Abstract

The objective is to perform an experimental and numerical study to analyze short-pulse laser propagation through tissue phantoms without and with inhomogeneities embedded in them. For a short-pulse laser the observed optical signal has a distinct temporal shape, and the shape is a function of the medium properties. The scattered temporal transmitted and reflected optical signals are measured experimentally with a streak camera for tissue phantoms irradiated with a short-pulse laser source. A parametric study involving different scattering and absorption coefficients of tissue phantoms and inhomogeneities, as well as the detector positions and orientations, is performed. The temporal and spatial profiles of the scattered optical signals are compared with the numerical modeling results obtained by solving the transient radiative transport equation by using the discrete ordinates technique.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002

M. Sakami, K. Mitra, T. Vo-Dinh, “Analysis of short-pulse laser photon transport through tissues for optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 336–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakami, K. Mitra, P. F. Hsu, “Analysis of light-pulse transport through two-dimensional scattering-absorbing media,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 73, 169–179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

Z. M. Tan, P. F. Hsu, “An integral formulation of transient radiative transfer,” ASME J. Heat Transfer 123, 466–475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3278–3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Hillman, J. C. Bebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Timer resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

C. Y. Wu, S. H. Wu, “Integral equation formulation for transient radiative transfer in an anisotropically scattering medium,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 43, 2009–2020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakami, K. Mitra, P. Hsu, “Transient radiative transfer in anisotropically scattering media using monotonicity-preserving schemes,” International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition 366-1, 135–143 (2000).

A. Sawetprawichkul, P. F. Hsu, K. Mitra, M. Sakami, “A Monte Carlo study of the transient radiative transfer within the one-dimensional multi-layered slab,” International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Symposium, Orlando (Florida) 366-1, 145–153 (2000).

1999

1998

1997

K. Mitra, M. S. Lai, S. Kumar, “Transient radiation transport in participating media within a rectangular enclosure,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 11, 409–414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hall, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Deply, “Imaging very-low-contrast objects in breastlike scattering media with a time-resolved method,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7270–7276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, T. L. Troy, J. S. Reynolds, C. L. Hutchinson, “Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55–64 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jarlman, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, H. Pettersson, “Time-resolved white light transillumination for optical imaging,” Acta Radiol. 38, 185–189 (1997).
[PubMed]

D. A. Boas, A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

M. Q. Brewester, Y. Yamada, “Optical properties of thick turbid media from picosecond time-resolved light scattering measurement,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 8, 2569–2581 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Yodh, B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48, 34–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamada, “Light-tissue interaction and optical imaging in biomedicine,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. Heat Transfer 6, 1–59 (1995).

1993

1992

J. C. Hebden, “Evaluating the spatial resolution performance of time-resolved optical imaging system,” Med. Phys. 19, 1081–1087 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, “Image reconstruction of the interior of bodies that diffuse radiation,” Science 248, 990–991 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

1984

P. Colella, P. R. Woodward, “The piecewise parabolic method for gas-dynamical simulations,” J. Comput. Phys. 54, 174–201 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1968

G. Strang, “On the construction and comparison of difference schemes,” SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 5, 506–517 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

O. Jarlman, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, H. Pettersson, “Time-resolved white light transillumination for optical imaging,” Acta Radiol. 38, 185–189 (1997).
[PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

E. C. Hillman, J. C. Bebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Timer resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3278–3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, “The forward and inverse problem in time resolved infrared imaging,” in Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring, G. Muller, ed. (SPIE Press, Bellingham, 1993).

Backus, S.

F. H. Loesel, A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, R. M. Murane, S. Sayegh, T. Juhasz, “Effect of reduction of laser pulse width from 100 ps to 20 fs on the plasma-mediated ablation of hard and soft tissue,” in Thermal Therapy, Laser Welding, and Tissue Interaction, S. G. Bown, G. P. Delacretaz, G. Godlewski, G. J. Mueller, R. Pini, H. Reidenbach, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svassand, K. Tranberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3565, 116–123 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bebden, J. C.

E. C. Hillman, J. C. Bebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Timer resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, R.

O. Jarlman, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, H. Pettersson, “Time-resolved white light transillumination for optical imaging,” Acta Radiol. 38, 185–189 (1997).
[PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Bonner, R. F.

Brewester, M. Q.

M. Q. Brewester, Y. Yamada, “Optical properties of thick turbid media from picosecond time-resolved light scattering measurement,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 8, 2569–2581 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Catarious, D.

A. H. Hielscher, A. Klose, D. Catarious, K. M. Hanson, “Tomographic imaging of biological tissue by time resolved, model based, iterative image reconstruction,” in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, J. G. Fujimoto, M. S. Patterson, eds. Vol. 21 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 125–127.

Chance, B.

A. Yodh, B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48, 34–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Churnside, J. H.

Colella, P.

P. Colella, P. R. Woodward, “The piecewise parabolic method for gas-dynamical simulations,” J. Comput. Phys. 54, 174–201 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dehghani, H.

E. C. Hillman, J. C. Bebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Timer resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3278–3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3278–3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Hillman, J. C. Bebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Timer resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infra-red imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Deply, D. T.

Djotyan, G.

G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. Imola, G. Djotyan, C. Horvath, Z. Sacks, G. Marre, D. Miller, A. R. Williams, R. Kurtz, “New developments in ophthalmic applications of ultrafast lasers source,” in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers II, J. Neev, M. K. Reed, eds., Proc. SPIE3934, 62–72 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Elner, V.

R. M. Kurtz, V. Elner, X. Liu, T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, C. Horvath, M. H. Niemz, F. Noack, “Plasma-mediated ablation of biological tissue with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VIII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2975, 192–200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Firbank, M.

M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infra-red imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gandbakche, A. H.

Gower, M.

M. Gower, “Excimer laser microfabrication and micromachining,” in First International Symposium on Laser Precision Microfabrication, I. Miyamoto, K. Sugioka, T. W. Sigmon, eds., Proc. SPIE4088, 124–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grunbaum, F. A.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, “Image reconstruction of the interior of bodies that diffuse radiation,” Science 248, 990–991 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, D. J.

Hanson, K. M.

A. H. Hielscher, A. Klose, D. Catarious, K. M. Hanson, “Tomographic imaging of biological tissue by time resolved, model based, iterative image reconstruction,” in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, J. G. Fujimoto, M. S. Patterson, eds. Vol. 21 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 125–127.

Haskell, R. C.

Hebden, J. C.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hielscher, A. H.

A. H. Hielscher, A. Klose, D. Catarious, K. M. Hanson, “Tomographic imaging of biological tissue by time resolved, model based, iterative image reconstruction,” in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, J. G. Fujimoto, M. S. Patterson, eds. Vol. 21 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 125–127.

Hillman, E. C.

E. C. Hillman, J. C. Bebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Timer resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E. M. C.

Ho, P. P.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horvath, C.

G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. Imola, G. Djotyan, C. Horvath, Z. Sacks, G. Marre, D. Miller, A. R. Williams, R. Kurtz, “New developments in ophthalmic applications of ultrafast lasers source,” in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers II, J. Neev, M. K. Reed, eds., Proc. SPIE3934, 62–72 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Kurtz, V. Elner, X. Liu, T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, C. Horvath, M. H. Niemz, F. Noack, “Plasma-mediated ablation of biological tissue with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VIII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2975, 192–200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, P.

M. Sakami, K. Mitra, P. Hsu, “Transient radiative transfer in anisotropically scattering media using monotonicity-preserving schemes,” International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition 366-1, 135–143 (2000).

Hsu, P. F.

M. Sakami, K. Mitra, P. F. Hsu, “Analysis of light-pulse transport through two-dimensional scattering-absorbing media,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 73, 169–179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Tan, P. F. Hsu, “An integral formulation of transient radiative transfer,” ASME J. Heat Transfer 123, 466–475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Sawetprawichkul, P. F. Hsu, K. Mitra, M. Sakami, “A Monte Carlo study of the transient radiative transfer within the one-dimensional multi-layered slab,” International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Symposium, Orlando (Florida) 366-1, 145–153 (2000).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, C. L.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, T. L. Troy, J. S. Reynolds, C. L. Hutchinson, “Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55–64 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imola, R.

G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. Imola, G. Djotyan, C. Horvath, Z. Sacks, G. Marre, D. Miller, A. R. Williams, R. Kurtz, “New developments in ophthalmic applications of ultrafast lasers source,” in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers II, J. Neev, M. K. Reed, eds., Proc. SPIE3934, 62–72 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

Jarlman, O.

O. Jarlman, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, H. Pettersson, “Time-resolved white light transillumination for optical imaging,” Acta Radiol. 38, 185–189 (1997).
[PubMed]

Juhasz, T.

G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. Imola, G. Djotyan, C. Horvath, Z. Sacks, G. Marre, D. Miller, A. R. Williams, R. Kurtz, “New developments in ophthalmic applications of ultrafast lasers source,” in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers II, J. Neev, M. K. Reed, eds., Proc. SPIE3934, 62–72 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Kurtz, V. Elner, X. Liu, T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, C. Horvath, M. H. Niemz, F. Noack, “Plasma-mediated ablation of biological tissue with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VIII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2975, 192–200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Loesel, A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, R. M. Murane, S. Sayegh, T. Juhasz, “Effect of reduction of laser pulse width from 100 ps to 20 fs on the plasma-mediated ablation of hard and soft tissue,” in Thermal Therapy, Laser Welding, and Tissue Interaction, S. G. Bown, G. P. Delacretaz, G. Godlewski, G. J. Mueller, R. Pini, H. Reidenbach, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svassand, K. Tranberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3565, 116–123 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H.

F. H. Loesel, A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, R. M. Murane, S. Sayegh, T. Juhasz, “Effect of reduction of laser pulse width from 100 ps to 20 fs on the plasma-mediated ablation of hard and soft tissue,” in Thermal Therapy, Laser Welding, and Tissue Interaction, S. G. Bown, G. P. Delacretaz, G. Godlewski, G. J. Mueller, R. Pini, H. Reidenbach, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svassand, K. Tranberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3565, 116–123 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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J. E. Marion, B. M. Kim, “Medical applications of ultrashort-pulse lasers,” in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers, M. K. Reed, J. Neev, eds., Proc. SPIE3616, 42–50 (1999).
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J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, “Image reconstruction of the interior of bodies that diffuse radiation,” Science 248, 990–991 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Mitra, S. Kumar, “Development and comparison of models for light-pulse transport through scattering-absorbing media,” Appl. Opt. 38, 188–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, K. Mitra, “Microscale aspects of thermal radiation transport and laser applications,” Adv. Heat Transfer 33, 187–294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Mitra, M. S. Lai, S. Kumar, “Transient radiation transport in participating media within a rectangular enclosure,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 11, 409–414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, K. Mitra, Y. Yamada, “Hyperbolic damped-wave models for transient light-pulse propagation in scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3372–3378 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtz, R.

G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. Imola, G. Djotyan, C. Horvath, Z. Sacks, G. Marre, D. Miller, A. R. Williams, R. Kurtz, “New developments in ophthalmic applications of ultrafast lasers source,” in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers II, J. Neev, M. K. Reed, eds., Proc. SPIE3934, 62–72 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, R. M.

R. M. Kurtz, V. Elner, X. Liu, T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, C. Horvath, M. H. Niemz, F. Noack, “Plasma-mediated ablation of biological tissue with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VIII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2975, 192–200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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K. Mitra, M. S. Lai, S. Kumar, “Transient radiation transport in participating media within a rectangular enclosure,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 11, 409–414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

R. M. Kurtz, V. Elner, X. Liu, T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, C. Horvath, M. H. Niemz, F. Noack, “Plasma-mediated ablation of biological tissue with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VIII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2975, 192–200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Loesel, F. H.

R. M. Kurtz, V. Elner, X. Liu, T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, C. Horvath, M. H. Niemz, F. Noack, “Plasma-mediated ablation of biological tissue with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VIII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2975, 192–200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Loesel, A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, R. M. Murane, S. Sayegh, T. Juhasz, “Effect of reduction of laser pulse width from 100 ps to 20 fs on the plasma-mediated ablation of hard and soft tissue,” in Thermal Therapy, Laser Welding, and Tissue Interaction, S. G. Bown, G. P. Delacretaz, G. Godlewski, G. J. Mueller, R. Pini, H. Reidenbach, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svassand, K. Tranberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3565, 116–123 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, T. L. Troy, J. S. Reynolds, C. L. Hutchinson, “Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55–64 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marion, J. E.

J. E. Marion, B. M. Kim, “Medical applications of ultrashort-pulse lasers,” in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers, M. K. Reed, J. Neev, eds., Proc. SPIE3616, 42–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marre, G.

G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. Imola, G. Djotyan, C. Horvath, Z. Sacks, G. Marre, D. Miller, A. R. Williams, R. Kurtz, “New developments in ophthalmic applications of ultrafast lasers source,” in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers II, J. Neev, M. K. Reed, eds., Proc. SPIE3934, 62–72 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Miller, D.

G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. Imola, G. Djotyan, C. Horvath, Z. Sacks, G. Marre, D. Miller, A. R. Williams, R. Kurtz, “New developments in ophthalmic applications of ultrafast lasers source,” in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers II, J. Neev, M. K. Reed, eds., Proc. SPIE3934, 62–72 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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M. Sakami, K. Mitra, P. F. Hsu, “Analysis of light-pulse transport through two-dimensional scattering-absorbing media,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 73, 169–179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakami, K. Mitra, T. Vo-Dinh, “Analysis of short-pulse laser photon transport through tissues for optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 336–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Sawetprawichkul, P. F. Hsu, K. Mitra, M. Sakami, “A Monte Carlo study of the transient radiative transfer within the one-dimensional multi-layered slab,” International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Symposium, Orlando (Florida) 366-1, 145–153 (2000).

M. Sakami, K. Mitra, P. Hsu, “Transient radiative transfer in anisotropically scattering media using monotonicity-preserving schemes,” International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition 366-1, 135–143 (2000).

K. Mitra, S. Kumar, “Development and comparison of models for light-pulse transport through scattering-absorbing media,” Appl. Opt. 38, 188–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Mitra, J. H. Churnside, “Transient radiative transfer equation applied to oceanographic lidar,” Appl. Opt. 38, 889–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, K. Mitra, “Microscale aspects of thermal radiation transport and laser applications,” Adv. Heat Transfer 33, 187–294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Mitra, M. S. Lai, S. Kumar, “Transient radiation transport in participating media within a rectangular enclosure,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 11, 409–414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, K. Mitra, Y. Yamada, “Hyperbolic damped-wave models for transient light-pulse propagation in scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3372–3378 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. H. Loesel, A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, R. M. Murane, S. Sayegh, T. Juhasz, “Effect of reduction of laser pulse width from 100 ps to 20 fs on the plasma-mediated ablation of hard and soft tissue,” in Thermal Therapy, Laser Welding, and Tissue Interaction, S. G. Bown, G. P. Delacretaz, G. Godlewski, G. J. Mueller, R. Pini, H. Reidenbach, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svassand, K. Tranberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3565, 116–123 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Niemz, M. H.

R. M. Kurtz, V. Elner, X. Liu, T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, C. Horvath, M. H. Niemz, F. Noack, “Plasma-mediated ablation of biological tissue with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VIII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2975, 192–200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noack, F.

R. M. Kurtz, V. Elner, X. Liu, T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, C. Horvath, M. H. Niemz, F. Noack, “Plasma-mediated ablation of biological tissue with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VIII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2975, 192–200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Nossal, R.

Pettersson, H.

O. Jarlman, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, H. Pettersson, “Time-resolved white light transillumination for optical imaging,” Acta Radiol. 38, 185–189 (1997).
[PubMed]

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Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, T. L. Troy, J. S. Reynolds, C. L. Hutchinson, “Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55–64 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. Imola, G. Djotyan, C. Horvath, Z. Sacks, G. Marre, D. Miller, A. R. Williams, R. Kurtz, “New developments in ophthalmic applications of ultrafast lasers source,” in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers II, J. Neev, M. K. Reed, eds., Proc. SPIE3934, 62–72 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sakami, M.

M. Sakami, K. Mitra, T. Vo-Dinh, “Analysis of short-pulse laser photon transport through tissues for optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 336–338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakami, K. Mitra, P. F. Hsu, “Analysis of light-pulse transport through two-dimensional scattering-absorbing media,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 73, 169–179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Sawetprawichkul, P. F. Hsu, K. Mitra, M. Sakami, “A Monte Carlo study of the transient radiative transfer within the one-dimensional multi-layered slab,” International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Symposium, Orlando (Florida) 366-1, 145–153 (2000).

M. Sakami, K. Mitra, P. Hsu, “Transient radiative transfer in anisotropically scattering media using monotonicity-preserving schemes,” International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition 366-1, 135–143 (2000).

Sawetprawichkul, A.

A. Sawetprawichkul, P. F. Hsu, K. Mitra, M. Sakami, “A Monte Carlo study of the transient radiative transfer within the one-dimensional multi-layered slab,” International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Symposium, Orlando (Florida) 366-1, 145–153 (2000).

Sayegh, S.

F. H. Loesel, A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, R. M. Murane, S. Sayegh, T. Juhasz, “Effect of reduction of laser pulse width from 100 ps to 20 fs on the plasma-mediated ablation of hard and soft tissue,” in Thermal Therapy, Laser Welding, and Tissue Interaction, S. G. Bown, G. P. Delacretaz, G. Godlewski, G. J. Mueller, R. Pini, H. Reidenbach, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svassand, K. Tranberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3565, 116–123 (1999).
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E. C. Hillman, J. C. Bebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Timer resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3278–3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Hillman, J. C. Bebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Timer resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001).
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E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, T. L. Troy, J. S. Reynolds, C. L. Hutchinson, “Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55–64 (1997).
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J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, “Image reconstruction of the interior of bodies that diffuse radiation,” Science 248, 990–991 (1990).
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G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. Imola, G. Djotyan, C. Horvath, Z. Sacks, G. Marre, D. Miller, A. R. Williams, R. Kurtz, “New developments in ophthalmic applications of ultrafast lasers source,” in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers II, J. Neev, M. K. Reed, eds., Proc. SPIE3934, 62–72 (2000).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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Z. M. Tan, P. F. Hsu, “An integral formulation of transient radiative transfer,” ASME J. Heat Transfer 123, 466–475 (2001).
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F. H. Loesel, A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, R. M. Murane, S. Sayegh, T. Juhasz, “Effect of reduction of laser pulse width from 100 ps to 20 fs on the plasma-mediated ablation of hard and soft tissue,” in Thermal Therapy, Laser Welding, and Tissue Interaction, S. G. Bown, G. P. Delacretaz, G. Godlewski, G. J. Mueller, R. Pini, H. Reidenbach, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svassand, K. Tranberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3565, 116–123 (1999).
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Troy, T. L.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, T. L. Troy, J. S. Reynolds, C. L. Hutchinson, “Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55–64 (1997).
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Veenstra, H.

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L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
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G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. Imola, G. Djotyan, C. Horvath, Z. Sacks, G. Marre, D. Miller, A. R. Williams, R. Kurtz, “New developments in ophthalmic applications of ultrafast lasers source,” in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers II, J. Neev, M. K. Reed, eds., Proc. SPIE3934, 62–72 (2000).
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C. Y. Wu, S. H. Wu, “Integral equation formulation for transient radiative transfer in an anisotropically scattering medium,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 43, 2009–2020 (2000).
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L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
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J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, “Image reconstruction of the interior of bodies that diffuse radiation,” Science 248, 990–991 (1990).
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Acta Radiol.

O. Jarlman, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, H. Pettersson, “Time-resolved white light transillumination for optical imaging,” Acta Radiol. 38, 185–189 (1997).
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S. Kumar, K. Mitra, “Microscale aspects of thermal radiation transport and laser applications,” Adv. Heat Transfer 33, 187–294 (1999).
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R. E. Walker, J. W. McLean, “Lidar equations for turbid media with pulse stretching,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2384–2397 (1999).
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K. Mitra, S. Kumar, “Development and comparison of models for light-pulse transport through scattering-absorbing media,” Appl. Opt. 38, 188–196 (1999).
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J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3278–3287 (2001).
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ASME J. Heat Transfer

Z. M. Tan, P. F. Hsu, “An integral formulation of transient radiative transfer,” ASME J. Heat Transfer 123, 466–475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

C. Y. Wu, S. H. Wu, “Integral equation formulation for transient radiative transfer in an anisotropically scattering medium,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 43, 2009–2020 (2000).
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M. Q. Brewester, Y. Yamada, “Optical properties of thick turbid media from picosecond time-resolved light scattering measurement,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 8, 2569–2581 (1995).
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International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition

M. Sakami, K. Mitra, P. Hsu, “Transient radiative transfer in anisotropically scattering media using monotonicity-preserving schemes,” International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition 366-1, 135–143 (2000).

International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Symposium, Orlando (Florida)

A. Sawetprawichkul, P. F. Hsu, K. Mitra, M. Sakami, “A Monte Carlo study of the transient radiative transfer within the one-dimensional multi-layered slab,” International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Symposium, Orlando (Florida) 366-1, 145–153 (2000).

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Phys. Med. Biol.

E. C. Hillman, J. C. Bebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Timer resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the problem under consideration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup. (b) Different measurement locations for transmittance (A–C) and reflectance (D).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Comparison of a temporal transmitted signal for a homogenous tissue phantom. (b) Experimental measurements of temporal scattered signals for a homogenous tissue phantom at different detector angles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of the scattering coefficient on the experimentally measured temporal transmitted signal for a homogeneous tissue phantom.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of the absorption coefficient on the experimentally measured temporal transmitted signal for a homogeneous tissue phantom.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of a transmitted signal through a tissue phantom containing an inhomogeneity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Experimentally measured spatial intensity distribution for the case of the inhomogeneity that has a higher scattering coefficient than the tissue phantom has. (b) Experimentally measured spatial intensity distribution for the case of the inhomogeneity that has a lower scattering coefficient than the tissue phantom has.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of intensity profiles at a particular time for a tissue phantom containing an inhomogeneity.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimentally measured spatial intensity distribution for various scattering coefficients of the tissue phantom, keeping the inhomogeneity’s optical properties constant.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Numerical simulation of temporal transmitted signals at different detector positions for a tissue phantom containing an inhomogeneity.

Equations (6)

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1cIx, y, Ω, tt+μIx, y, Ω, tx+ηIx, y, Ω, ty+keIx, y, Ω, t=ks4π4πΦΩ, ΩIx, y, Ω, tdΩ+Sx, y, Ω, t,
ΦΩ, Ω=n=0N2n+1 gnPncosΘ,
cosΘ=μμ+ηη+ξξ,
Icx, y, Ω, t=I0 exp-ke xHt - x/c-Ht-tp-x/cΩ-Ω0,
Sx, y, Ω, t=ks4π4πΦΩ,ΩIcx, y, Ω, tdΩ.
1cImx, y, tt+μmImx, y, tx+ηmImx, y, ty=-keImx, y, t+ks4πm=1MwmΦmmImx, y, t+ Smx, y, t,

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