Abstract

Analyses of iron ore slurries in industrial and laboratory environments showed that many physical and geometric parameters affect the stability and reproducibility of the response to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. A thorough reexamination of the sampling strategy led to a revised sampling layout that ensures a true representative sampling of the slurry and significantly improves the sensitivity and repeatability of the sampling method. An examination of the characteristics of slurries revealed that the mean particulate size and the concentration of solids in a slurry influence the measurement of silica, whereas the magnetite content is responsible for a matrix effect. On-line monitoring of iron ore slurries should be practicable, provided that these variables are controlled within a few percent or that some means of correction is implemented.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. F. Braden, M. Kongas, K. Saloheimo, “On-line composition analysis of mineral slurries,” in Mineral Processing Plant Design, Practice, and Control Proceedings, A. L. Mular, D. N. Halbe, D. J. Barratt, eds. (Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Vancouver, B. C., Canada; 2002), pp. 2020–2048.
  2. J. L. Pinault, J. Y. Moal, F. Daudu, “L’analyse des pulpes par activation neutronique,” Mines et Carrières—Les Techniques 77, 22–27 (1995).
  3. J. Engelbrecht, P. Van Den Heever, S. De Bruyn, “On-stream x-ray diffraction analysis of phosphate rock-bearing slurries in Florida: a case study towards process control,” Process Control Qual, 11, 59–70 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. I. Friesen, “Qualitative analysis of oil sand slurries using on-line NIR spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 1535–1540 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Shoniker, R. Vedova, R. L. Vaughn, “PCS Phosphate White Springs automatic control and on-stream analysis innovations have pay-off in big gains,” presented at the Florida Phosphate Conference, Lakeland, Fla., October1998.
  6. L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, “Spectrochemical analysis using laser-plasma excitation,” in Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications, L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).
  7. K. J. Grant, G. L. Paul, J. A. O’Neill, “Quantitative elemental analysis of iron ore by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 701–705 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Barrette, S. Turmel, “On-line slurry monitoring for real-time process control of pellet making processes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: graphitic vs. total carbon detection,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 715–723 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, L. Barrette, D. Fleury, G. Ouellet, T. I. Martinovic, “On-Line elemental analysis in an iron ore concentrate slurry,” in 58th Ironmaking Conference Proceedings, D. L. Kanagy, ed. (Iron and Steel Society, Chicago, Ill.1999), pp. 515–523.
  10. L. Barrette, S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, T. I. Martinovic, G. Ouellet, “On-line iron ore slurry monitoring using laser induced plasma spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Control and Optimization in Minerals, Metals and Materials Processing, D. Hodouin, C. Bazin, A. Desbiens, eds. (Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Québec, Canada, 1999), pp. 17–27.
  11. S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of an iron suspension in water by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2986 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Barrette, S. Turmel, “On-line slurry monitoring for real-time process control of pellet making processes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: graphitic vs. total carbon detection,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 715–723 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Engelbrecht, P. Van Den Heever, S. De Bruyn, “On-stream x-ray diffraction analysis of phosphate rock-bearing slurries in Florida: a case study towards process control,” Process Control Qual, 11, 59–70 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of an iron suspension in water by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2986 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. I. Friesen, “Qualitative analysis of oil sand slurries using on-line NIR spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 1535–1540 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. L. Pinault, J. Y. Moal, F. Daudu, “L’analyse des pulpes par activation neutronique,” Mines et Carrières—Les Techniques 77, 22–27 (1995).

1991 (1)

Barrette, L.

L. Barrette, S. Turmel, “On-line slurry monitoring for real-time process control of pellet making processes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: graphitic vs. total carbon detection,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 715–723 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Barrette, S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, T. I. Martinovic, G. Ouellet, “On-line iron ore slurry monitoring using laser induced plasma spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Control and Optimization in Minerals, Metals and Materials Processing, D. Hodouin, C. Bazin, A. Desbiens, eds. (Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Québec, Canada, 1999), pp. 17–27.

S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, L. Barrette, D. Fleury, G. Ouellet, T. I. Martinovic, “On-Line elemental analysis in an iron ore concentrate slurry,” in 58th Ironmaking Conference Proceedings, D. L. Kanagy, ed. (Iron and Steel Society, Chicago, Ill.1999), pp. 515–523.

Boivin, J. A.

S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, L. Barrette, D. Fleury, G. Ouellet, T. I. Martinovic, “On-Line elemental analysis in an iron ore concentrate slurry,” in 58th Ironmaking Conference Proceedings, D. L. Kanagy, ed. (Iron and Steel Society, Chicago, Ill.1999), pp. 515–523.

L. Barrette, S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, T. I. Martinovic, G. Ouellet, “On-line iron ore slurry monitoring using laser induced plasma spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Control and Optimization in Minerals, Metals and Materials Processing, D. Hodouin, C. Bazin, A. Desbiens, eds. (Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Québec, Canada, 1999), pp. 17–27.

Braden, T. F.

T. F. Braden, M. Kongas, K. Saloheimo, “On-line composition analysis of mineral slurries,” in Mineral Processing Plant Design, Practice, and Control Proceedings, A. L. Mular, D. N. Halbe, D. J. Barratt, eds. (Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Vancouver, B. C., Canada; 2002), pp. 2020–2048.

Cielo, P.

S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, L. Barrette, D. Fleury, G. Ouellet, T. I. Martinovic, “On-Line elemental analysis in an iron ore concentrate slurry,” in 58th Ironmaking Conference Proceedings, D. L. Kanagy, ed. (Iron and Steel Society, Chicago, Ill.1999), pp. 515–523.

Cremers, D. A.

L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, “Spectrochemical analysis using laser-plasma excitation,” in Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications, L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).

Daudu, F.

J. L. Pinault, J. Y. Moal, F. Daudu, “L’analyse des pulpes par activation neutronique,” Mines et Carrières—Les Techniques 77, 22–27 (1995).

De Bruyn, S.

J. Engelbrecht, P. Van Den Heever, S. De Bruyn, “On-stream x-ray diffraction analysis of phosphate rock-bearing slurries in Florida: a case study towards process control,” Process Control Qual, 11, 59–70 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Engelbrecht, J.

J. Engelbrecht, P. Van Den Heever, S. De Bruyn, “On-stream x-ray diffraction analysis of phosphate rock-bearing slurries in Florida: a case study towards process control,” Process Control Qual, 11, 59–70 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fleury, D.

S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, L. Barrette, D. Fleury, G. Ouellet, T. I. Martinovic, “On-Line elemental analysis in an iron ore concentrate slurry,” in 58th Ironmaking Conference Proceedings, D. L. Kanagy, ed. (Iron and Steel Society, Chicago, Ill.1999), pp. 515–523.

Friesen, W. I.

Grant, K. J.

Hiraga, H.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of an iron suspension in water by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2986 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, Y.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of an iron suspension in water by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2986 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaneko, K. I.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of an iron suspension in water by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2986 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kongas, M.

T. F. Braden, M. Kongas, K. Saloheimo, “On-line composition analysis of mineral slurries,” in Mineral Processing Plant Design, Practice, and Control Proceedings, A. L. Mular, D. N. Halbe, D. J. Barratt, eds. (Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Vancouver, B. C., Canada; 2002), pp. 2020–2048.

Martinovic, T. I.

S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, L. Barrette, D. Fleury, G. Ouellet, T. I. Martinovic, “On-Line elemental analysis in an iron ore concentrate slurry,” in 58th Ironmaking Conference Proceedings, D. L. Kanagy, ed. (Iron and Steel Society, Chicago, Ill.1999), pp. 515–523.

L. Barrette, S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, T. I. Martinovic, G. Ouellet, “On-line iron ore slurry monitoring using laser induced plasma spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Control and Optimization in Minerals, Metals and Materials Processing, D. Hodouin, C. Bazin, A. Desbiens, eds. (Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Québec, Canada, 1999), pp. 17–27.

Moal, J. Y.

J. L. Pinault, J. Y. Moal, F. Daudu, “L’analyse des pulpes par activation neutronique,” Mines et Carrières—Les Techniques 77, 22–27 (1995).

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of an iron suspension in water by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2986 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Neill, J. A.

Ouellet, G.

S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, L. Barrette, D. Fleury, G. Ouellet, T. I. Martinovic, “On-Line elemental analysis in an iron ore concentrate slurry,” in 58th Ironmaking Conference Proceedings, D. L. Kanagy, ed. (Iron and Steel Society, Chicago, Ill.1999), pp. 515–523.

L. Barrette, S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, T. I. Martinovic, G. Ouellet, “On-line iron ore slurry monitoring using laser induced plasma spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Control and Optimization in Minerals, Metals and Materials Processing, D. Hodouin, C. Bazin, A. Desbiens, eds. (Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Québec, Canada, 1999), pp. 17–27.

Paul, G. L.

Pinault, J. L.

J. L. Pinault, J. Y. Moal, F. Daudu, “L’analyse des pulpes par activation neutronique,” Mines et Carrières—Les Techniques 77, 22–27 (1995).

Radziemski, L. J.

L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, “Spectrochemical analysis using laser-plasma excitation,” in Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications, L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).

Sabsabi, M.

L. Barrette, S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, T. I. Martinovic, G. Ouellet, “On-line iron ore slurry monitoring using laser induced plasma spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Control and Optimization in Minerals, Metals and Materials Processing, D. Hodouin, C. Bazin, A. Desbiens, eds. (Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Québec, Canada, 1999), pp. 17–27.

S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, L. Barrette, D. Fleury, G. Ouellet, T. I. Martinovic, “On-Line elemental analysis in an iron ore concentrate slurry,” in 58th Ironmaking Conference Proceedings, D. L. Kanagy, ed. (Iron and Steel Society, Chicago, Ill.1999), pp. 515–523.

Saloheimo, K.

T. F. Braden, M. Kongas, K. Saloheimo, “On-line composition analysis of mineral slurries,” in Mineral Processing Plant Design, Practice, and Control Proceedings, A. L. Mular, D. N. Halbe, D. J. Barratt, eds. (Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Vancouver, B. C., Canada; 2002), pp. 2020–2048.

Shoniker, J.

J. Shoniker, R. Vedova, R. L. Vaughn, “PCS Phosphate White Springs automatic control and on-stream analysis innovations have pay-off in big gains,” presented at the Florida Phosphate Conference, Lakeland, Fla., October1998.

Sone, K.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of an iron suspension in water by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2986 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turmel, S.

L. Barrette, S. Turmel, “On-line slurry monitoring for real-time process control of pellet making processes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: graphitic vs. total carbon detection,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 715–723 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Barrette, S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, T. I. Martinovic, G. Ouellet, “On-line iron ore slurry monitoring using laser induced plasma spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Control and Optimization in Minerals, Metals and Materials Processing, D. Hodouin, C. Bazin, A. Desbiens, eds. (Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Québec, Canada, 1999), pp. 17–27.

S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, L. Barrette, D. Fleury, G. Ouellet, T. I. Martinovic, “On-Line elemental analysis in an iron ore concentrate slurry,” in 58th Ironmaking Conference Proceedings, D. L. Kanagy, ed. (Iron and Steel Society, Chicago, Ill.1999), pp. 515–523.

Van Den Heever, P.

J. Engelbrecht, P. Van Den Heever, S. De Bruyn, “On-stream x-ray diffraction analysis of phosphate rock-bearing slurries in Florida: a case study towards process control,” Process Control Qual, 11, 59–70 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vaughn, R. L.

J. Shoniker, R. Vedova, R. L. Vaughn, “PCS Phosphate White Springs automatic control and on-stream analysis innovations have pay-off in big gains,” presented at the Florida Phosphate Conference, Lakeland, Fla., October1998.

Vedova, R.

J. Shoniker, R. Vedova, R. L. Vaughn, “PCS Phosphate White Springs automatic control and on-stream analysis innovations have pay-off in big gains,” presented at the Florida Phosphate Conference, Lakeland, Fla., October1998.

Anal. Chem. (1)

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of an iron suspension in water by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2986 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Mines et Carrières—Les Techniques (1)

J. L. Pinault, J. Y. Moal, F. Daudu, “L’analyse des pulpes par activation neutronique,” Mines et Carrières—Les Techniques 77, 22–27 (1995).

Process Control Qual (1)

J. Engelbrecht, P. Van Den Heever, S. De Bruyn, “On-stream x-ray diffraction analysis of phosphate rock-bearing slurries in Florida: a case study towards process control,” Process Control Qual, 11, 59–70 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (1)

L. Barrette, S. Turmel, “On-line slurry monitoring for real-time process control of pellet making processes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: graphitic vs. total carbon detection,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 715–723 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, P. Cielo, L. Barrette, D. Fleury, G. Ouellet, T. I. Martinovic, “On-Line elemental analysis in an iron ore concentrate slurry,” in 58th Ironmaking Conference Proceedings, D. L. Kanagy, ed. (Iron and Steel Society, Chicago, Ill.1999), pp. 515–523.

L. Barrette, S. Turmel, J. A. Boivin, M. Sabsabi, T. I. Martinovic, G. Ouellet, “On-line iron ore slurry monitoring using laser induced plasma spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Control and Optimization in Minerals, Metals and Materials Processing, D. Hodouin, C. Bazin, A. Desbiens, eds. (Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Québec, Canada, 1999), pp. 17–27.

J. Shoniker, R. Vedova, R. L. Vaughn, “PCS Phosphate White Springs automatic control and on-stream analysis innovations have pay-off in big gains,” presented at the Florida Phosphate Conference, Lakeland, Fla., October1998.

L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, “Spectrochemical analysis using laser-plasma excitation,” in Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications, L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).

T. F. Braden, M. Kongas, K. Saloheimo, “On-line composition analysis of mineral slurries,” in Mineral Processing Plant Design, Practice, and Control Proceedings, A. L. Mular, D. N. Halbe, D. J. Barratt, eds. (Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Vancouver, B. C., Canada; 2002), pp. 2020–2048.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the slurry recirculator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of vertical distance from the tip of faucet to the laser hit point on the Si/Fe ratio of an iron ore slurry. The top curve should be read on the left-hand scale; the lower curves, on the right. StD, standard deviation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of horizontal bias from the center of the jet on the Si/Fe ratio of an iron ore slurry.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Long-term repeatability trend for LIBS analyses of an iron ore slurry containing 0.4% silica. Dashed lines delimit the 8% standard deviations about the mean (solid line). Dates are given in month-day format.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calibration curve for iron ore slurries at 75% solids and 30-µm median diameter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of the Si/Fe ratio of an iron ore slurry (75% solids) as a function of the median diameter of the solid material. Lower curve, 0.4% silica; higher curve, 5.1% silica.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variation of the Si/Fe ratio of an iron ore slurry as a function of the percentage of solids in the slurry. The slurry held 5.1% silica.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Illustration of the effect of a high-magnetite content on the Si/Fe ratio of an iron ore slurry. The high-magnetite material at 3.4% silica holds 85% magnetite by weight.

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