Abstract

We present a system for the control and signal extraction of a power-recycled Michelson interferometer with resonant sideband extraction. This control system is capable of locking four degrees of freedom to a fixed point while locking the signal cavity to an arbitrary detuned point. One of the strengths of this system is that it can quickly change the instrument’s frequency response without disrupting continuous operation. We report on an experimental implementation of this control system on a benchtop prototype and present broadband measurements of the prototype’s frequency response for a range of signal cavity detunings.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003

2002

G. de Vine, D. A. Shaddock, D. E. McClelland, “Variable reflectivity signal mirrors and signal response measurements,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1561–1568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Bondu, A. Brillet, F. Cleva, H. Heitmann, M. Loupias, C. N. Man, H. Trinqetthe VIRGO Collaboration, “The VIRGO injection system,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1829–1833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

1995

1993

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Abramovici, A.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguirregabiria, J. M.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Althouse, W.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barone, F.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bel, H.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bonazzola, S.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bondu, F.

F. Bondu, A. Brillet, F. Cleva, H. Heitmann, M. Loupias, C. N. Man, H. Trinqetthe VIRGO Collaboration, “The VIRGO injection system,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1829–1833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bradaschia, C.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brillet, A.

F. Bondu, A. Brillet, F. Cleva, H. Heitmann, M. Loupias, C. N. Man, H. Trinqetthe VIRGO Collaboration, “The VIRGO injection system,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1829–1833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Brillet, personal communication. (Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Nice, France, 2000).

Capozzi, M.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. M.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cleva, F.

F. Bondu, A. Brillet, F. Cleva, H. Heitmann, M. Loupias, C. N. Man, H. Trinqetthe VIRGO Collaboration, “The VIRGO injection system,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1829–1833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cregut, O.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Damour, T.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

de Vine, G.

G. de Vine, D. A. Shaddock, D. E. McClelland, “Variable reflectivity signal mirrors and signal response measurements,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1561–1568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Del Fabbro, R.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Delker, T.

Di Fiore, L.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Di Virgilio, A.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Duruisseau, J. P.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fritschel, P.

Fuligni, F.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Giame, J.

Giazotto, A.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gourghoulon, Y.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gray, M. B.

Gursel, Y.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, H.

F. Bondu, A. Brillet, F. Cleva, H. Heitmann, M. Loupias, C. N. Man, H. Trinqetthe VIRGO Collaboration, “The VIRGO injection system,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1829–1833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hello, P.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hill, W.

P. Horowitz, W. Hill, The Art of Electronics, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1991).

Holloway, L. E.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, P.

P. Horowitz, W. Hill, The Art of Electronics, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1991).

Hough, J.

P. W. McNamara, H. Ward, J. Hough, “Laser phase-locking techniques for LISA: experimental status,” AIP Conf. Proc. 456, 143–147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Iafolla, V.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kautzky, H.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, S.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Le Denmat, G.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Longo, M.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lops, M.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Loupias, M.

F. Bondu, A. Brillet, F. Cleva, H. Heitmann, M. Loupias, C. N. Man, H. Trinqetthe VIRGO Collaboration, “The VIRGO injection system,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1829–1833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Man, C. N.

F. Bondu, A. Brillet, F. Cleva, H. Heitmann, M. Loupias, C. N. Man, H. Trinqetthe VIRGO Collaboration, “The VIRGO injection system,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1829–1833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Manh, P. T.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marck, J. A.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marraud, A.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mason, J.

J. Mason, P. Willems, “Signal extraction and length sensing for LIGO II RSE,” in Gravitational Waves: Third Edoardo Amaldi Conference, S. Meshkov, ed. (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 2000), pp. 208–211.

Mason, J. E.

Mavalvala, N.

McClelland, D. E.

McNamara, P. W.

P. W. McNamara, H. Ward, J. Hough, “Laser phase-locking techniques for LISA: experimental status,” AIP Conf. Proc. 456, 143–147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Milano, L.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, J.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Mizuno, “Comparison of optical configurations for laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Ph.D. dissertation (Max-Planck-Institut Fur Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany, 1995).

Montelatici, V.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mow-Lowry, C.

Müller, G.

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Natale, G.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, P. G.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Passuello, D.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, I.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
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Raab, F. J.

M. W. Regehr, F. J. Raab, S. E. Whitcomb, “Demonstration of a power-recycled Michelson interferometer with Fabry-Perot arms by frontal modulation,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1507–1509 (1995).
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A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regehr, M. W.

Reitze, D. H.

Rotoli, G.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rudiger, A.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Russo, G.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, R.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shaddock, D. A.

K. A. Strain, G. Müller, T. Delker, D. H. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. E. Mason, P. A. Willems, D. A. Shaddock, M. B. Gray, C. Mow-Lowry, D. E. McClelland, “Sensing and control in dual-recycling laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1244–1256 (2003).
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G. de Vine, D. A. Shaddock, D. E. McClelland, “Variable reflectivity signal mirrors and signal response measurements,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1561–1568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Shaddock, “Advanced interferometry for gravitational wave detection,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, 2000); http://thesis.anu.edu.au/public/ .

Shoemaker, D.

D. Sigg, N. Mavalvala, J. Giame, P. Fritschel, D. Shoemaker, “Signal extraction in a power-recycled Michelson interferometer with Fabry-Perot arm cavities by use of a multiple-carrier frontal modulation scheme,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5687–5693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sievers, L.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigg, D.

Spero, R.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strain, K. A.

K. A. Strain, G. Müller, T. Delker, D. H. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. E. Mason, P. A. Willems, D. A. Shaddock, M. B. Gray, C. Mow-Lowry, D. E. McClelland, “Sensing and control in dual-recycling laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1244–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, D. B.

Taylor, F. J.

A. B. Williams, F. J. Taylor, Electronic Filter Design Handbook: LC, Active and Digital Filters, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988).

Thorne, K.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tourrenc, Ph.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trinqet, H.

F. Bondu, A. Brillet, F. Cleva, H. Heitmann, M. Loupias, C. N. Man, H. Trinqetthe VIRGO Collaboration, “The VIRGO injection system,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1829–1833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vinet, J. Y.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, R.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, H.

P. W. McNamara, H. Ward, J. Hough, “Laser phase-locking techniques for LISA: experimental status,” AIP Conf. Proc. 456, 143–147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, R.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitcomb, S.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitcomb, S. E.

Willems, P.

J. Mason, P. Willems, “Signal extraction and length sensing for LIGO II RSE,” in Gravitational Waves: Third Edoardo Amaldi Conference, S. Meshkov, ed. (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 2000), pp. 208–211.

Willems, P. A.

Williams, A. B.

A. B. Williams, F. J. Taylor, Electronic Filter Design Handbook: LC, Active and Digital Filters, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988).

Winkler, W.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zucker, M.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AIP Conf. Proc.

P. W. McNamara, H. Ward, J. Hough, “Laser phase-locking techniques for LISA: experimental status,” AIP Conf. Proc. 456, 143–147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Class. Quantum Grav.

G. de Vine, D. A. Shaddock, D. E. McClelland, “Variable reflectivity signal mirrors and signal response measurements,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1561–1568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Bondu, A. Brillet, F. Cleva, H. Heitmann, M. Loupias, C. N. Man, H. Trinqetthe VIRGO Collaboration, “The VIRGO injection system,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1829–1833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett. A

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. Mason, P. Willems, “Signal extraction and length sensing for LIGO II RSE,” in Gravitational Waves: Third Edoardo Amaldi Conference, S. Meshkov, ed. (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 2000), pp. 208–211.

LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Advanced LIGO systems design,” P. Fritschel, ed., LIGO Tech. Note T010075; available from the LIGO Document Control Center at http://antares.ligo.caltech.edu/dcc/default.htf (2001).

The Michelson common-mode degree of freedom ϕ+ is also referred to as the power cavity degree of freedom.

J. Mizuno, “Comparison of optical configurations for laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Ph.D. dissertation (Max-Planck-Institut Fur Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany, 1995).

P. Horowitz, W. Hill, The Art of Electronics, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1991).

As the single-sideband frequency changes, it is not always exactly at the point of maximum transmission.

G. Müller, personal communication (Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., 2000).

A. Brillet, personal communication. (Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Nice, France, 2000).

A. B. Williams, F. J. Taylor, Electronic Filter Design Handbook: LC, Active and Digital Filters, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988).

D. A. Shaddock, “Advanced interferometry for gravitational wave detection,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, 2000); http://thesis.anu.edu.au/public/ .

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the power-recycled Michelson with RSE showing length definitions and photodetector positions. RP, reflected port; PCP, power cavity port; TP, transmission port.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modulation sidebands required on the input field for the power-recycled RSE Michelson control system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of input field generation when the low-power subcarrier is offset phase locked to the high-power carrier after each laser is phase modulated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical spectrum of the input field measured with a 100-mm-long scanning confocal resonator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Radio-frequency (RF) spectrum of the phase-locking detector photocurrent with both modulation frequencies on and the subcarrier offset phase locked at 188.2 MHz.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Radio-frequency (RF) spectrum of the phase-locking detector photocurrent near the subcarrier-carrier beat note frequency.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Alternative experimental techniques to produce the electronic local oscillator for the Φ- and ϕ- degrees of freedom. We can use either (a) the signal generator used to phase lock the two lasers or (b) the beat note measured on the phase-locking photodetector.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of error signals obtained with different local oscillators. (a) Mixer output as one arm cavity is scanned (upper trace, signal generator local oscillator; lower trace, beat note local oscillator). (b) Fast Fourier transform of the mixer output when one arm cavity is locked.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical experimental layout for the RSE system. EOM, electro-optic phase modulator; OFR, optical Faraday rotator; pbs, polarizing beam splitter; PM, power mirror; SM, signal mirror; BS, main Michelson beam splitter, ACI, arm cavity in line; ACP, arm cavity perpendicular; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Power levels during lock acquisition for the power-recycled Michelson with RSE. dc levels shown (from top to bottom): RP, PCP, TP, ac in-line transmitted, and ac perpendicular (Perp.) transmitted power.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Optical spectra for a power-recycled Michelson with RSE showing the field at the input (upper trace), at the PCP (middle trace), and at the TP (lower trace).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measurement of interferometer power levels over a period of 500 s at the (a) PCP, (b) TP, (c) arm cavity in-line TP, and (d) arm cavity perpendicular (Perp) TP.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Measured frequency response (both positive and negative frequencies) of the signal transfer from one arm cavity to the Φ- error signal for the RSE Michelson system. The signal cavity detunings are indicated on the responses. Large spikes at zero frequency are an artifact of the measurement system, specifically the noise floor of the spectrum analyzer. DR, dual recycling.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) Measured and (b) calculated signal transfer from ac in-line to Φ- error signal for signal cavity detunings of 5°, 30°, and 88° from RSE with a linear vertical scale. The vertical scale of (b) was adjusted to roughly correspond to experimental data; measured values were used for all other parameters. Once again, the spikes at zero frequency are an artifact of the measurement system. DR, dual recycling.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Arm cavities’ transmitted (Tx) powers during detuning of the signal cavity from 30° (184.315-MHz subcarrier offset) to 15° (186.445-MHz subcarrier offset) at a rate of approximately 4 kHz/s.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Input optical spectra required for near RSE (188.2-MHz subcarrier offset) and for near dual recycling (DR) (177.035-MHz subcarrier offset), illustrating the amount of subcarrier offset tuning required.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Relationships between Interferometer Lengths and Modulation Frequencies (n represents an integer)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Look-Up Table for Subcarrier Frequency Offset Required for Signal Cavity Detuning

Tables Icon

Table 3 Measured Intensity Reflectivities, Transmissivities, and Radii of Curvature for the Benchtop Prototype Mirrors

Equations (24)

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Φ+  Laci+Lacp2,
Φ-  Laci-Lacp2,
ϕ+  Lp+Lm,
ϕ-  2ΔL,
ϕs  Ls+Lm.
ΔL=c/4ν1.
ν1=nc2Lp+Lm.
Φ+=demodulate PCP at ν1,
Φ-=demodulate TP at νsc,
ϕ+=demodulate RP at ν1,
ϕ-=demodulate TP at νsc, ν1,
ϕs=demodulate RP at ν2.
ΔL=c4ν1=0.9875 m, Lp+Lm=c2ν1=1.975 m,
Ls=Lp=0.8 m, Laci=Lacp=0.175 m.
E1expi2πνt,
E2expi2πν+2πνsct+ϕ0,
Edet=itbsE1expi2πνt+rbsE2 expi2πν+2πνsct+Δϕ,
Pdet=Edet*Edet
=tbs2E12+rbs2E22+tbsrbsE1E2 sin2πνsct+Δϕ.
sin2πνsct+Δϕcos2πνsct=12sinΔϕ+12sin4πνsct+Δϕ.
sin2πνsct+Δϕr.
sin2πνsct+Δϕr+ϕs.
sin2πνsct+Δϕr+ϕscos2πνsc=12sinΔϕr+ϕs,
sin2πνsct+Δϕr+ϕscos2πνsc+Δϕr=12sinϕs,

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