–672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Dermatol.

H. Lu, C. Edwards, S. Gaskell, A. Pearse, R. Marks, “Melanin content and distribution in the surface corneocyte with skin phototypes,” Br. J. Dermatol. 135, 263–267 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wlotzke, U. Hohenleutner, T. A. Abd-El-Raheem, W. Baumler, M. Landthaler, “Side-effects and complications of flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser therapy of port-wine stains. A prospective study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 134, 475–480 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cosmet. Dermatol.

B. Anvari, B. V. Steeg, B. S. Tanenbaum, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling: a preliminary study during 532 nm laser irradiation of port wine stains,” Cosmet. Dermatol. 13, 22–26 (2000).

Dermatol. Surg.

C. J. Chang, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling and higher fluence pulsed dye laser treatment improve port-wine stain clearance while minimizing epidermal damage,” Dermatol. Surg. 25, 767–772 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kelly, V. S. Nanda, J. S. Nelson, “Treatment of port-wine stain birthmarks using the 1.5-msec pulsed dye laser at high fluences in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling,” Dermatol. Surg. 28, 309–313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. H. Torres, J. S. Nelson, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. Milner, D. M. Goodman, B. Anvari, “Estimation of internal skin temperatures in response to cryogen spray cooling: implications for laser therapy of port wine stains,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1058–1066 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

M. J. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Welch, E. H. Wissler, L. A. Priebe, “Significance of blood flow in calculations of temperature in laser irradiated tissue,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 27, 164–166 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Dermatol.

E. S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. Im, K. B. Lee, S. Sohn, W. H. Kang, “Application of computerized image analysis in pigmentary skin diseases,” Int. J. Dermatol. 40, 45–49 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.

W. K. Andersen, R. R. Labadie, J. Bhawan, “Histopathology of solar lentigines of the face: a quantitative study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 36, 444–447 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Reyes, R. Geronemus, “Treatment of port-wine stains during childhood with the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 23, 1142–1148 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. K. Loze, C. D. Wright, “Temperature distributions in laser-heated biological tissue with application to birthmark removal,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 74–85 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cutan. Pathol.

J. Bhawan, W. Andersen, J. Lee, R. Labadie, G. Solares, “Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin,” J. Cutan. Pathol. 22, 154–159 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest Dermatol.

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, J. M. Noe, “The nature and evolution of port wine stains: a computer-assisted study,” J. Invest Dermatol. 74, 154–157 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci.

B. Anvari, T. E. Milner, B. S. Tanenbaum, S. Kimel, L. O. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, “Dynamic epidermal cooling in conjunction with laser treatment of port-wine stains: theoretical and preliminary clinical evaluations,” Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med.

J. W. Tunnell, J. S. Nelson, J. H. Torres, B. Anvari, “Epidermal protection with cryogen spray cooling during high fluence pulsed dye laser irradiation: an ex vivo study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27, 373–383 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, B. Majaron, B. S. Tanenbaum, J. S. Nelson, “Optimal cryogen spray cooling parameters for pulsed laser treatment of port wine stains,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27, 165–170 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Miller, A. R. Veitch, “Optical modelling of light distributions in skin tissue following laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 565–571 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Ho, H. H. Chan, S. Y. Ying, P. C. Chan, “Laser treatment of congenital facial port-wine stains: long-term efficacy and complication in Chinese patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 44–47 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Torres, J. W. Tunnell, B. M. Pikkula, B. Anvari, “An analysis of heat removal during cryogen spray cooling and effects of simultaneous airflow application,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 477–486 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, D. J. Smithies, T. E. Milner, M. J. van Gemert, J. S. Nelson, A. J. Welch, “Bioheat transfer analysis of cryogen spray cooling during laser treatment of port wine stains,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 145–157 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Lucassen, W. Verkruysse, M. Keijzer, M. J. van Gemert, “Light distributions in a port wine stain model containing multiple cylindrical and curved blood vessels,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 345–357 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, B. Anvari, B. S. Tanenbaum, L. O. Svaasand, S. Kimel, “Dynamic epidermal cooling in conjunction with laser-induced photothermolysis of port wine stain blood vessels,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 224–229 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Majaron, S. Kimel, W. Verkruysse, G. Aguilar, K. Pope, L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Lavernia, J. S. Nelson, “Cryogen spray cooling in laser dermatology: effects of ambient humidity and frost formation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 469–476 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the components in the mathematical model.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometries used in this study. A 10-μm-thick basal layer was located 60 μm below the skin surface. Four vessel diameters [d = 40, 80, 120, 400 μm; (a), (b), (c), and (d) respectively] at their respective blood volume fractions (p bl) of 3.2%, 6%, 8%, and 10% were investigated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Threshold radiant exposure D th for epidermal damage versus duration of the cryogen spurt t CSC for lightly pigmented (p mel = 5%), moderately pigmented (p mel = 25%), and dark (p mel = 50%) skin (t p = 1.5 ms, d = 80 μm). Also plotted are values of therapeutic radiant exposure D o , defined as the value necessary to induce a temperature of 120 °C within the most superficial blood vessels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Three-dimensional plots of the temperature, with the x direction coming out of the page, for a 1.5-ms laser pulse without [(a), (c), (e)] and with [(b), (d), (f)] t CSC = 300 ms. Temperature profiles are shown immediately [(a) and (b)], 5 ms [(c) and (d)], and 10 ms [(e) and (f)] following the laser pulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Damage profile maps in skin for d = 80 μm, t p = 1.5 ms, and p mel = 25%: (a) no CSC and D th (=3.1 J/cm2), (b) 50 ms CSC and D th (=4.5 J/cm2), (c) 300 ms CSC and D th (=6.6 J/cm2), and (d) no CSC with D = 6.6 J/cm2 [i.e. case (c) without CSC].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Peak temperature T peak generated within the blood vessel and epidermis versus pulse duration t p for a constant radiant exposure.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Therapeutic radiant exposure D o versus laser pulse duration t p for each of the vessel sizes in this study.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Peak temperature T peak within the epidermis immediately at the end of the laser pulse when the skin is irradiated at the therapeutic radiant exposure D o versus laser pulse duration (t p ) for each vessel size in this study.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Peak temperature T peak within the epidermis immediately at the end of the laser pulse when the skin is irradiated at the therapeutic radiant exposure D o versus laser pulse duration t p for d = 120 μm without and with CSC (t CSC = 100 ms). Dashed curve, threshold temperature for epidermal damage (T th).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

False color temperature and skin damage maps for d = 120 μm and p mel = 50%. Four cases are shown: (a), (b) D = D o for t p = 0.5 ms, t CSC = 0 ms; (c), (d) D = D o for t p = 0.5 ms, t CSC = 100 ms; (e), (f) D = D o for t p = 20 ms, t CSC = 0 ms; and (g), (h) D = D o for t p = 20 ms, t CSC = 100 ms.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Properties of Various Skin Components Used in Our Monte Carlo Modela

Tables Icon

Table 2 Surface Thermal Boundary Condition Parameters

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μamel-epipmel=pmelμamel+100-pmelμaepi100,
κ2Tx, z, t+Sx, z=ρC Tx, z, tt.
qi=hiTi-Tt|z=0,
Ωx, z, τ=lnCx, z, 0Cx, z, τ=A 0τexp-ΔERTx, z, tdt,
Tth=ΔERlntp-ln1A.

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