Abstract

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been used to detect sodium (Na) in water. Laser-induced breakdown was formed by dual-pulse and crossed beam Nd:YAG lasers on a water film. To improve the detection sensitivity, the fluorescence intensity dependence on timing between laser pulses, the delay time of fluorescence detection timing, the gate width of fluorescence detection period, and the laser energy were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of Na in water was achieved in the range of 0.1 parts per billion. The developed system is applicable for quick and supersensitive detection of Na atoms in water.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2001 (1)

2000 (2)

D. N. Stratis, K. L. Eland, S. M. Angel, “Dual-pulse LIBS using a pre-ablation spark for enhanced ablation and emission,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 1270–1274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248–2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. Kaneko, “Determination colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2986 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, R. Noll, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel samples using multiple Q-switch Nd:YAG laser pulses,” J. Phys. D. 28, 2181–2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

Adachi, H.

K. Arakawa, T. Okamura, M. Nakane, A. Kuwako, H. Adachi, M. Ogiue, “Trace element analysis by LIB & LIF spectroscopy (2),” presented at the Fall Meeting of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Aomori, Japan, 17 Sept. 2000.

Angel, S. M.

Arakawa, K.

K. Arakawa, T. Okamura, M. Nakane, A. Kuwako, H. Adachi, M. Ogiue, “Trace element analysis by LIB & LIF spectroscopy (2),” presented at the Fall Meeting of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Aomori, Japan, 17 Sept. 2000.

Beddows, D. C. S.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248–2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brust, J.

Cheung, N. H.

Cremers, D. A.

A. E. Pichahchy, D. A. Cremers, M. J. Ferris, “Elemental analysis of metals under water using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta. B 52, 25–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cremers, “The analysis of metals at a distance using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 41, 572–578 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eland, K. L.

Ferris, M. J.

A. E. Pichahchy, D. A. Cremers, M. J. Ferris, “Elemental analysis of metals under water using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta. B 52, 25–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hiraga, H.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. Kaneko, “Determination colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2986 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, W. F.

Ito, Y.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. Kaneko, “Determination colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2986 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaiser, J.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248–2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, K.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. Kaneko, “Determination colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2986 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, H.

M. Nakane, A. Kuwako, K. Nishizawa, H. Kimura, C. Konagai, T. Okamura, “Analysis of trace metal elements in water using laser-induced fluorescence for laser-breakdown plasma,” in Laser Plasma Generation and Diagnostics, R. F. Haglund, R. F. Wood, Proc. SPIE3935, 127–131 (2000).

Konagai, C.

M. Nakane, A. Kuwako, K. Nishizawa, H. Kimura, C. Konagai, T. Okamura, “Analysis of trace metal elements in water using laser-induced fluorescence for laser-breakdown plasma,” in Laser Plasma Generation and Diagnostics, R. F. Haglund, R. F. Wood, Proc. SPIE3935, 127–131 (2000).

Kukhlevsky, S. V.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248–2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuwako, A.

K. Arakawa, T. Okamura, M. Nakane, A. Kuwako, H. Adachi, M. Ogiue, “Trace element analysis by LIB & LIF spectroscopy (2),” presented at the Fall Meeting of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Aomori, Japan, 17 Sept. 2000.

M. Nakane, A. Kuwako, K. Nishizawa, H. Kimura, C. Konagai, T. Okamura, “Analysis of trace metal elements in water using laser-induced fluorescence for laser-breakdown plasma,” in Laser Plasma Generation and Diagnostics, R. F. Haglund, R. F. Wood, Proc. SPIE3935, 127–131 (2000).

Leis, F.

Liska, M.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248–2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. Kaneko, “Determination colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2986 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakane, M.

M. Nakane, A. Kuwako, K. Nishizawa, H. Kimura, C. Konagai, T. Okamura, “Analysis of trace metal elements in water using laser-induced fluorescence for laser-breakdown plasma,” in Laser Plasma Generation and Diagnostics, R. F. Haglund, R. F. Wood, Proc. SPIE3935, 127–131 (2000).

K. Arakawa, T. Okamura, M. Nakane, A. Kuwako, H. Adachi, M. Ogiue, “Trace element analysis by LIB & LIF spectroscopy (2),” presented at the Fall Meeting of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Aomori, Japan, 17 Sept. 2000.

Neu, W.

Ng, C. W.

Niemax, K.

Nishizawa, K.

M. Nakane, A. Kuwako, K. Nishizawa, H. Kimura, C. Konagai, T. Okamura, “Analysis of trace metal elements in water using laser-induced fluorescence for laser-breakdown plasma,” in Laser Plasma Generation and Diagnostics, R. F. Haglund, R. F. Wood, Proc. SPIE3935, 127–131 (2000).

Noll, R.

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, R. Noll, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel samples using multiple Q-switch Nd:YAG laser pulses,” J. Phys. D. 28, 2181–2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nyga, R.

Ogiue, M.

K. Arakawa, T. Okamura, M. Nakane, A. Kuwako, H. Adachi, M. Ogiue, “Trace element analysis by LIB & LIF spectroscopy (2),” presented at the Fall Meeting of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Aomori, Japan, 17 Sept. 2000.

Okamura, T.

K. Arakawa, T. Okamura, M. Nakane, A. Kuwako, H. Adachi, M. Ogiue, “Trace element analysis by LIB & LIF spectroscopy (2),” presented at the Fall Meeting of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Aomori, Japan, 17 Sept. 2000.

M. Nakane, A. Kuwako, K. Nishizawa, H. Kimura, C. Konagai, T. Okamura, “Analysis of trace metal elements in water using laser-induced fluorescence for laser-breakdown plasma,” in Laser Plasma Generation and Diagnostics, R. F. Haglund, R. F. Wood, Proc. SPIE3935, 127–131 (2000).

Paisner, J. A.

L. J. Radziemski, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, Laser Spectroscopy and Its Application (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1987).

Pichahchy, A. E.

A. E. Pichahchy, D. A. Cremers, M. J. Ferris, “Elemental analysis of metals under water using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta. B 52, 25–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Radziemski, L. J.

L. J. Radziemski, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, Laser Spectroscopy and Its Application (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1987).

Samek, O.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248–2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sattmann, R.

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, R. Noll, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel samples using multiple Q-switch Nd:YAG laser pulses,” J. Phys. D. 28, 2181–2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sdorra, W.

Solarz, R. W.

L. J. Radziemski, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, Laser Spectroscopy and Its Application (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1987).

Sone, K.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. Kaneko, “Determination colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2986 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stratis, D. N.

Sturm, V.

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, R. Noll, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel samples using multiple Q-switch Nd:YAG laser pulses,” J. Phys. D. 28, 2181–2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Telle, H. H.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248–2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Uebbing, J.

Young, J.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248–2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. Kaneko, “Determination colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2986 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (6)

J. Phys. D. (1)

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, R. Noll, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel samples using multiple Q-switch Nd:YAG laser pulses,” J. Phys. D. 28, 2181–2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248–2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Spectrochim. Acta. B (1)

A. E. Pichahchy, D. A. Cremers, M. J. Ferris, “Elemental analysis of metals under water using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta. B 52, 25–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. Nakane, A. Kuwako, K. Nishizawa, H. Kimura, C. Konagai, T. Okamura, “Analysis of trace metal elements in water using laser-induced fluorescence for laser-breakdown plasma,” in Laser Plasma Generation and Diagnostics, R. F. Haglund, R. F. Wood, Proc. SPIE3935, 127–131 (2000).

K. Arakawa, T. Okamura, M. Nakane, A. Kuwako, H. Adachi, M. Ogiue, “Trace element analysis by LIB & LIF spectroscopy (2),” presented at the Fall Meeting of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Aomori, Japan, 17 Sept. 2000.

L. J. Radziemski, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, Laser Spectroscopy and Its Application (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1987).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Side view of test cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical images of plasma produced by DPX system on water film by plasma monitor [viewed from 45° upside; exposure time = 250 ms, laser energy = 360 mJ (total)].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Parameters in DPX-LIBS measurement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of delay time (T2) of fluorescence detection timing under various timing between laser pulses with use of 100-ppb Na solution sample.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temporal change of fluorescence by photomultiplier at 589-nm signal by dual-pulse and crossed-beam irradiation with use of 100-ppb Na solution sample.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intensity of Na:589-nm emission line by ICCD versus total laser energy for Na:1-ppb water.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Intensity of Na:589-nm emission line by ICCD versus Na concentration in water sample under irradiation at 372 mJ.

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