Abstract

A grazing-incidence spectrometer-monochromator for diagnostics and application of the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and soft-x-ray high-order harmonics generated by the interaction between a few-optical-cycle laser pulse and a gas jet has been fabricated. We address the necessity of high-resolution spectral and spatial analyses of the high-order harmonics as well as their use as short EUV backlighters in pump-probe experiments. The spectrometer that we present uses a variable-line-spaced flat grating illuminated in the converging light coming from a toroidal mirror. The spectrum is stigmatic, and the focal surface is almost flat in a wide spectral region. The detector is a microchannel plate intensifier with a phosphor screen optically coupled to a CCD camera; it can be moved by means of a linear drive to acquire different portions of the spectrum in the 5–75-nm region. The resolution is almost limited by the pixel size of the detector. We apply the same optical scheme to achieve a constant-deviation-angle monochromator by substituting an exit slit for the detector block: The rotation of the grating gives the spectral scanning. A monochromator for the 5–50 nm spectral region is achieved.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. L. Carman, C. K. Rhodes, R. F. Benjamin, “Observation of harmonics in the visible and ultraviolet created in the CO2-laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 2649–2663 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 595–601 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. L’Huilier, Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Rundquist, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Villoresi, “Compensation of optical path lengths in extreme-ultraviolet and soft-x-ray monochromators for ultrafast pulses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6040–6049 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Hettrick, S. Bowyer, “Variable line-space gratings: new designs for use in grazing incidence spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3921–3932 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Hettrick, “High resolution gratings for the soft x-ray,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 266, 404–413 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Poletto, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “Grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer for high-order harmonic diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 40, 178–185 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, “High-order laser harmonics detection in the EUV and soft x-ray spectral regions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2868–2874 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Hettrick, “Aberrations of varied line-space grazing incidence gratings in converging light beams,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3221–3235 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Bonanno, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “A test facility to calibrate EUV detectors,” in Proceedings of a European Space Agency Symposium on Photon Detectors for Space Instrumentation,” H. Habing, ed. ESA Spec. Publ. 356, (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1992), pp. 233–236.
  16. L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Optical performance and characterization of an EUV and soft X-ray test facility,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE3764, 94–102 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

L. Poletto, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “Grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer for high-order harmonic diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 40, 178–185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, “High-order laser harmonics detection in the EUV and soft x-ray spectral regions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2868–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. L’Huilier, Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. Hettrick, “High resolution gratings for the soft x-ray,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 266, 404–413 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

R. L. Carman, C. K. Rhodes, R. F. Benjamin, “Observation of harmonics in the visible and ultraviolet created in the CO2-laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 2649–2663 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Altucci, C.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

A. L’Huilier, Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bellini, M.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benjamin, R. F.

R. L. Carman, C. K. Rhodes, R. F. Benjamin, “Observation of harmonics in the visible and ultraviolet created in the CO2-laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 2649–2663 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bonanno, G.

G. Bonanno, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “A test facility to calibrate EUV detectors,” in Proceedings of a European Space Agency Symposium on Photon Detectors for Space Instrumentation,” H. Habing, ed. ESA Spec. Publ. 356, (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1992), pp. 233–236.

Boscolo, A.

L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Optical performance and characterization of an EUV and soft X-ray test facility,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE3764, 94–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bowyer, S.

Boyer, K.

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bruzzese, R.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carman, R. L.

R. L. Carman, C. K. Rhodes, R. F. Benjamin, “Observation of harmonics in the visible and ultraviolet created in the CO2-laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 2649–2663 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Lisio, C.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gaarde, M. B.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G.

Hänsch, T. W.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hettrick, M.

Jara, H.

Johann, U.

Krausz, F.

T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L’Huilier, A.

A. L’Huilier, Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luk, T. S.

Lynga, C.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, I. A.

McPherson, A.

Naletto, G.

L. Poletto, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “Grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer for high-order harmonic diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 40, 178–185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Bonanno, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “A test facility to calibrate EUV detectors,” in Proceedings of a European Space Agency Symposium on Photon Detectors for Space Instrumentation,” H. Habing, ed. ESA Spec. Publ. 356, (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1992), pp. 233–236.

Nisoli, M.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pascolini, M.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “Grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer for high-order harmonic diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 40, 178–185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, “High-order laser harmonics detection in the EUV and soft x-ray spectral regions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2868–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Optical performance and characterization of an EUV and soft X-ray test facility,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE3764, 94–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Priori, E.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhodes, C. K.

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 595–601 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Carman, C. K. Rhodes, R. F. Benjamin, “Observation of harmonics in the visible and ultraviolet created in the CO2-laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 2649–2663 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, A.

A. Rundquist, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svelto, O.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tondello, G.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, “High-order laser harmonics detection in the EUV and soft x-ray spectral regions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2868–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “Grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer for high-order harmonic diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 40, 178–185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Bonanno, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “A test facility to calibrate EUV detectors,” in Proceedings of a European Space Agency Symposium on Photon Detectors for Space Instrumentation,” H. Habing, ed. ESA Spec. Publ. 356, (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1992), pp. 233–236.

L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Optical performance and characterization of an EUV and soft X-ray test facility,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE3764, 94–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tozzi, A.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, “High-order laser harmonics detection in the EUV and soft x-ray spectral regions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2868–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, “Compensation of optical path lengths in extreme-ultraviolet and soft-x-ray monochromators for ultrafast pulses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6040–6049 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wahlstrom, C. G.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (1)

M. Hettrick, “High resolution gratings for the soft x-ray,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 266, 404–413 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

L. Poletto, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “Grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer for high-order harmonic diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 40, 178–185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. L. Carman, C. K. Rhodes, R. F. Benjamin, “Observation of harmonics in the visible and ultraviolet created in the CO2-laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 2649–2663 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. L’Huilier, Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, “High-order laser harmonics detection in the EUV and soft x-ray spectral regions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2868–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Rundquist, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

G. Bonanno, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “A test facility to calibrate EUV detectors,” in Proceedings of a European Space Agency Symposium on Photon Detectors for Space Instrumentation,” H. Habing, ed. ESA Spec. Publ. 356, (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1992), pp. 233–236.

L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Optical performance and characterization of an EUV and soft X-ray test facility,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE3764, 94–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flat VLS grating illuminated in converging light: schematic layout.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical layout of (a) the spectrometer and (b) the monochromator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic layout of the system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Focal curves in the 3–35-nm region. The origin is placed at the center of the grating, the X axis is parallel to the grating surface along the direction perpendicular to the grooves, and the Y axis is perpendicular to X and parallel to the grooves.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dispersion curve of the spectrometer (600-groove/mm grating, 31-μm pixel size).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FWHM spectral and spatial aberrations of the spectrometer in the 5–35-nm region on the detector plane. The detector is placed on a straight line that matches at the best the spectral focal curve.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Exit arm for the best spectral focus of the monochromator in the 5–50-nm spectral region. The subtended angle is 165°, and the scanning is performed by grating rotation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Resolution of the monochromator with a 50-μm exit slit. It has been calculated as the ratio between the wavelength and the FWHM of the spectral range at the slit.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectrum of a laser-produced plasma with a Be target: (a) full CCD image in the 5–25-nm region; (b) zoom of the 7–11-nm spectral region (rectangular region outlined in (a); (c) three-dimensional plot across the spectrum in the region shown in (b). The horizontal axis of the CCD images is the wavelength scale increasing toward the right-hand side of the image. A 35-μm pinhole was placed on the entrance slit plane to limit the size of the source.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Absolute first-order efficiency of the VLS plane grating at 87°: Here the efficiency is defined as the ratio between the flux measured at the first diffraction order and the global flux arriving on the grating.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Efficiency of the detection system (intensifier, objective, and CCD camera) with 950 V applied across the MCP. (b) Gain as a function of the voltage across the MCP normalized to the gain measured at 950 V. The response is given in digital units of the CCD camera per source photon.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Global response of the spectrometer (two mirrors, grating, and detector) with 950 V applied to the MCP.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Image on the CCD of a high-order harmonic spectrum with Ne and sub-10 laser pulses: (a) image in the 7–31-nm region (the vertical size of the image is 150 pixels); (b) plot across the spectrum.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Parameters of the Spectrometer-Monochromator

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dy=d0+d1y+d2y2+d3y3,
qspect=p cos2 βcos2 α-mλd1p spectral focal curve,
qspat=p spatial focal curve,
sin α-sin β=mλd0,
d1=cos2 α-cos2 β0mλ0p,
α=K2+a sinmλd02 cosK/2,

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