Abstract

We discuss the spectroscopic requirements for a laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) approach to high-precision carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements in the troposphere. Global-scale, high-precision CO2 measurements are highly desirable in an effort to improve understanding and quantification of the CO2 sources and sinks and their impact on global climate. We present differential absorption sounding characteristics for selected LAS transmitter laser wavelengths, emphasizing the effects of atmospheric temperature profile uncertainties. Candidate wavelengths for lower-troposphere measurements are identified in the CO2 bands centered near 1.57, 1.60, and 2.06 μm.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. T. Menzies, M. T. Chahine, “Remote sensing with an airborne laser absorption spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2840–2849 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, W. B. Grant, D. S. McDougal, “Laser absorption spectrometer: remote measurement of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Opt. 20, 545–552 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. B. Kahle, M. S. Shumate, D. B. Nash, “Active airborne infrared laser system for identification of surface rock and minerals,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1149–1152 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Aoki, T. Aoki, M. Fukabori, “Path-radiance correction by polarization observation of Sun glint glitter for remote measurements of tropospheric greenhouse gases,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4945–4957 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. P. Edwards, “Atmospheric transmittance and radiance calculations using line-by-line computer models,” in Modeling of the Atmosphere, L. S. Rothman, ed., Proc. SPIE928, 94–116 (1988).
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    [CrossRef]
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  19. J. B. Abshire, M. A. Krainak, X. Sun, A. E. Andrews, G. J. Collatz, J. F. Burris, H. Riris, G. Allan, G. Duerksen, A. Yu, A. M. Gates, “Laser sounder approach for measuring atmospheric CO2 from orbit,” in Proceedings of the Third Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).
  20. R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, M. P. Chiao, C. R. Webster, “Laser absorption spectrometer concept for global-scale observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” presented at the 11th Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Malvern, UK, 1–6 July 2001.
  21. G. D. Spiers, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, M. Phillips, “The laser absorption spectrometer for carbon dioxide sink and source detection,” in Proceedings of the Second Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

2002 (3)

T. Aoki, T. Aoki, M. Fukabori, “Path-radiance correction by polarization observation of Sun glint glitter for remote measurements of tropospheric greenhouse gases,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4945–4957 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. O’Brien, P. J. Rayner, “Global observations of the carbon budget: II. CO2 column from differential absorption of reflected sunlight in the 1.61 μm band of CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 18, 10.1029/2001JD000617 (2002).

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014298 (2002).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

P. Bousquet, P. Peylin, P. Ciais, C. Le Quéré, P. Friedlingstein, P. P. Tans, “Regional changes in carbon dioxide fluxes of land and oceans since 1980,” Science 290, 1342–1346 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. M. Etheridge, L. P. Steele, R. L. Langenfelds, R. J. Francey, J.-M. Barnola, V. I. Morgan, “Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 4115–4128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1984 (1)

A. B. Kahle, M. S. Shumate, D. B. Nash, “Active airborne infrared laser system for identification of surface rock and minerals,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1149–1152 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1976 (1)

H. I. Heaton, “Temperature scaling of absorption coefficients,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 801–804 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1896 (1)

S. Arrhenius, “On the influence of carbonic acid in the air upon the temperature of the ground,” Philos. Mag. 41, 237–276 (1896).

Abshire, J. B.

J. B. Abshire, M. A. Krainak, X. Sun, A. E. Andrews, G. J. Collatz, J. F. Burris, H. Riris, G. Allan, G. Duerksen, A. Yu, A. M. Gates, “Laser sounder approach for measuring atmospheric CO2 from orbit,” in Proceedings of the Third Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Allan, G.

J. B. Abshire, M. A. Krainak, X. Sun, A. E. Andrews, G. J. Collatz, J. F. Burris, H. Riris, G. Allan, G. Duerksen, A. Yu, A. M. Gates, “Laser sounder approach for measuring atmospheric CO2 from orbit,” in Proceedings of the Third Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Anderson, G. P.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (1-120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Andrews, A. E.

J. B. Abshire, M. A. Krainak, X. Sun, A. E. Andrews, G. J. Collatz, J. F. Burris, H. Riris, G. Allan, G. Duerksen, A. Yu, A. M. Gates, “Laser sounder approach for measuring atmospheric CO2 from orbit,” in Proceedings of the Third Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Aoki, T.

Arrhenius, S.

S. Arrhenius, “On the influence of carbonic acid in the air upon the temperature of the ground,” Philos. Mag. 41, 237–276 (1896).

Barnola, J.-M.

D. M. Etheridge, L. P. Steele, R. L. Langenfelds, R. J. Francey, J.-M. Barnola, V. I. Morgan, “Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 4115–4128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bousquet, P.

P. Bousquet, P. Peylin, P. Ciais, C. Le Quéré, P. Friedlingstein, P. P. Tans, “Regional changes in carbon dioxide fluxes of land and oceans since 1980,” Science 290, 1342–1346 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Browell, E. V.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burris, J. F.

J. B. Abshire, M. A. Krainak, X. Sun, A. E. Andrews, G. J. Collatz, J. F. Burris, H. Riris, G. Allan, G. Duerksen, A. Yu, A. M. Gates, “Laser sounder approach for measuring atmospheric CO2 from orbit,” in Proceedings of the Third Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chahine, M. T.

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (1-120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Chiao, M. P.

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, M. P. Chiao, C. R. Webster, “Laser absorption spectrometer concept for global-scale observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” presented at the 11th Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Malvern, UK, 1–6 July 2001.

Ciais, P.

P. Bousquet, P. Peylin, P. Ciais, C. Le Quéré, P. Friedlingstein, P. P. Tans, “Regional changes in carbon dioxide fluxes of land and oceans since 1980,” Science 290, 1342–1346 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clough, S. A.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (1-120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Collatz, G. J.

J. B. Abshire, M. A. Krainak, X. Sun, A. E. Andrews, G. J. Collatz, J. F. Burris, H. Riris, G. Allan, G. Duerksen, A. Yu, A. M. Gates, “Laser sounder approach for measuring atmospheric CO2 from orbit,” in Proceedings of the Third Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Conway, T. J.

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Crisp, D.

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014298 (2002).

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duerksen, G.

J. B. Abshire, M. A. Krainak, X. Sun, A. E. Andrews, G. J. Collatz, J. F. Burris, H. Riris, G. Allan, G. Duerksen, A. Yu, A. M. Gates, “Laser sounder approach for measuring atmospheric CO2 from orbit,” in Proceedings of the Third Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Edwards, “Atmospheric transmittance and radiance calculations using line-by-line computer models,” in Modeling of the Atmosphere, L. S. Rothman, ed., Proc. SPIE928, 94–116 (1988).

Etheridge, D. M.

D. M. Etheridge, L. P. Steele, R. L. Langenfelds, R. J. Francey, J.-M. Barnola, V. I. Morgan, “Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 4115–4128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Francey, R. J.

D. M. Etheridge, L. P. Steele, R. L. Langenfelds, R. J. Francey, J.-M. Barnola, V. I. Morgan, “Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 4115–4128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Friedlingstein, P.

P. Bousquet, P. Peylin, P. Ciais, C. Le Quéré, P. Friedlingstein, P. P. Tans, “Regional changes in carbon dioxide fluxes of land and oceans since 1980,” Science 290, 1342–1346 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukabori, M.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gates, A. M.

J. B. Abshire, M. A. Krainak, X. Sun, A. E. Andrews, G. J. Collatz, J. F. Burris, H. Riris, G. Allan, G. Duerksen, A. Yu, A. M. Gates, “Laser sounder approach for measuring atmospheric CO2 from orbit,” in Proceedings of the Third Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grant, W. B.

Grossmann, B. E.

Heaton, H. I.

H. I. Heaton, “Temperature scaling of absorption coefficients,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 801–804 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kahle, A. B.

A. B. Kahle, M. S. Shumate, D. B. Nash, “Active airborne infrared laser system for identification of surface rock and minerals,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1149–1152 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kneizys, F. X.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (1-120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Krainak, M. A.

J. B. Abshire, M. A. Krainak, X. Sun, A. E. Andrews, G. J. Collatz, J. F. Burris, H. Riris, G. Allan, G. Duerksen, A. Yu, A. M. Gates, “Laser sounder approach for measuring atmospheric CO2 from orbit,” in Proceedings of the Third Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Kuang, Z.

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014298 (2002).

Langenfelds, R. L.

D. M. Etheridge, L. P. Steele, R. L. Langenfelds, R. J. Francey, J.-M. Barnola, V. I. Morgan, “Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 4115–4128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Le Quéré, C.

P. Bousquet, P. Peylin, P. Ciais, C. Le Quéré, P. Friedlingstein, P. P. Tans, “Regional changes in carbon dioxide fluxes of land and oceans since 1980,” Science 290, 1342–1346 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Margolis, J.

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014298 (2002).

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McDougal, D. S.

Menzies, R. T.

M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, W. B. Grant, D. S. McDougal, “Laser absorption spectrometer: remote measurement of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Opt. 20, 545–552 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, M. T. Chahine, “Remote sensing with an airborne laser absorption spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2840–2849 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Spiers, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, M. Phillips, “The laser absorption spectrometer for carbon dioxide sink and source detection,” in Proceedings of the Second Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, M. P. Chiao, C. R. Webster, “Laser absorption spectrometer concept for global-scale observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” presented at the 11th Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Malvern, UK, 1–6 July 2001.

Morgan, V. I.

D. M. Etheridge, L. P. Steele, R. L. Langenfelds, R. J. Francey, J.-M. Barnola, V. I. Morgan, “Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 4115–4128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nash, D. B.

A. B. Kahle, M. S. Shumate, D. B. Nash, “Active airborne infrared laser system for identification of surface rock and minerals,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1149–1152 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D. M.

D. M. O’Brien, P. J. Rayner, “Global observations of the carbon budget: II. CO2 column from differential absorption of reflected sunlight in the 1.61 μm band of CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 18, 10.1029/2001JD000617 (2002).

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peylin, P.

P. Bousquet, P. Peylin, P. Ciais, C. Le Quéré, P. Friedlingstein, P. P. Tans, “Regional changes in carbon dioxide fluxes of land and oceans since 1980,” Science 290, 1342–1346 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, M.

G. D. Spiers, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, M. Phillips, “The laser absorption spectrometer for carbon dioxide sink and source detection,” in Proceedings of the Second Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Plouffe, D.

Rayner, P. J.

D. M. O’Brien, P. J. Rayner, “Global observations of the carbon budget: II. CO2 column from differential absorption of reflected sunlight in the 1.61 μm band of CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 18, 10.1029/2001JD000617 (2002).

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Riris, H.

J. B. Abshire, M. A. Krainak, X. Sun, A. E. Andrews, G. J. Collatz, J. F. Burris, H. Riris, G. Allan, G. Duerksen, A. Yu, A. M. Gates, “Laser sounder approach for measuring atmospheric CO2 from orbit,” in Proceedings of the Third Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sarmiento, J. L.

J. L. Sarmiento, S. C. Wofsy, A U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan (U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, D.C., 1999).

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (1-120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Shumate, M. S.

A. B. Kahle, M. S. Shumate, D. B. Nash, “Active airborne infrared laser system for identification of surface rock and minerals,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1149–1152 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, W. B. Grant, D. S. McDougal, “Laser absorption spectrometer: remote measurement of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Opt. 20, 545–552 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spiers, G. D.

G. D. Spiers, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, M. Phillips, “The laser absorption spectrometer for carbon dioxide sink and source detection,” in Proceedings of the Second Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Steele, L. P.

D. M. Etheridge, L. P. Steele, R. L. Langenfelds, R. J. Francey, J.-M. Barnola, V. I. Morgan, “Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 4115–4128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

J. B. Abshire, M. A. Krainak, X. Sun, A. E. Andrews, G. J. Collatz, J. F. Burris, H. Riris, G. Allan, G. Duerksen, A. Yu, A. M. Gates, “Laser sounder approach for measuring atmospheric CO2 from orbit,” in Proceedings of the Third Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Tans, P. P.

P. Bousquet, P. Peylin, P. Ciais, C. Le Quéré, P. Friedlingstein, P. P. Tans, “Regional changes in carbon dioxide fluxes of land and oceans since 1980,” Science 290, 1342–1346 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thoning, K. W.

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tolton, B. T.

Toon, G.

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014298 (2002).

Tratt, D. M.

G. D. Spiers, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, M. Phillips, “The laser absorption spectrometer for carbon dioxide sink and source detection,” in Proceedings of the Second Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, M. P. Chiao, C. R. Webster, “Laser absorption spectrometer concept for global-scale observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” presented at the 11th Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Malvern, UK, 1–6 July 2001.

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Waterman, L. S.

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Webster, C. R.

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, M. P. Chiao, C. R. Webster, “Laser absorption spectrometer concept for global-scale observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” presented at the 11th Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Malvern, UK, 1–6 July 2001.

Wofsy, S. C.

J. L. Sarmiento, S. C. Wofsy, A U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan (U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, D.C., 1999).

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, A.

J. B. Abshire, M. A. Krainak, X. Sun, A. E. Andrews, G. J. Collatz, J. F. Burris, H. Riris, G. Allan, G. Duerksen, A. Yu, A. M. Gates, “Laser sounder approach for measuring atmospheric CO2 from orbit,” in Proceedings of the Third Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Yung, Y.

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014298 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014298 (2002).

A. B. Kahle, M. S. Shumate, D. B. Nash, “Active airborne infrared laser system for identification of surface rock and minerals,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1149–1152 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

D. M. O’Brien, P. J. Rayner, “Global observations of the carbon budget: II. CO2 column from differential absorption of reflected sunlight in the 1.61 μm band of CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 18, 10.1029/2001JD000617 (2002).

D. M. Etheridge, L. P. Steele, R. L. Langenfelds, R. J. Francey, J.-M. Barnola, V. I. Morgan, “Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 4115–4128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

H. I. Heaton, “Temperature scaling of absorption coefficients,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 801–804 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWK (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag. (1)

S. Arrhenius, “On the influence of carbonic acid in the air upon the temperature of the ground,” Philos. Mag. 41, 237–276 (1896).

Science (1)

P. Bousquet, P. Peylin, P. Ciais, C. Le Quéré, P. Friedlingstein, P. P. Tans, “Regional changes in carbon dioxide fluxes of land and oceans since 1980,” Science 290, 1342–1346 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

J. L. Sarmiento, S. C. Wofsy, A U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan (U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, D.C., 1999).

D. P. Edwards, “Atmospheric transmittance and radiance calculations using line-by-line computer models,” in Modeling of the Atmosphere, L. S. Rothman, ed., Proc. SPIE928, 94–116 (1988).

R. M. Measures, ed., Laser Remote Chemical Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1988).

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (1-120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

J. B. Abshire, M. A. Krainak, X. Sun, A. E. Andrews, G. J. Collatz, J. F. Burris, H. Riris, G. Allan, G. Duerksen, A. Yu, A. M. Gates, “Laser sounder approach for measuring atmospheric CO2 from orbit,” in Proceedings of the Third Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, M. P. Chiao, C. R. Webster, “Laser absorption spectrometer concept for global-scale observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” presented at the 11th Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Malvern, UK, 1–6 July 2001.

G. D. Spiers, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, M. Phillips, “The laser absorption spectrometer for carbon dioxide sink and source detection,” in Proceedings of the Second Annual Earth Science Technology Conference (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science Technology Office, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption stick plots from 6200 to 6250 cm-1 in the (30013 ← 00001) band of 12C16O2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption stick plots from 6320 to 6370 cm-1 in the (30012 ← 00001) band of 12C16O2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption stick plots from 4827 to 4877 cm-1 in the (20013 ← 00001) band of 12C16O2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmittances and weighting functions for frequencies offset about 0.020, 0.030, 0.040, and 0.070 cm-1 from the P(24) line center at 6327.0614 cm-1 in the (30012 ← 00001) band.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmittances and weighting functions for frequencies offset about 0.020, 0.030, 0.040, and 0.070 cm-1 from the R(24) line center at 6364.9225 cm-1 in the (30012 ← 00001) band.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmittances and weighting functions for frequencies offset about 0.07, 0.14, and 0.21 cm-1 from the R(30) line center at 4875.7490 cm-1 in the (20013 ← 00001) band.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Vibration-Rotation Lines with Optimum Lower-State Energies for Sounding of the Lower Troposphere in the Temperature Range 250–300 K for Selected Frequency Displacements from Line Center

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spectroscopic Parameters and Temperature Susceptibilities for Selected LAS Transmitter Frequencies

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δOD=-lnτ.
OD=ανpaL,
STST0=T0Tj exphck1T0-1TE,
γTγT0=T0Tn.
kνj=i Sijgν, νij.
τν=exp-j=1J kνjuj,
uj=zj-zj+ρazjds/dzdz.

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