Abstract

We present a theoretical approach to interpreting optical emission spectroscopy measurements for nonequilibrium conditions. In this approach both the fluid dynamics and the kinetics of laser-induced plasma are taken into account, and the results obtained by the numerical model are applied to the spectroscopic observation of the plasma induced by the interaction between a KrF laser and a metallic Ti target. We have generalized the theoretical method to calculate the initial conditions for the plume expansion that show the best agreement with experimental results.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, G. S. Senesi, F. Prudenzano, “Plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition for the improvement of the film growth process,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 533–537 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Teghil, L. D’Alessio, A. Santagata, M. Zaccagnino, D. Ferro, “Pulsed laser ablation of MoSi2: gas phase analysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 335–338 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Cappelli, S. Orlando, G. Mattei, F. Pinzari, S. Zoffoli, “RF-plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition of carbon films from graphite target,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 441–447 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Colonna, A. Casavola, M. Capitelli, “Modelling of LIBS plasma expansion,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 567–586 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Capitelli, F. Capitelli, A. Eletskii, “Non-equilibrium and equilibrium problems in laser-induced plasmas,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 559–574 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, O. De Pascale, “Optical emission spectroscopy and modelling of plasma produced by laser ablation of titanium oxides,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 753–776 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Colonna, M. Capitelli, “Self-consistent model of chemical, vibrational, electron kinetics in Nozzle expansion,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 15, 308–316 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, G. S. Senesi, S. Orlando, “Spectroscopic investigation of the technique of plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition of titanium dioxide,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 1459–1472 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Di Trolio, A. Morone, S. Orlando, A. Paladini, “Analysis of the plume expansion from laser ablated SmBaCuO target,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 168, 136–140 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Hermann, A. L. Thomann, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, B. Dubreuil, M. L. De Giorgi, A. Perrone, A. Luches, I. N. Mihailescu, “Plasma diagnostic in pulsed laser TiN layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2928–2936 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, “Absorption and saturation mechanisms in aluminium laser-ablated plasmas,” Appl. Phys. A 65, 265–271 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Kelly, A. Miotello, “Pulsed-laser sputtering of atoms and molecules. I. Basic solutions for gas-dynamic effects,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 145–158 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Colonna, A. Casavola, M. Capitelli, “On the modeling of TiO plume expansion under laser ablation,” ALT ’99 International Conference on Advanced Laser Technologies, V. I. Pustovoy, V. I. Konov, ed., Proc. SPIE4070, 293–299 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Casavola, “Theoretical modeling in laser-matter interaction,” Ph.D. dissertation (Università degli Studi di Bari, Bari, Italy, 1999).
  15. G. Colonna, A. Casavola, L. D. Pietanza, A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, M. Capitelli, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of nonequilibrium in laser induced plasmas,” paper AIAA 2001-2806, presented at the 32nd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Laser Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 11–14 June 2001 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2001), pp. 1–11.
  16. G. Colonna, A. Casavola, A. De Giacomo, M. Capitelli, “Laser ablation of titanium metallic targets: comparison between theory and experiment,” paper AIAA 2002-2159, presented at the 33rd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Laser Conference, Maui, Haw.20–23 May 2002 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2002), pp. 1–8.
  17. M. Gryzinski, “Two-particle collisions. I. General relations for collisions in the laboratory system,” Phys. Rev. A 138, A305–A32 (1965).
  18. G. Colonna, L. D. Pietanza, M. Capitelli, “Coupled solution of a time-dependent collisional-radiative model and Boltzmann equation for atomic hydrogen plasmas: possible implications with LIBS plasmas,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 587–598 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, eds. Numerical Recipes in C: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1988).

2002 (3)

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, G. S. Senesi, F. Prudenzano, “Plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition for the improvement of the film growth process,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 533–537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Teghil, L. D’Alessio, A. Santagata, M. Zaccagnino, D. Ferro, “Pulsed laser ablation of MoSi2: gas phase analysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 335–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Cappelli, S. Orlando, G. Mattei, F. Pinzari, S. Zoffoli, “RF-plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition of carbon films from graphite target,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 441–447 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, M. Capitelli, “Modelling of LIBS plasma expansion,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 567–586 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, O. De Pascale, “Optical emission spectroscopy and modelling of plasma produced by laser ablation of titanium oxides,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 753–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Colonna, M. Capitelli, “Self-consistent model of chemical, vibrational, electron kinetics in Nozzle expansion,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 15, 308–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, G. S. Senesi, S. Orlando, “Spectroscopic investigation of the technique of plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition of titanium dioxide,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 1459–1472 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Colonna, L. D. Pietanza, M. Capitelli, “Coupled solution of a time-dependent collisional-radiative model and Boltzmann equation for atomic hydrogen plasmas: possible implications with LIBS plasmas,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 587–598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. Di Trolio, A. Morone, S. Orlando, A. Paladini, “Analysis of the plume expansion from laser ablated SmBaCuO target,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 168, 136–140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Capitelli, F. Capitelli, A. Eletskii, “Non-equilibrium and equilibrium problems in laser-induced plasmas,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 559–574 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, “Absorption and saturation mechanisms in aluminium laser-ablated plasmas,” Appl. Phys. A 65, 265–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Hermann, A. L. Thomann, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, B. Dubreuil, M. L. De Giorgi, A. Perrone, A. Luches, I. N. Mihailescu, “Plasma diagnostic in pulsed laser TiN layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2928–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. Kelly, A. Miotello, “Pulsed-laser sputtering of atoms and molecules. I. Basic solutions for gas-dynamic effects,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 145–158 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

M. Gryzinski, “Two-particle collisions. I. General relations for collisions in the laboratory system,” Phys. Rev. A 138, A305–A32 (1965).

Amoruso, S.

S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, “Absorption and saturation mechanisms in aluminium laser-ablated plasmas,” Appl. Phys. A 65, 265–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Armenante, M.

S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, “Absorption and saturation mechanisms in aluminium laser-ablated plasmas,” Appl. Phys. A 65, 265–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berardi, V.

S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, “Absorption and saturation mechanisms in aluminium laser-ablated plasmas,” Appl. Phys. A 65, 265–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boulmer-Leborgne, C.

J. Hermann, A. L. Thomann, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, B. Dubreuil, M. L. De Giorgi, A. Perrone, A. Luches, I. N. Mihailescu, “Plasma diagnostic in pulsed laser TiN layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2928–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bruzzese, R.

S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, “Absorption and saturation mechanisms in aluminium laser-ablated plasmas,” Appl. Phys. A 65, 265–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Capitelli, F.

M. Capitelli, F. Capitelli, A. Eletskii, “Non-equilibrium and equilibrium problems in laser-induced plasmas,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 559–574 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Capitelli, M.

G. Colonna, M. Capitelli, “Self-consistent model of chemical, vibrational, electron kinetics in Nozzle expansion,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 15, 308–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Colonna, L. D. Pietanza, M. Capitelli, “Coupled solution of a time-dependent collisional-radiative model and Boltzmann equation for atomic hydrogen plasmas: possible implications with LIBS plasmas,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 587–598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, M. Capitelli, “Modelling of LIBS plasma expansion,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 567–586 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Capitelli, F. Capitelli, A. Eletskii, “Non-equilibrium and equilibrium problems in laser-induced plasmas,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 559–574 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, L. D. Pietanza, A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, M. Capitelli, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of nonequilibrium in laser induced plasmas,” paper AIAA 2001-2806, presented at the 32nd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Laser Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 11–14 June 2001 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2001), pp. 1–11.

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, A. De Giacomo, M. Capitelli, “Laser ablation of titanium metallic targets: comparison between theory and experiment,” paper AIAA 2002-2159, presented at the 33rd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Laser Conference, Maui, Haw.20–23 May 2002 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2002), pp. 1–8.

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, M. Capitelli, “On the modeling of TiO plume expansion under laser ablation,” ALT ’99 International Conference on Advanced Laser Technologies, V. I. Pustovoy, V. I. Konov, ed., Proc. SPIE4070, 293–299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cappelli, E.

E. Cappelli, S. Orlando, G. Mattei, F. Pinzari, S. Zoffoli, “RF-plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition of carbon films from graphite target,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 441–447 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Casavola, A.

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, M. Capitelli, “Modelling of LIBS plasma expansion,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 567–586 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, L. D. Pietanza, A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, M. Capitelli, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of nonequilibrium in laser induced plasmas,” paper AIAA 2001-2806, presented at the 32nd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Laser Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 11–14 June 2001 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2001), pp. 1–11.

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, M. Capitelli, “On the modeling of TiO plume expansion under laser ablation,” ALT ’99 International Conference on Advanced Laser Technologies, V. I. Pustovoy, V. I. Konov, ed., Proc. SPIE4070, 293–299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, A. De Giacomo, M. Capitelli, “Laser ablation of titanium metallic targets: comparison between theory and experiment,” paper AIAA 2002-2159, presented at the 33rd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Laser Conference, Maui, Haw.20–23 May 2002 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2002), pp. 1–8.

A. Casavola, “Theoretical modeling in laser-matter interaction,” Ph.D. dissertation (Università degli Studi di Bari, Bari, Italy, 1999).

Colonna, G.

G. Colonna, M. Capitelli, “Self-consistent model of chemical, vibrational, electron kinetics in Nozzle expansion,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 15, 308–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Colonna, L. D. Pietanza, M. Capitelli, “Coupled solution of a time-dependent collisional-radiative model and Boltzmann equation for atomic hydrogen plasmas: possible implications with LIBS plasmas,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 587–598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, M. Capitelli, “Modelling of LIBS plasma expansion,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 567–586 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, L. D. Pietanza, A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, M. Capitelli, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of nonequilibrium in laser induced plasmas,” paper AIAA 2001-2806, presented at the 32nd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Laser Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 11–14 June 2001 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2001), pp. 1–11.

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, A. De Giacomo, M. Capitelli, “Laser ablation of titanium metallic targets: comparison between theory and experiment,” paper AIAA 2002-2159, presented at the 33rd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Laser Conference, Maui, Haw.20–23 May 2002 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2002), pp. 1–8.

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, M. Capitelli, “On the modeling of TiO plume expansion under laser ablation,” ALT ’99 International Conference on Advanced Laser Technologies, V. I. Pustovoy, V. I. Konov, ed., Proc. SPIE4070, 293–299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D’Alessio, L.

R. Teghil, L. D’Alessio, A. Santagata, M. Zaccagnino, D. Ferro, “Pulsed laser ablation of MoSi2: gas phase analysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 335–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Giacomo, A.

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, G. S. Senesi, F. Prudenzano, “Plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition for the improvement of the film growth process,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 533–537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, O. De Pascale, “Optical emission spectroscopy and modelling of plasma produced by laser ablation of titanium oxides,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 753–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, G. S. Senesi, S. Orlando, “Spectroscopic investigation of the technique of plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition of titanium dioxide,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 1459–1472 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, L. D. Pietanza, A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, M. Capitelli, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of nonequilibrium in laser induced plasmas,” paper AIAA 2001-2806, presented at the 32nd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Laser Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 11–14 June 2001 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2001), pp. 1–11.

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, A. De Giacomo, M. Capitelli, “Laser ablation of titanium metallic targets: comparison between theory and experiment,” paper AIAA 2002-2159, presented at the 33rd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Laser Conference, Maui, Haw.20–23 May 2002 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2002), pp. 1–8.

De Giorgi, M. L.

J. Hermann, A. L. Thomann, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, B. Dubreuil, M. L. De Giorgi, A. Perrone, A. Luches, I. N. Mihailescu, “Plasma diagnostic in pulsed laser TiN layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2928–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

De Pascale, O.

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, O. De Pascale, “Optical emission spectroscopy and modelling of plasma produced by laser ablation of titanium oxides,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 753–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Di Trolio, A.

A. Di Trolio, A. Morone, S. Orlando, A. Paladini, “Analysis of the plume expansion from laser ablated SmBaCuO target,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 168, 136–140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dubreuil, B.

J. Hermann, A. L. Thomann, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, B. Dubreuil, M. L. De Giorgi, A. Perrone, A. Luches, I. N. Mihailescu, “Plasma diagnostic in pulsed laser TiN layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2928–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eletskii, A.

M. Capitelli, F. Capitelli, A. Eletskii, “Non-equilibrium and equilibrium problems in laser-induced plasmas,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 559–574 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ferro, D.

R. Teghil, L. D’Alessio, A. Santagata, M. Zaccagnino, D. Ferro, “Pulsed laser ablation of MoSi2: gas phase analysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 335–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gryzinski, M.

M. Gryzinski, “Two-particle collisions. I. General relations for collisions in the laboratory system,” Phys. Rev. A 138, A305–A32 (1965).

Hermann, J.

J. Hermann, A. L. Thomann, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, B. Dubreuil, M. L. De Giorgi, A. Perrone, A. Luches, I. N. Mihailescu, “Plasma diagnostic in pulsed laser TiN layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2928–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, R.

R. Kelly, A. Miotello, “Pulsed-laser sputtering of atoms and molecules. I. Basic solutions for gas-dynamic effects,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 145–158 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Luches, A.

J. Hermann, A. L. Thomann, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, B. Dubreuil, M. L. De Giorgi, A. Perrone, A. Luches, I. N. Mihailescu, “Plasma diagnostic in pulsed laser TiN layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2928–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mattei, G.

E. Cappelli, S. Orlando, G. Mattei, F. Pinzari, S. Zoffoli, “RF-plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition of carbon films from graphite target,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 441–447 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mihailescu, I. N.

J. Hermann, A. L. Thomann, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, B. Dubreuil, M. L. De Giorgi, A. Perrone, A. Luches, I. N. Mihailescu, “Plasma diagnostic in pulsed laser TiN layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2928–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miotello, A.

R. Kelly, A. Miotello, “Pulsed-laser sputtering of atoms and molecules. I. Basic solutions for gas-dynamic effects,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 145–158 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morone, A.

A. Di Trolio, A. Morone, S. Orlando, A. Paladini, “Analysis of the plume expansion from laser ablated SmBaCuO target,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 168, 136–140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Orlando, S.

E. Cappelli, S. Orlando, G. Mattei, F. Pinzari, S. Zoffoli, “RF-plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition of carbon films from graphite target,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 441–447 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, G. S. Senesi, S. Orlando, “Spectroscopic investigation of the technique of plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition of titanium dioxide,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 1459–1472 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Di Trolio, A. Morone, S. Orlando, A. Paladini, “Analysis of the plume expansion from laser ablated SmBaCuO target,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 168, 136–140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paladini, A.

A. Di Trolio, A. Morone, S. Orlando, A. Paladini, “Analysis of the plume expansion from laser ablated SmBaCuO target,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 168, 136–140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perrone, A.

J. Hermann, A. L. Thomann, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, B. Dubreuil, M. L. De Giorgi, A. Perrone, A. Luches, I. N. Mihailescu, “Plasma diagnostic in pulsed laser TiN layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2928–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pietanza, L. D.

G. Colonna, L. D. Pietanza, M. Capitelli, “Coupled solution of a time-dependent collisional-radiative model and Boltzmann equation for atomic hydrogen plasmas: possible implications with LIBS plasmas,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 587–598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, L. D. Pietanza, A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, M. Capitelli, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of nonequilibrium in laser induced plasmas,” paper AIAA 2001-2806, presented at the 32nd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Laser Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 11–14 June 2001 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2001), pp. 1–11.

Pinzari, F.

E. Cappelli, S. Orlando, G. Mattei, F. Pinzari, S. Zoffoli, “RF-plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition of carbon films from graphite target,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 441–447 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prudenzano, F.

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, G. S. Senesi, F. Prudenzano, “Plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition for the improvement of the film growth process,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 533–537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Santagata, A.

R. Teghil, L. D’Alessio, A. Santagata, M. Zaccagnino, D. Ferro, “Pulsed laser ablation of MoSi2: gas phase analysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 335–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Senesi, G. S.

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, G. S. Senesi, F. Prudenzano, “Plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition for the improvement of the film growth process,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 533–537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, G. S. Senesi, S. Orlando, “Spectroscopic investigation of the technique of plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition of titanium dioxide,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 1459–1472 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shakhatov, V. A.

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, G. S. Senesi, F. Prudenzano, “Plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition for the improvement of the film growth process,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 533–537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, G. S. Senesi, S. Orlando, “Spectroscopic investigation of the technique of plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition of titanium dioxide,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 1459–1472 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, O. De Pascale, “Optical emission spectroscopy and modelling of plasma produced by laser ablation of titanium oxides,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 753–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, L. D. Pietanza, A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, M. Capitelli, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of nonequilibrium in laser induced plasmas,” paper AIAA 2001-2806, presented at the 32nd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Laser Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 11–14 June 2001 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2001), pp. 1–11.

Spinelli, N.

S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, “Absorption and saturation mechanisms in aluminium laser-ablated plasmas,” Appl. Phys. A 65, 265–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Teghil, R.

R. Teghil, L. D’Alessio, A. Santagata, M. Zaccagnino, D. Ferro, “Pulsed laser ablation of MoSi2: gas phase analysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 335–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thomann, A. L.

J. Hermann, A. L. Thomann, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, B. Dubreuil, M. L. De Giorgi, A. Perrone, A. Luches, I. N. Mihailescu, “Plasma diagnostic in pulsed laser TiN layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2928–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zaccagnino, M.

R. Teghil, L. D’Alessio, A. Santagata, M. Zaccagnino, D. Ferro, “Pulsed laser ablation of MoSi2: gas phase analysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 335–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zoffoli, S.

E. Cappelli, S. Orlando, G. Mattei, F. Pinzari, S. Zoffoli, “RF-plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition of carbon films from graphite target,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 441–447 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, “Absorption and saturation mechanisms in aluminium laser-ablated plasmas,” Appl. Phys. A 65, 265–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Kelly, A. Miotello, “Pulsed-laser sputtering of atoms and molecules. I. Basic solutions for gas-dynamic effects,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 145–158 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

A. Di Trolio, A. Morone, S. Orlando, A. Paladini, “Analysis of the plume expansion from laser ablated SmBaCuO target,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 168, 136–140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (3)

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, G. S. Senesi, F. Prudenzano, “Plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition for the improvement of the film growth process,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 533–537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Teghil, L. D’Alessio, A. Santagata, M. Zaccagnino, D. Ferro, “Pulsed laser ablation of MoSi2: gas phase analysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 335–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Cappelli, S. Orlando, G. Mattei, F. Pinzari, S. Zoffoli, “RF-plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition of carbon films from graphite target,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 441–447 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Hermann, A. L. Thomann, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, B. Dubreuil, M. L. De Giorgi, A. Perrone, A. Luches, I. N. Mihailescu, “Plasma diagnostic in pulsed laser TiN layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2928–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer (1)

G. Colonna, M. Capitelli, “Self-consistent model of chemical, vibrational, electron kinetics in Nozzle expansion,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 15, 308–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Gryzinski, “Two-particle collisions. I. General relations for collisions in the laboratory system,” Phys. Rev. A 138, A305–A32 (1965).

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (1)

G. Colonna, A. Casavola, M. Capitelli, “Modelling of LIBS plasma expansion,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 567–586 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (4)

M. Capitelli, F. Capitelli, A. Eletskii, “Non-equilibrium and equilibrium problems in laser-induced plasmas,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 559–574 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, O. De Pascale, “Optical emission spectroscopy and modelling of plasma produced by laser ablation of titanium oxides,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 753–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. De Giacomo, V. A. Shakhatov, G. S. Senesi, S. Orlando, “Spectroscopic investigation of the technique of plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition of titanium dioxide,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 1459–1472 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Colonna, L. D. Pietanza, M. Capitelli, “Coupled solution of a time-dependent collisional-radiative model and Boltzmann equation for atomic hydrogen plasmas: possible implications with LIBS plasmas,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 587–598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

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[CrossRef]

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G. Colonna, A. Casavola, A. De Giacomo, M. Capitelli, “Laser ablation of titanium metallic targets: comparison between theory and experiment,” paper AIAA 2002-2159, presented at the 33rd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Laser Conference, Maui, Haw.20–23 May 2002 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2002), pp. 1–8.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temporal evolution of a fragment of a Ti LIP spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ionization cross sections as a function of electron energy for several transitions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ionization rate as a function of temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Flow chart of the numerical code.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Comparison of theoretical (solid curve) and experimental (filled circles) temporal profiles of Ti molar fractions at x = 0.5 mm from the target. (b) Comparison of theoretical (dotted-dashed curve) and experimental (filled triangles) temporal profiles of Ti+ molar fractions at x = 0.5 mm from the target.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Comparison of theoretical (solid curve) and experimental (filled circles) temporal profiles of Ti molar fractions at x = 1 mm from the target. (a) Comparison of theoretical (dotted-dashed curve) and experimental (filled triangles) temporal profiles of Ti+ molar fractions at x = 1 mm from the target.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Comparison of theoretical (solid curve) and experimental (filled circles) temporal profiles of Ti molar fractions at x = 2 mm from the target. (b) Comparison of theoretical (dotted-dashed curve) and experimental (filled triangles) temporal profiles of Ti+ molar fractions at x = 2 mm from the target.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Comparison of theoretical (solid curve) and experimental (filled circles) temporal profiles of Ti normalized concentration at x = 0.5 mm from the target. (b) Comparison of theoretical (dotted-dashed curve) and experimental (filled triangles) temporal profiles of Ti+ normalized concentration at x = 0.5 mm from the target.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Comparison of theoretical (solid curve) and experimental (filled circles) temporal profiles of Ti normalized concentration at x = 1 mm from the target. (b) Comparison of theoretical (dotted-dashed curve) and experimental (filled triangles) temporal profiles of Ti+ normalized concentration at x = 1 mm from the target.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Comparison of theoretical (solid curve) and experimental (filled circles) temporal profiles of Ti normalized concentration at x = 2 mm from the target. (b) Comparison of theoretical (dotted-dashed curve) and experimental (filled triangles) temporal profiles of Ti+ normalized concentration at x = 2 mm from the target.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Internal Temperatures of Ti and Ti+ at Various Delay Times

Tables Icon

Table 2 List of the Energy-Level Transitions Represented in Fig. 2

Equations (24)

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ρ t + ρ u x = z d ,
ρ u t + ρ u 2 + P x = z v ,
ρ ε t + ρ u ε x + P   u x = z e ,
ρ i t + ρ i u x = z d i ,
ρ = i = 1 nsp   ρ i ,
P = ρ M ¯   RT ,
ε = 3 2 RT M ¯ + U M ¯ + H f M ¯ ,
P = 2 3   ρ ε .
Ti k + e - ε Ti + + 2 e - ,
K ion , k = 0   f ε v ε σ ion , k ε d ε .
K ion = k   K ion , k n k .
K ion = exp 27.809 - T 9417.6 - 80102 T + 1 m 3   mol - 1   s - 1 ,
Ti k + e - ε Ti + + 2 e - .
K R 3 = K ion K eq ,
K eq = 4.01 × 10 19 - 3.05 × 10 16   T + 1.59 × 10 12   T 2 + 6.98 × 10 6   T 3   cm - 3 .
Ti + + e - ε A ek Ti k + h ν .
K RR = exp 19.905 - 0.452   ln T - 0.013993   exp ln T 2.419 m 3   mol - 1   s - 1 .
R RR = exp 30.663 - 0.36556   ln T + 26.609   exp - ln T 1.9606 J   m 3   mol - 2   s - 1 .
d Ti d t = - K ion Ti e - + K R 3 Ti + e - e - + K RR Ti + e - ,
d Ti + d t = K ion Ti e - - K R 3 Ti + e - e - - K RR Ti + e - ,
d e - d t = K ion Ti e - - K R 3 Ti + e - e - - K RR Ti + e - ,
d C ¯ d t = M ˆ   ·   C ¯ ,
M ˆ = - K ion e - K R 3 e - e - K RR Ti + K ion e - - K R 3 e - e - - K RR Ti + K ion e - - K R 3 e - e - - K RR Ti + .
- K ion e - 0.5 K R 3 e - e - + 0.5 K RR e - 0.5 K R 3 e - Ti + + 0.5 K RR Ti + K ion e - - 0.5 K R 3 e - e - - 0.5 K RR e - - 0.5 K R 3 e - Ti + - 0.5 K RR Ti + K ion e - - 0.5 K R 3 e - e - - 0.5 K RR e - - 0.5 K R 3 e - Ti + - 0.5 K RR [ Ti + ] .

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