Abstract

Double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of magnesium in water has been performed with different jet thicknesses. A Meinhard nebulizer has been used to create a jet of 0.3-mm diameter, whereas a homemade liquid jet injector produced a thicker jet of 1.0-mm diameter. The relationship of line intensity to delay time between the two laser pulses for these two jets is compared and discussed. The limits of detection in these two jets are also determined and compared. The line intensity observed from the double-pulse measurement is correlated with the measured electron density calculated with the Hα line. Also, the behavior of plasma density relative to time delay between the lasers is described.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

F. Y. Yueh, R. C. Sharma, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, W. A. Spencer, “Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace elements in liquid,” J. Air and Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 174–182 (2002).

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

S. Amoruso, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, R. Vellota, “Characterization of laser-ablation plasmas,” J. Phys. B 32, R131–R172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Song, Y. A. Lee, J. Sneddon, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2961–2966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, R. Noll, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel using multiple Q switch Nd:YAG laser pulses,” J. Phys. D 28, 2181–2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Poulain, D. R. Alexander, “Influences on concentration measurement of liquid aerosols by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 569–579 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1984 (1)

Alexander, D. R.

Amoruso, S.

S. Amoruso, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, R. Vellota, “Characterization of laser-ablation plasmas,” J. Phys. B 32, R131–R172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brust, J.

Bruzzese, R.

S. Amoruso, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, R. Vellota, “Characterization of laser-ablation plasmas,” J. Phys. B 32, R131–R172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, M. D.

Cramers, D. A.

Cremers, D. A.

L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, Laser Induced Plasma and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).

Griem, H. R.

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964).

Hiraga, H.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2961–2966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ito, Y.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2961–2966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, K. I.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2961–2966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

Lee, Y. A.

K. Song, Y. A. Lee, J. Sneddon, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leis, F.

Loree, T. R.

Martin, M.

Miller, T.

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2961–2966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neu, W.

Niemax, K.

Noll, R.

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, R. Noll, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel using multiple Q switch Nd:YAG laser pulses,” J. Phys. D 28, 2181–2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nyga, R.

Poulain, D. E.

Radziemski, L. J.

D. A. Cramers, L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, “Spectrochemical analysis of liquid using the laser spark,” Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 721–729 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, Laser Induced Plasma and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).

Rai, A. K.

Rai, V. N.

Sattmann, R.

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, R. Noll, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel using multiple Q switch Nd:YAG laser pulses,” J. Phys. D 28, 2181–2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sdorra, W.

Sharma, R. C.

F. Y. Yueh, R. C. Sharma, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, W. A. Spencer, “Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace elements in liquid,” J. Air and Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 174–182 (2002).

Singh, J. P.

V. N. Rai, A. K. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, “Optical emission from laser induced breakdown plasma of solid and liquid samples in the presence of a magnetic field,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2085–2093 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kumar, F. Y. Yueh, T. Miller, J. P. Singh, “Detection of trace elements in liquids by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with a Meinhard nebulizer,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6040–6046 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, “Study Of laser induced breakdown emission from liquid under double pulse excitation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2094–2101 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Yueh, R. C. Sharma, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, W. A. Spencer, “Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace elements in liquid,” J. Air and Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 174–182 (2002).

F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, elemental analysis,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2000), pp. 2065–2087.

Sneddon, J.

K. Song, Y. A. Lee, J. Sneddon, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sone, K.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2961–2966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.

K. Song, Y. A. Lee, J. Sneddon, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, W. A.

F. Y. Yueh, R. C. Sharma, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, W. A. Spencer, “Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace elements in liquid,” J. Air and Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 174–182 (2002).

Spinelli, N.

S. Amoruso, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, R. Vellota, “Characterization of laser-ablation plasmas,” J. Phys. B 32, R131–R172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, V.

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, R. Noll, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel using multiple Q switch Nd:YAG laser pulses,” J. Phys. D 28, 2181–2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Uebbing, J.

Vellota, R.

S. Amoruso, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, R. Vellota, “Characterization of laser-ablation plasmas,” J. Phys. B 32, R131–R172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yueh, F. Y.

A. Kumar, F. Y. Yueh, T. Miller, J. P. Singh, “Detection of trace elements in liquids by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with a Meinhard nebulizer,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6040–6046 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Rai, A. K. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, “Optical emission from laser induced breakdown plasma of solid and liquid samples in the presence of a magnetic field,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2085–2093 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, “Study Of laser induced breakdown emission from liquid under double pulse excitation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2094–2101 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Yueh, R. C. Sharma, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, W. A. Spencer, “Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace elements in liquid,” J. Air and Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 174–182 (2002).

F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, elemental analysis,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2000), pp. 2065–2087.

Zhang, H.

F. Y. Yueh, R. C. Sharma, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, W. A. Spencer, “Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace elements in liquid,” J. Air and Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 174–182 (2002).

F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, elemental analysis,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2000), pp. 2065–2087.

Anal. Chem. (1)

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2961–2966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. spectrosc. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

K. Song, Y. A. Lee, J. Sneddon, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Air and Waste Manage. Assoc. (1)

F. Y. Yueh, R. C. Sharma, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, W. A. Spencer, “Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace elements in liquid,” J. Air and Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 174–182 (2002).

J. Phys. B (1)

S. Amoruso, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, R. Vellota, “Characterization of laser-ablation plasmas,” J. Phys. B 32, R131–R172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, R. Noll, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel using multiple Q switch Nd:YAG laser pulses,” J. Phys. D 28, 2181–2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964).

L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, Laser Induced Plasma and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).

F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, elemental analysis,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2000), pp. 2065–2087.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a double-pulse LIBS system (ray diagram for making two synchronized lasers collinear): BD, beam dumps; DM, dichroic mirror; FO, fiber optics; HS, harmonic separators; L, lenses, 2×, KDP doublers; ICCD, intensified charge-coupled detector; M, mirrors; TFP, thin film polarizer..

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of LIBS signal with gate delay time for a thin jet produced by a Meinhard nebulizer in single-pulse and double-pulse modes: L1, 130 mJ; L2, 150 mJ; gate width, 10 µs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect on the LIBS signal of changing the time delay between the lasers for a thick jet, a thin jet, and mist: 20 parts in 106 (ppm) Mg; L1, 130 mJ; L2, 150 mJ; gate delay, 1.5 µs; gate width, 10 µs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated electron density at several laser delay times for a thick jet, a thin jet, and mist: L1, 130 mJ, L2, 165 mJ, 1-µs gate delay, 10-µs gate width.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calibration curves of Mg in a 2% acidic solution obtained in a thick jet and in a thin jet: L1, 130 mJ; L2, 150 mJ; gate delay, 1.5 µs; gate width, 10 µs; time delay between L1 and L2, 3.0 µs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of double-pulse LIBS signals for 5.0 ppm Mg with thin and thick jets: L1, 130 mJ; L2, 150 mJ; gate delay, 1.5 µs; gate width, 10 µs; time delay between L1 and L2, 3.0 µs]

Equations (1)

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Ne=CNe, TΔλFWHM3/2,

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