Abstract

We demonstrate four-dimensional microscopy of defects in integrated circuits by a technique that combines laser-scanning confocal reflectance microscopy with one-photon optical-beam-induced current (1P-OBIC) imaging. Accurate information is obtained about the three-dimensional structure of the defect and the kind of material (metal, semiconductor, or dielectric) that is damaged by the defect. The same focused probe beam simultaneously produces the 1P-OBIC and reflectance signals from the illuminated sample spot. The hardware development cost is minimal for a laser-scanning confocal microscope, and the image reconstruction procedure is computationally efficient. Imaging is demonstrated on defects that are caused by electrical overstress and unwanted generation centers. Exclusive three-dimensional distributions of the semiconductor and metal sites in the integrated circuit reveal defect features that are difficult to recognize with confocal or 1P-OBIC imaging alone.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (3)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Metrics

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article level metrics are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription