Abstract

Optical nonlinearities of five new organophosphorus fullerene derivatives with similar structures were determined by the Z-scan method by use of a nanosecond-pulse laser at 532 nm. The experimental results demonstrate that the five derivatives have much larger excited-state absorption and nonlinear refraction than C60. The excited-state absorption cross sections are nearly two to three times that of C60. Using a five-level model to fit the experimental data, we obtained some parameters such as excited-state absorption and refraction cross sections. A simple analysis of correlations between molecular structure and nonlinear properties is given. Optical nonlinearities of the five new organophosphorus fullerene derivatives were compared with those of some other kinds of fullerene derivatives, and the results show that the nonlinearities of the new derivatives are the larger.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Kost, L. W. Tutt, M. B. Kelvin, T. K. Dougherty, W. E. Elias, “Optical limiting with C60 in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Opt. Lett. 18, 334–336 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. L. Song, G. Y. Fang, Y. X. Wang, S. T. Liu, C. F. Li, L. C. Song, Y. H. Zhu, Q. M. Hu, “Excited-state absorption and optical-limiting properties of organometallic fullerene–C60 derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 332–334 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third order non-linear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B 34, 4983–4996 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Dou, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and related upconverted emission in fullerene complex,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 269–287 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Fang, Y. Song, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Li, L. Song, P. Liu, “Z-scan of excited-state nonlinear materials with reverse saturable absorption,” Opt. Commun. 183, 523–527 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Riggs, Y.-P. Sun, “Optical limiting properties of [60]fullerene and methano[60]fullerene derivative in solution versus in polymer matrix: the role of bimolecular processes and a consistent nonlinear absorption mechanism,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 485–495 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Cheng, X. Yang, C. Fan, H. Zhu, “Organophosphorus chemistry of fullerene: synthesis and biological effects of organophosphorus compounds of C-60,” Tetrahedron 57, 7331–7335 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423–1425 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. F. Yung, K. Y. Wong, “Studies of third-order nonlinear optical properties of C60 by the optical Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 585–588 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, W. P. Zang, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, “Study on thermally induced optical nonlinearities in thick media,” Acta Phys. Sin. 51, 2623–2628 (2002).
  15. S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, “Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solutions of phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 46–51 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Li, L. Zhang, R. Wang, Y. Song, Y. Wang, “Dynamics of reverse saturable absorption and all-optical switching in C60,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1356–1360 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. G. Moreno, J. L. Saiz, “Wavelength dependence of the nonlinear absorption of C60- and C70-toluene solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 2527–2532 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144–148 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, W. P. Zang, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, “Study on thermally induced optical nonlinearities in thick media,” Acta Phys. Sin. 51, 2623–2628 (2002).

2001 (2)

F. Cheng, X. Yang, C. Fan, H. Zhu, “Organophosphorus chemistry of fullerene: synthesis and biological effects of organophosphorus compounds of C-60,” Tetrahedron 57, 7331–7335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third order non-linear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B 34, 4983–4996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

K. Dou, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and related upconverted emission in fullerene complex,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 269–287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Fang, Y. Song, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Li, L. Song, P. Liu, “Z-scan of excited-state nonlinear materials with reverse saturable absorption,” Opt. Commun. 183, 523–527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Y. L. Song, G. Y. Fang, Y. X. Wang, S. T. Liu, C. F. Li, L. C. Song, Y. H. Zhu, Q. M. Hu, “Excited-state absorption and optical-limiting properties of organometallic fullerene–C60 derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 332–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Riggs, Y.-P. Sun, “Optical limiting properties of [60]fullerene and methano[60]fullerene derivative in solution versus in polymer matrix: the role of bimolecular processes and a consistent nonlinear absorption mechanism,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 485–495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

M. F. Yung, K. Y. Wong, “Studies of third-order nonlinear optical properties of C60 by the optical Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 585–588 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. G. Moreno, J. L. Saiz, “Wavelength dependence of the nonlinear absorption of C60- and C70-toluene solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 2527–2532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

1992 (4)

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, “Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solutions of phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 46–51 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tutt, A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature 356, 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Akkara, J. A.

S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barroso, J.

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. G. Moreno, J. L. Saiz, “Wavelength dependence of the nonlinear absorption of C60- and C70-toluene solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 2527–2532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W. J.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandelik, D. M.

Brant, M. C.

Byrne, H. J.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callaghan, J.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cardin, D. J.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, F.

F. Cheng, X. Yang, C. Fan, H. Zhu, “Organophosphorus chemistry of fullerene: synthesis and biological effects of organophosphorus compounds of C-60,” Tetrahedron 57, 7331–7335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Costela, A.

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. G. Moreno, J. L. Saiz, “Wavelength dependence of the nonlinear absorption of C60- and C70-toluene solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 2527–2532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coulter, D. R.

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, “Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solutions of phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 46–51 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Couris, S.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third order non-linear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B 34, 4983–4996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

DeCristofano, B. S.

S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, T. J.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dou, K.

K. Dou, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and related upconverted emission in fullerene complex,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 269–287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dougherty, T. K.

Elias, W. E.

Fan, C.

F. Cheng, X. Yang, C. Fan, H. Zhu, “Organophosphorus chemistry of fullerene: synthesis and biological effects of organophosphorus compounds of C-60,” Tetrahedron 57, 7331–7335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fang, G.

G. Fang, Y. Song, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Li, L. Song, P. Liu, “Z-scan of excited-state nonlinear materials with reverse saturable absorption,” Opt. Commun. 183, 523–527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fang, G. Y.

Y. L. Song, G. Y. Fang, Y. X. Wang, S. T. Liu, C. F. Li, L. C. Song, Y. H. Zhu, Q. M. Hu, “Excited-state absorption and optical-limiting properties of organometallic fullerene–C60 derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 332–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fleitz, P. A.

Hagan, D. J.

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, “Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solutions of phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 46–51 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J. P.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henari, F.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q. M.

Y. L. Song, G. Y. Fang, Y. X. Wang, S. T. Liu, C. F. Li, L. C. Song, Y. H. Zhu, Q. M. Hu, “Excited-state absorption and optical-limiting properties of organometallic fullerene–C60 derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 332–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. H.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kelvin, M. B.

Knobbe, E. T.

K. Dou, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and related upconverted emission in fullerene complex,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 269–287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Konstantaki, M.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third order non-linear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B 34, 4983–4996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kost, A.

Koudoumas, E.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third order non-linear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B 34, 4983–4996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kroto, H. W.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leach, S.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third order non-linear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B 34, 4983–4996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

G. Fang, Y. Song, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Li, L. Song, P. Liu, “Z-scan of excited-state nonlinear materials with reverse saturable absorption,” Opt. Commun. 183, 523–527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, L. Zhang, R. Wang, Y. Song, Y. Wang, “Dynamics of reverse saturable absorption and all-optical switching in C60,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1356–1360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. F.

Y. L. Song, G. Y. Fang, Y. X. Wang, S. T. Liu, C. F. Li, L. C. Song, Y. H. Zhu, Q. M. Hu, “Excited-state absorption and optical-limiting properties of organometallic fullerene–C60 derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 332–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. S.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P.

G. Fang, Y. Song, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Li, L. Song, P. Liu, “Z-scan of excited-state nonlinear materials with reverse saturable absorption,” Opt. Commun. 183, 523–527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. T.

Y. L. Song, G. Y. Fang, Y. X. Wang, S. T. Liu, C. F. Li, L. C. Song, Y. H. Zhu, Q. M. Hu, “Excited-state absorption and optical-limiting properties of organometallic fullerene–C60 derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 332–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mavromanolakis, A.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third order non-linear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B 34, 4983–4996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McLean, D. G.

Moreno, I. G.

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. G. Moreno, J. L. Saiz, “Wavelength dependence of the nonlinear absorption of C60- and C70-toluene solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 2527–2532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, “Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solutions of phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 46–51 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pottenger, T.

Rao, D. N.

S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rao, S. V.

S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Riggs, J. E.

J. E. Riggs, Y.-P. Sun, “Optical limiting properties of [60]fullerene and methano[60]fullerene derivative in solution versus in polymer matrix: the role of bimolecular processes and a consistent nonlinear absorption mechanism,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 485–495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Saiz, J. L.

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. G. Moreno, J. L. Saiz, “Wavelength dependence of the nonlinear absorption of C60- and C70-toluene solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 2527–2532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sence, M. J.

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, “Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solutions of phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 46–51 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Song, L.

G. Fang, Y. Song, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Li, L. Song, P. Liu, “Z-scan of excited-state nonlinear materials with reverse saturable absorption,” Opt. Commun. 183, 523–527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Song, L. C.

Y. L. Song, G. Y. Fang, Y. X. Wang, S. T. Liu, C. F. Li, L. C. Song, Y. H. Zhu, Q. M. Hu, “Excited-state absorption and optical-limiting properties of organometallic fullerene–C60 derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 332–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

G. Fang, Y. Song, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Li, L. Song, P. Liu, “Z-scan of excited-state nonlinear materials with reverse saturable absorption,” Opt. Commun. 183, 523–527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, L. Zhang, R. Wang, Y. Song, Y. Wang, “Dynamics of reverse saturable absorption and all-optical switching in C60,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1356–1360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. L.

Y. L. Song, G. Y. Fang, Y. X. Wang, S. T. Liu, C. F. Li, L. C. Song, Y. H. Zhu, Q. M. Hu, “Excited-state absorption and optical-limiting properties of organometallic fullerene–C60 derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 332–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stiel, H.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.-P.

J. E. Riggs, Y.-P. Sun, “Optical limiting properties of [60]fullerene and methano[60]fullerene derivative in solution versus in polymer matrix: the role of bimolecular processes and a consistent nonlinear absorption mechanism,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 485–495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

Taylor, R.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, J. G.

W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, W. P. Zang, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, “Study on thermally induced optical nonlinearities in thick media,” Acta Phys. Sin. 51, 2623–2628 (2002).

Tsai, P. C.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L. W.

Van Stryland, E. W.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, “Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solutions of phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 46–51 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Walton, D. R. M.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, R.

Wang, Y.

G. Fang, Y. Song, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Li, L. Song, P. Liu, “Z-scan of excited-state nonlinear materials with reverse saturable absorption,” Opt. Commun. 183, 523–527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, L. Zhang, R. Wang, Y. Song, Y. Wang, “Dynamics of reverse saturable absorption and all-optical switching in C60,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1356–1360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. X.

Y. L. Song, G. Y. Fang, Y. X. Wang, S. T. Liu, C. F. Li, L. C. Song, Y. H. Zhu, Q. M. Hu, “Excited-state absorption and optical-limiting properties of organometallic fullerene–C60 derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 332–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. Q.

W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, W. P. Zang, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, “Study on thermally induced optical nonlinearities in thick media,” Acta Phys. Sin. 51, 2623–2628 (2002).

Wei, T. H.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, “Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solutions of phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 46–51 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. Y.

M. F. Yung, K. Y. Wong, “Studies of third-order nonlinear optical properties of C60 by the optical Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 585–588 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T. T.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

F. Cheng, X. Yang, C. Fan, H. Zhu, “Organophosphorus chemistry of fullerene: synthesis and biological effects of organophosphorus compounds of C-60,” Tetrahedron 57, 7331–7335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

Yung, M. F.

M. F. Yung, K. Y. Wong, “Studies of third-order nonlinear optical properties of C60 by the optical Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 585–588 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zang, W. P.

W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, W. P. Zang, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, “Study on thermally induced optical nonlinearities in thick media,” Acta Phys. Sin. 51, 2623–2628 (2002).

Zhang, C. P.

W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, W. P. Zang, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, “Study on thermally induced optical nonlinearities in thick media,” Acta Phys. Sin. 51, 2623–2628 (2002).

Zhang, G. Y.

W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, W. P. Zang, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, “Study on thermally induced optical nonlinearities in thick media,” Acta Phys. Sin. 51, 2623–2628 (2002).

Zhang, L.

Zhang, X.

G. Fang, Y. Song, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Li, L. Song, P. Liu, “Z-scan of excited-state nonlinear materials with reverse saturable absorption,” Opt. Commun. 183, 523–527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W. Y.

W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, W. P. Zang, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, “Study on thermally induced optical nonlinearities in thick media,” Acta Phys. Sin. 51, 2623–2628 (2002).

Zhu, H.

F. Cheng, X. Yang, C. Fan, H. Zhu, “Organophosphorus chemistry of fullerene: synthesis and biological effects of organophosphorus compounds of C-60,” Tetrahedron 57, 7331–7335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y. H.

Y. L. Song, G. Y. Fang, Y. X. Wang, S. T. Liu, C. F. Li, L. C. Song, Y. H. Zhu, Q. M. Hu, “Excited-state absorption and optical-limiting properties of organometallic fullerene–C60 derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 332–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, W. P. Zang, C. P. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, “Study on thermally induced optical nonlinearities in thick media,” Acta Phys. Sin. 51, 2623–2628 (2002).

Appl. Phys. B (2)

M. F. Yung, K. Y. Wong, “Studies of third-order nonlinear optical properties of C60 by the optical Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 585–588 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, “Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solutions of phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 46–51 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. L. Song, G. Y. Fang, Y. X. Wang, S. T. Liu, C. F. Li, L. C. Song, Y. H. Zhu, Q. M. Hu, “Excited-state absorption and optical-limiting properties of organometallic fullerene–C60 derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 332–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

K. Dou, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and related upconverted emission in fullerene complex,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 269–287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. B (1)

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third order non-linear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B 34, 4983–4996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (2)

J. E. Riggs, Y.-P. Sun, “Optical limiting properties of [60]fullerene and methano[60]fullerene derivative in solution versus in polymer matrix: the role of bimolecular processes and a consistent nonlinear absorption mechanism,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 485–495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. G. Moreno, J. L. Saiz, “Wavelength dependence of the nonlinear absorption of C60- and C70-toluene solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 2527–2532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. W. Tutt, A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature 356, 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Fang, Y. Song, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Li, L. Song, P. Liu, “Z-scan of excited-state nonlinear materials with reverse saturable absorption,” Opt. Commun. 183, 523–527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tetrahedron (1)

F. Cheng, X. Yang, C. Fan, H. Zhu, “Organophosphorus chemistry of fullerene: synthesis and biological effects of organophosphorus compounds of C-60,” Tetrahedron 57, 7331–7335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecular structures and weights of the five new organophosphorus fullerene derivatives.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ultraviolet-visible linear absorption spectra of C60 and P3 in toluene at the same concentration of 1.11 × 10-5 M/ L and 1-mm quartz cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy-level diagram of the five-energy-level model. Radiative transitions are indicated by straight lines; nonradiative transitions, by wavy lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental open-aperture Z-scan curves for toluene solutions of C60 (circles) and P4 (filled squares). Solid curves, fits with σ0 = 3.1 × 10-18 cm2, σ1 = 17 × 10-18 cm2, and σ2 = 14.8 × 10-18 cm2 for C60 and with σ0 = 2.66 × 10-18 cm2, σ1 = 38 × 10-18 cm2, and σ2 = 42.5 × 10-18 cm2 for derivative P4. The fitting curve (dotted curve) is used to demonstrate the contribution of state S 1 with parameters σ0 = 2.66 × 10-18 cm2, σ1 = 0, and σ2 = 42.5 × 10-18 cm2. (b) Experimental Z-scan curves of purely nonlinear refraction for toluene solutions of C60 (circles) and P4 (filled squares) obtained from dividing closed-aperture Z-scan data by the corresponding open-aperture Z-scan data. Solid curves, fits with σ r1 = 14 × 10-18 cm2 and σ r2 = -19 × 10-18 cm2 for C60 and with σ r1 = 30 × 10-18 cm2 and σ r2 = -42 × 10-18 cm2 for derivative P4. The fitting curve (dotted curve) is used to demonstrate the contribution of state S 1 with parameters σ r1 = 0 and σ r2= -42 × 10-18 cm2.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental and Fitting Optical Nonlinear Parameters of Five Organophosphorus Fullerene Derivatives

Tables Icon

Table 2 Excited-State Absorption Cross Sections of C60 for Three Values of σ

Tables Icon

Table 3 Excited-State Absorption Cross Sections of Organophosphorus Fullerene Derivatives and Other Fullerene Derivatives

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dN0dt=- σ0Iw N0+ 1τ1 N1,
dN1dt= σ0Iw N0- 1τ1 N1- 1τISC N1,
dN2dt= 1τISC N1,
dIdz=-αI=-σ0N0+σ1N1+σ2N2I,
dϕdz =kΔn=σr1N1+σr2N2+kγI,
Iz, r, t=I0ω02ω2z exp- t2τp2exp- 2r2ω2z,
ϕz, r= kr22Rz,

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