Abstract

Widely used descriptions and relationships for birefringence and polarization-dependent loss (PDL), developed primarily for ultraviolet-induced long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) written in optical fiber, can be invalid for other types of LPFG. The understanding of PDL is expanded to include LPFGs with birefringence in the core only, in the cladding only, and in both the core and the cladding. Equations that link resonant wavelength separation, one factor that determines PDL, and birefringence for the three categories are presented, along with relevant approximations. Measurement results for two LPFGs fabricated by different techniques are presented that illustrate the effect of birefringence on PDL.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  4. M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, P. Y. Cortes, M. Guy, J. Lauzon, “Polarisation mode dispersion compensation of chirped Bragg gratings used as chromatic dispersion compensators,” Electron. Lett. 36, 342–343 (2000).
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  5. W. Fan, B. Chen, X. Li, L. Chen, Z. Lin, “Stress-induced single polarization DFB fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 204, 157–161 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, C. P. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, K. Chaitavon, “A reconfigurable thin-film filter-based 2 × 2 add-drop fiber-optic switch structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 930–932 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Ryu, Y. Park, S. T. Oh, Y. Chung, D. Y. Kim, “Effect of asymmetric stress relaxation on the polarization-dependent transmission characteristics of a CO2 laser-written long-period fiber grating,” Opt. Lett. 28, 155–157 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (7)

B. H. Lee, J. Cheong, U. C. Paek, “Spectral polarization-dependent loss of cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1096–1098 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Pereira, J. E. Sipe, R. E. Slusher, S. Spalter, “Enhanced and suppressed birefringence in fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1509–1515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Dossou, S. LaRochelle, M. Fontaine, “Numerical analysis of the contribution of the transverse asymmetry in the photo-induced index change profile to the birefringence of optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1463–1470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Lu, L. Chen, X. Bao, “System outage probability due to the combined effect of PMD and PDL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1805–1808 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishii, K. Shima, S. Okude, K. Nishide, A. Wada, “PDL suppression on long-period fiber gratings by azimuthally isotropic exposure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 934–939 (2002).

W. Fan, B. Chen, X. Li, L. Chen, Z. Lin, “Stress-induced single polarization DFB fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 204, 157–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hibino, “Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1090–1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (8)

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, C. P. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, Y. Ohki, J. L. Brebner, S. Roorda, “Fabrication of long-period optical fiber gratings by use of ion implantation,” Opt. Lett. 25, 88–89 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Savin, J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, H. J. Shaw, “Tunable mechanically induced long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 710–712 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, P. Y. Cortes, M. Guy, J. Lauzon, “Polarisation mode dispersion compensation of chirped Bragg gratings used as chromatic dispersion compensators,” Electron. Lett. 36, 342–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Duhem, M. Douay, “Effect of UV-induced birefringence on long-period-grating coupling characteristics,” Electron. Lett. 36, 416–417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, D. Paganin, “Quantitative phase tomography,” Opt. Commun. 175, 329–336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H. S. Seo, S. Choi, K. Oh, “Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 519–521 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Chowdhury, D. Wilcox, “Comparison between optical fiber birefringence induced by stress anisotropy and geometric deformation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 227–232 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

B. Szafraniec, G. A. Sanders, “Theory of polarization evolution in interferometric fiber-optic depolarized gyros,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 579–590 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings with no harmonics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87–89 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Lecourt, D. Blaudez, J. M. Turlet, “Anisotropy in Langmuir–Blodgett films studied by generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 790–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1991 (1)

A. R. Vellekoop, M. K. Smit, “Four-channel integrated-optic wavelength demultiplexer with weak polarization dependence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 310–314 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

I. P. Kaminow, “Polarization in optical fibers,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15–22 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Arregui, F. J.

Bagratashvili, V. N.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

Barty, A.

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, D. Paganin, “Quantitative phase tomography,” Opt. Commun. 175, 329–336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Berini, P.

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, C. P. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blaudez, D.

B. Lecourt, D. Blaudez, J. M. Turlet, “Anisotropy in Langmuir–Blodgett films studied by generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 790–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brebner, J. L.

Buck, J. A.

J. A. Buck, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers (Wiley, New York, 1995).

Chaitavon, K.

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, K. Chaitavon, “A reconfigurable thin-film filter-based 2 × 2 add-drop fiber-optic switch structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 930–932 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

W. Fan, B. Chen, X. Li, L. Chen, Z. Lin, “Stress-induced single polarization DFB fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 204, 157–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

W. Fan, B. Chen, X. Li, L. Chen, Z. Lin, “Stress-induced single polarization DFB fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 204, 157–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Lu, L. Chen, X. Bao, “System outage probability due to the combined effect of PMD and PDL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1805–1808 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, J.

Choi, S.

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H. S. Seo, S. Choi, K. Oh, “Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 519–521 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, D.

D. Chowdhury, D. Wilcox, “Comparison between optical fiber birefringence induced by stress anisotropy and geometric deformation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 227–232 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

Claus, R. O.

Cooper, K. L.

Cortes, P. Y.

M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, P. Y. Cortes, M. Guy, J. Lauzon, “Polarisation mode dispersion compensation of chirped Bragg gratings used as chromatic dispersion compensators,” Electron. Lett. 36, 342–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. D.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Sandro, J. P.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, J. F.

Dong, L.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dossou, K.

Douay, M.

O. Duhem, M. Douay, “Effect of UV-induced birefringence on long-period-grating coupling characteristics,” Electron. Lett. 36, 416–417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duhem, O.

O. Duhem, M. Douay, “Effect of UV-induced birefringence on long-period-grating coupling characteristics,” Electron. Lett. 36, 416–417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, “Characterization of UV-induced birefringence in photosensitive Ge-doped silica optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2100–2105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

W. Fan, B. Chen, X. Li, L. Chen, Z. Lin, “Stress-induced single polarization DFB fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 204, 157–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings with no harmonics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87–89 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, M.

Fujimaki, M.

Gaylord, T. K.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grover, C. P.

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, C. P. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grubsky, V.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings with no harmonics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87–89 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guy, M.

M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, P. Y. Cortes, M. Guy, J. Lauzon, “Polarisation mode dispersion compensation of chirped Bragg gratings used as chromatic dispersion compensators,” Electron. Lett. 36, 342–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henninot, J. F.

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

Y. Hibino, “Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1090–1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inniss, D.

Ishii, Y.

Y. Ishii, K. Shima, S. Okude, K. Nishide, A. Wada, “PDL suppression on long-period fiber gratings by azimuthally isotropic exposure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 934–939 (2002).

Jeong, Y.

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H. S. Seo, S. Choi, K. Oh, “Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 519–521 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, “Polarization in optical fibers,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15–22 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

Kino, G. S.

Kosinksi, S. G.

S. G. Kosinksi, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Splicer-based long-period fiber gratings,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 278–279.

Kosinski, S. G.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, Q. Zhong, D. Inniss, W. A. Reed, P. J. Lemaire, S. G. Kosinski, “Birefringence reduction in side-written photoinduced fiber devices by a dual-exposure method,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurkov, A. S.

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

LaRochelle, S.

K. Dossou, S. LaRochelle, M. Fontaine, “Numerical analysis of the contribution of the transverse asymmetry in the photo-induced index change profile to the birefringence of optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1463–1470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, P. Y. Cortes, M. Guy, J. Lauzon, “Polarisation mode dispersion compensation of chirped Bragg gratings used as chromatic dispersion compensators,” Electron. Lett. 36, 342–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lauzon, J.

M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, P. Y. Cortes, M. Guy, J. Lauzon, “Polarisation mode dispersion compensation of chirped Bragg gratings used as chromatic dispersion compensators,” Electron. Lett. 36, 342–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lecourt, B.

B. Lecourt, D. Blaudez, J. M. Turlet, “Anisotropy in Langmuir–Blodgett films studied by generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 790–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H. S. Seo, S. Choi, K. Oh, “Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 519–521 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Leleu, B.

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, Q. Zhong, D. Inniss, W. A. Reed, P. J. Lemaire, S. G. Kosinski, “Birefringence reduction in side-written photoinduced fiber devices by a dual-exposure method,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

W. Fan, B. Chen, X. Li, L. Chen, Z. Lin, “Stress-induced single polarization DFB fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 204, 157–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

W. Fan, B. Chen, X. Li, L. Chen, Z. Lin, “Stress-induced single polarization DFB fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 204, 157–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. F.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Matias, I. R.

Mettler, S. C.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

Nishide, K.

Y. Ishii, K. Shima, S. Okude, K. Nishide, A. Wada, “PDL suppression on long-period fiber gratings by azimuthally isotropic exposure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 934–939 (2002).

Nugent, K. A.

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, D. Paganin, “Quantitative phase tomography,” Opt. Commun. 175, 329–336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H. S. Seo, S. Choi, K. Oh, “Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 519–521 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. T.

Ohki, Y.

Okude, S.

Y. Ishii, K. Shima, S. Okude, K. Nishide, A. Wada, “PDL suppression on long-period fiber gratings by azimuthally isotropic exposure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 934–939 (2002).

Olsson, N. A.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Ortega, B.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

Paganin, D.

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, D. Paganin, “Quantitative phase tomography,” Opt. Commun. 175, 329–336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Pereira, S.

Reed, W. A.

Reekie, L.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rivoallan, L.

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, A.

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, D. Paganin, “Quantitative phase tomography,” Opt. Commun. 175, 329–336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rochette, M.

M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, P. Y. Cortes, M. Guy, J. Lauzon, “Polarisation mode dispersion compensation of chirped Bragg gratings used as chromatic dispersion compensators,” Electron. Lett. 36, 342–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roorda, S.

Ryu, H. S.

Sanders, G. A.

Savin, S.

Seo, H. S.

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H. S. Seo, S. Choi, K. Oh, “Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 519–521 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

Shima, K.

Y. Ishii, K. Shima, S. Okude, K. Nishide, A. Wada, “PDL suppression on long-period fiber gratings by azimuthally isotropic exposure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 934–939 (2002).

Simova, E.

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, C. P. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Sipe, J. E.

S. Pereira, J. E. Sipe, R. E. Slusher, S. Spalter, “Enhanced and suppressed birefringence in fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1509–1515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Skorucak, A.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings with no harmonics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87–89 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

Smit, M. K.

A. R. Vellekoop, M. K. Smit, “Four-channel integrated-optic wavelength demultiplexer with weak polarization dependence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 310–314 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Spalter, S.

Starodubov, D. S.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings with no harmonics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87–89 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sumriddetchkajorn, S.

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, K. Chaitavon, “A reconfigurable thin-film filter-based 2 × 2 add-drop fiber-optic switch structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 930–932 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Szafraniec, B.

Tsypina, S. I.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Turlet, J. M.

B. Lecourt, D. Blaudez, J. M. Turlet, “Anisotropy in Langmuir–Blodgett films studied by generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 790–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vellekoop, A. R.

A. R. Vellekoop, M. K. Smit, “Four-channel integrated-optic wavelength demultiplexer with weak polarization dependence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 310–314 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, Q. Zhong, D. Inniss, W. A. Reed, P. J. Lemaire, S. G. Kosinski, “Birefringence reduction in side-written photoinduced fiber devices by a dual-exposure method,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Kosinksi, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Splicer-based long-period fiber gratings,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 278–279.

Wada, A.

Y. Ishii, K. Shima, S. Okude, K. Nishide, A. Wada, “PDL suppression on long-period fiber gratings by azimuthally isotropic exposure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 934–939 (2002).

Wilcox, D.

D. Chowdhury, D. Wilcox, “Comparison between optical fiber birefringence induced by stress anisotropy and geometric deformation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 227–232 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H. S. Seo, S. Choi, K. Oh, “Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 519–521 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Q.

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, C. P. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, P. Y. Cortes, M. Guy, J. Lauzon, “Polarisation mode dispersion compensation of chirped Bragg gratings used as chromatic dispersion compensators,” Electron. Lett. 36, 342–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Duhem, M. Douay, “Effect of UV-induced birefringence on long-period-grating coupling characteristics,” Electron. Lett. 36, 416–417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. Hibino, “Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1090–1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Chowdhury, D. Wilcox, “Comparison between optical fiber birefringence induced by stress anisotropy and geometric deformation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 227–232 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H. S. Seo, S. Choi, K. Oh, “Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 519–521 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, K. Chaitavon, “A reconfigurable thin-film filter-based 2 × 2 add-drop fiber-optic switch structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 930–932 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings with no harmonics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87–89 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, C. P. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

Y. Ishii, K. Shima, S. Okude, K. Nishide, A. Wada, “PDL suppression on long-period fiber gratings by azimuthally isotropic exposure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 934–939 (2002).

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

A. R. Vellekoop, M. K. Smit, “Four-channel integrated-optic wavelength demultiplexer with weak polarization dependence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 310–314 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Szafraniec, G. A. Sanders, “Theory of polarization evolution in interferometric fiber-optic depolarized gyros,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 579–590 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Dossou, S. LaRochelle, M. Fontaine, “Numerical analysis of the contribution of the transverse asymmetry in the photo-induced index change profile to the birefringence of optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1463–1470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Lu, L. Chen, X. Bao, “System outage probability due to the combined effect of PMD and PDL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1805–1808 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. P. Kaminow, “Polarization in optical fibers,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15–22 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, D. Paganin, “Quantitative phase tomography,” Opt. Commun. 175, 329–336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Fan, B. Chen, X. Li, L. Chen, Z. Lin, “Stress-induced single polarization DFB fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 204, 157–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Thin Solid Films (1)

B. Lecourt, D. Blaudez, J. M. Turlet, “Anisotropy in Langmuir–Blodgett films studied by generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 790–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. A. Buck, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers (Wiley, New York, 1995).

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

S. G. Kosinksi, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Splicer-based long-period fiber gratings,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 278–279.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the three categories of long-period fiber grating (LPFG) based on the location(s) of birefringence over the optical fiber cross section: (a) core-only birefringence, (b) cladding-only birefringence, (c) core and cladding birefringence. Hatched areas indicate the presence of birefringence in the cross sections (right-hand side). The raised portions of the line profiles (left-hand side) indicate the same. Δn is representative of birefringence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of a CO2-laser-induced LPFG and a UV-induced LPFG near resonance for randomly linearly polarized light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization-dependent loss of the CO2-laser-induced LPFG and of the UV-induced LPFG.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Minimum and maximum transmitted power of the CO2-laser-induced LPFG. (b) Transmitted power near peak attenuation (resonance). The minimum and maximum resonant wavelengths are evident, with a separation of 1.1 nm between them.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Minimum and maximum transmitted power of the UV-induced LPFG and (b) transmitted power near peak attenuation (resonance). The minimum and maximum resonant wavelengths were determined from the fitted curve, with a separation of 0.05 nm between them.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λres=Λn01-nmn=ΛΔn,
λresmin=ΛΔnmin,
λresmax=ΛΔnmax.
Δλres=λresmax-λresmin=ΛΔnmax-Δnmin,
ΔλresΛn01max-n01min,
ΔλresΛnmnmax-nmnmin,

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