Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the use of two different multifunctional grating couplers in surface-emitting lasers for improved beam quality and advanced beam profiles. The lasers used for the demonstration are grating-based unstable resonator lasers, each with a grating coupler for surface emission and beam shaping. The new design method, described in detail, allows for simultaneous optimization of arbitrary feedback and outcoupling characteristics of the grating coupler. The first coupler is designed to reduce feedback to the resonator that would otherwise disturb the operation of the laser and lower the beam quality and to produce an output beam focused to four spots. The second coupler is designed to provide the feedback needed to support the unstable resonator, eliminating one feedback grating, and simultaneously focus the output beam to a single spot. As far as we know, this is the first time such multifunctional couplers are used in grating-coupled surface-emitting lasers. The couplers provide near-diffraction-limited spots that are a considerable improvement compared with previous lasers with no feedback control in the couplers.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. A. Evans, J. M. Hammer, eds. Surface Emitting Semiconductor Lasers and Arrays (Academic, New York, 1993).
  2. J.-J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, E. S. Koteles, “Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide Rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 631–638 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. G. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjansson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Grating coupled surface emitters: integrated lasers, amplifiers, and beam shaping outcouplers,” in Testing, Packaging, Reliability, and Applications of Semiconductor Lasers IV, M. Fallahi, K. J. Linden, S. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3626, 190–201 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, S. J. Sheard, A. Larsson, “Circular grating-coupled surface-emitter with high-quality focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 497–499 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Surface-emitting unstable-resonator lasers with integrated diffractive beam-forming elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570–1572 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, M. Davies, “Grating-assisted surface-emitting laser transmitter with image-forming capability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682–1684 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Grating-coupled surface-emitting laser with a hyperbolic unstable resonator producing a stable focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1366–1368 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Monolithically integrated master oscillator power amplifier with grating coupler for collimated output beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503–1507 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Surface-emitting tapered unstable resonator laser with integrated focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1319–1321 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Modh, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjansson, J. Bengtsson, A. Larsson, “Hyperbolic unstable-resonator laser with a monolithically integrated spot-array grating-outcoupler,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2000 Annual Meeting, LEOS 2000, Thirteenth Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), 2, 868–869.
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, T. Suhara, “Off-plane computer-generated waveguide hologram,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 226–235 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Modh, J. Backlund, N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, S. Kristjánsson, A. Larsson, “Effects of feedback from collimating, focusing, and spot-array generating outcoupler gratings in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 574–576 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Modh, J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, A. Larsson, “Grating-coupled surface-emitting semiconductor laser with multifunctional grating for mode selective feedback and beam-shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published.)
  14. J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, C.-F. Carlström, A. Larsson, “Incoupling waveguide holograms for simultaneous focusing into multiple arbitrary positions,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5738–5746 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Design optimization of a hyperbolic unstable-resonator semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1095–1102 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, “Parabolic-confocal unstable-resonator semiconductor lasers—modeling and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 858–868 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Design optimization of a hyperbolic unstable-resonator semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1095–1102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Monolithically integrated master oscillator power amplifier with grating coupler for collimated output beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503–1507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Surface-emitting tapered unstable resonator laser with integrated focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1319–1321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, C.-F. Carlström, A. Larsson, “Incoupling waveguide holograms for simultaneous focusing into multiple arbitrary positions,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5738–5746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, S. J. Sheard, A. Larsson, “Circular grating-coupled surface-emitter with high-quality focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 497–499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Grating-coupled surface-emitting laser with a hyperbolic unstable resonator producing a stable focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1366–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, “Parabolic-confocal unstable-resonator semiconductor lasers—modeling and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 858–868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, E. S. Koteles, “Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide Rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 631–638 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, M. Davies, “Grating-assisted surface-emitting laser transmitter with image-forming capability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682–1684 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Surface-emitting unstable-resonator lasers with integrated diffractive beam-forming elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570–1572 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, T. Suhara, “Off-plane computer-generated waveguide hologram,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 226–235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Backlund, J.

Bengtsson, J.

P. Modh, J. Backlund, N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, S. Kristjánsson, A. Larsson, “Effects of feedback from collimating, focusing, and spot-array generating outcoupler gratings in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 574–576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, C.-F. Carlström, A. Larsson, “Incoupling waveguide holograms for simultaneous focusing into multiple arbitrary positions,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5738–5746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Surface-emitting unstable-resonator lasers with integrated diffractive beam-forming elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570–1572 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, T. Suhara, “Off-plane computer-generated waveguide hologram,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 226–235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Modh, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjansson, J. Bengtsson, A. Larsson, “Hyperbolic unstable-resonator laser with a monolithically integrated spot-array grating-outcoupler,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2000 Annual Meeting, LEOS 2000, Thirteenth Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), 2, 868–869.
[CrossRef]

P. Modh, J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, A. Larsson, “Grating-coupled surface-emitting semiconductor laser with multifunctional grating for mode selective feedback and beam-shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published.)

Carlström, C.-F.

Chow-Chong, P.

Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, M. Davies, “Grating-assisted surface-emitting laser transmitter with image-forming capability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682–1684 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davies, M.

Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, M. Davies, “Grating-assisted surface-emitting laser transmitter with image-forming capability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682–1684 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, E. S. Koteles, “Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide Rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 631–638 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Delage, A.

J.-J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, E. S. Koteles, “Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide Rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 631–638 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, L.

J.-J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, E. S. Koteles, “Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide Rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 631–638 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, N.

P. Modh, J. Backlund, N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, S. Kristjánsson, A. Larsson, “Effects of feedback from collimating, focusing, and spot-array generating outcoupler gratings in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 574–576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Design optimization of a hyperbolic unstable-resonator semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1095–1102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Monolithically integrated master oscillator power amplifier with grating coupler for collimated output beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503–1507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Surface-emitting tapered unstable resonator laser with integrated focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1319–1321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, S. J. Sheard, A. Larsson, “Circular grating-coupled surface-emitter with high-quality focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 497–499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Grating-coupled surface-emitting laser with a hyperbolic unstable resonator producing a stable focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1366–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, “Parabolic-confocal unstable-resonator semiconductor lasers—modeling and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 858–868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Surface-emitting unstable-resonator lasers with integrated diffractive beam-forming elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570–1572 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjansson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Grating coupled surface emitters: integrated lasers, amplifiers, and beam shaping outcouplers,” in Testing, Packaging, Reliability, and Applications of Semiconductor Lasers IV, M. Fallahi, K. J. Linden, S. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3626, 190–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Modh, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjansson, J. Bengtsson, A. Larsson, “Hyperbolic unstable-resonator laser with a monolithically integrated spot-array grating-outcoupler,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2000 Annual Meeting, LEOS 2000, Thirteenth Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), 2, 868–869.
[CrossRef]

Eskin, S.

Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, M. Davies, “Grating-assisted surface-emitting laser transmitter with image-forming capability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682–1684 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y.

Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, M. Davies, “Grating-assisted surface-emitting laser transmitter with image-forming capability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682–1684 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hagberg, M.

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, T. Suhara, “Off-plane computer-generated waveguide hologram,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 226–235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

He, J.-J.

J.-J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, E. S. Koteles, “Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide Rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 631–638 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koteles, E. S.

J.-J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, E. S. Koteles, “Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide Rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 631–638 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kristjansson, S.

A. G. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjansson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Grating coupled surface emitters: integrated lasers, amplifiers, and beam shaping outcouplers,” in Testing, Packaging, Reliability, and Applications of Semiconductor Lasers IV, M. Fallahi, K. J. Linden, S. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3626, 190–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Modh, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjansson, J. Bengtsson, A. Larsson, “Hyperbolic unstable-resonator laser with a monolithically integrated spot-array grating-outcoupler,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2000 Annual Meeting, LEOS 2000, Thirteenth Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), 2, 868–869.
[CrossRef]

Kristjánsson, S.

P. Modh, J. Backlund, N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, S. Kristjánsson, A. Larsson, “Effects of feedback from collimating, focusing, and spot-array generating outcoupler gratings in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 574–576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Surface-emitting tapered unstable resonator laser with integrated focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1319–1321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, S. J. Sheard, A. Larsson, “Circular grating-coupled surface-emitter with high-quality focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 497–499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lamontagne, B.

J.-J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, E. S. Koteles, “Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide Rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 631–638 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

P. Modh, J. Backlund, N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, S. Kristjánsson, A. Larsson, “Effects of feedback from collimating, focusing, and spot-array generating outcoupler gratings in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 574–576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Design optimization of a hyperbolic unstable-resonator semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1095–1102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Monolithically integrated master oscillator power amplifier with grating coupler for collimated output beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503–1507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Surface-emitting tapered unstable resonator laser with integrated focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1319–1321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, C.-F. Carlström, A. Larsson, “Incoupling waveguide holograms for simultaneous focusing into multiple arbitrary positions,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5738–5746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, S. J. Sheard, A. Larsson, “Circular grating-coupled surface-emitter with high-quality focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 497–499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Grating-coupled surface-emitting laser with a hyperbolic unstable resonator producing a stable focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1366–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, “Parabolic-confocal unstable-resonator semiconductor lasers—modeling and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 858–868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Surface-emitting unstable-resonator lasers with integrated diffractive beam-forming elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570–1572 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, T. Suhara, “Off-plane computer-generated waveguide hologram,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 226–235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Modh, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjansson, J. Bengtsson, A. Larsson, “Hyperbolic unstable-resonator laser with a monolithically integrated spot-array grating-outcoupler,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2000 Annual Meeting, LEOS 2000, Thirteenth Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), 2, 868–869.
[CrossRef]

P. Modh, J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, A. Larsson, “Grating-coupled surface-emitting semiconductor laser with multifunctional grating for mode selective feedback and beam-shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published.)

Larsson, A. G.

A. G. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjansson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Grating coupled surface emitters: integrated lasers, amplifiers, and beam shaping outcouplers,” in Testing, Packaging, Reliability, and Applications of Semiconductor Lasers IV, M. Fallahi, K. J. Linden, S. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3626, 190–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, M. Davies, “Grating-assisted surface-emitting laser transmitter with image-forming capability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682–1684 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Surface-emitting unstable-resonator lasers with integrated diffractive beam-forming elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570–1572 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, T. Suhara, “Off-plane computer-generated waveguide hologram,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 226–235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, P.

Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, M. Davies, “Grating-assisted surface-emitting laser transmitter with image-forming capability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682–1684 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, M.

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Monolithically integrated master oscillator power amplifier with grating coupler for collimated output beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503–1507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Modh, P.

P. Modh, J. Backlund, N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, S. Kristjánsson, A. Larsson, “Effects of feedback from collimating, focusing, and spot-array generating outcoupler gratings in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 574–576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Design optimization of a hyperbolic unstable-resonator semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1095–1102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Surface-emitting tapered unstable resonator laser with integrated focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1319–1321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Monolithically integrated master oscillator power amplifier with grating coupler for collimated output beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503–1507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Grating-coupled surface-emitting laser with a hyperbolic unstable resonator producing a stable focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1366–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Surface-emitting unstable-resonator lasers with integrated diffractive beam-forming elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570–1572 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjansson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Grating coupled surface emitters: integrated lasers, amplifiers, and beam shaping outcouplers,” in Testing, Packaging, Reliability, and Applications of Semiconductor Lasers IV, M. Fallahi, K. J. Linden, S. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3626, 190–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Modh, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjansson, J. Bengtsson, A. Larsson, “Hyperbolic unstable-resonator laser with a monolithically integrated spot-array grating-outcoupler,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2000 Annual Meeting, LEOS 2000, Thirteenth Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), 2, 868–869.
[CrossRef]

P. Modh, J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, A. Larsson, “Grating-coupled surface-emitting semiconductor laser with multifunctional grating for mode selective feedback and beam-shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published.)

Nishihara, H.

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Monolithically integrated master oscillator power amplifier with grating coupler for collimated output beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503–1507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjansson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Grating coupled surface emitters: integrated lasers, amplifiers, and beam shaping outcouplers,” in Testing, Packaging, Reliability, and Applications of Semiconductor Lasers IV, M. Fallahi, K. J. Linden, S. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3626, 190–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sheard, S. J.

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, S. J. Sheard, A. Larsson, “Circular grating-coupled surface-emitter with high-quality focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 497–499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, N.

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Monolithically integrated master oscillator power amplifier with grating coupler for collimated output beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503–1507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Modh, J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, A. Larsson, “Grating-coupled surface-emitting semiconductor laser with multifunctional grating for mode selective feedback and beam-shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published.)

Suhara, T.

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Monolithically integrated master oscillator power amplifier with grating coupler for collimated output beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503–1507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, “Parabolic-confocal unstable-resonator semiconductor lasers—modeling and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 858–868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, T. Suhara, “Off-plane computer-generated waveguide hologram,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 226–235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Modh, J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, A. Larsson, “Grating-coupled surface-emitting semiconductor laser with multifunctional grating for mode selective feedback and beam-shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published.)

A. G. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjansson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Grating coupled surface emitters: integrated lasers, amplifiers, and beam shaping outcouplers,” in Testing, Packaging, Reliability, and Applications of Semiconductor Lasers IV, M. Fallahi, K. J. Linden, S. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3626, 190–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Uemukai, M.

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Monolithically integrated master oscillator power amplifier with grating coupler for collimated output beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503–1507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, “Parabolic-confocal unstable-resonator semiconductor lasers—modeling and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 858–868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjansson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Grating coupled surface emitters: integrated lasers, amplifiers, and beam shaping outcouplers,” in Testing, Packaging, Reliability, and Applications of Semiconductor Lasers IV, M. Fallahi, K. J. Linden, S. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3626, 190–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J.-J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, E. S. Koteles, “Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide Rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 631–638 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Design optimization of a hyperbolic unstable-resonator semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1095–1102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, “Parabolic-confocal unstable-resonator semiconductor lasers—modeling and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 858–868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, T. Suhara, “Off-plane computer-generated waveguide hologram,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 226–235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Surface-emitting tapered unstable resonator laser with integrated focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1319–1321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, S. J. Sheard, A. Larsson, “Circular grating-coupled surface-emitter with high-quality focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 497–499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Surface-emitting unstable-resonator lasers with integrated diffractive beam-forming elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570–1572 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, M. Davies, “Grating-assisted surface-emitting laser transmitter with image-forming capability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682–1684 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Grating-coupled surface-emitting laser with a hyperbolic unstable resonator producing a stable focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1366–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, “Monolithically integrated master oscillator power amplifier with grating coupler for collimated output beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503–1507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

P. Modh, J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, A. Larsson, “Grating-coupled surface-emitting semiconductor laser with multifunctional grating for mode selective feedback and beam-shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published.)

G. A. Evans, J. M. Hammer, eds. Surface Emitting Semiconductor Lasers and Arrays (Academic, New York, 1993).

P. Modh, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjansson, J. Bengtsson, A. Larsson, “Hyperbolic unstable-resonator laser with a monolithically integrated spot-array grating-outcoupler,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2000 Annual Meeting, LEOS 2000, Thirteenth Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), 2, 868–869.
[CrossRef]

A. G. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjansson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Grating coupled surface emitters: integrated lasers, amplifiers, and beam shaping outcouplers,” in Testing, Packaging, Reliability, and Applications of Semiconductor Lasers IV, M. Fallahi, K. J. Linden, S. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3626, 190–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic side view of a portion of the grating coupler illustrating the incident, the reflected, and the outcoupled waves and the phase shifts introduced by the grating line shift.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic top view of a grating cell showing the geometry and coordinates for calculation of the contribution from a cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Complex number plane representation of the total field Em in a position m. Also shown are two shorter vectors that represent the field contribution Ek,m from one cell k, before and after a grating shift Δk.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example 1: schematic (a) of the unstable resonator laser with the integrated grating coupler generating four spots in free space and (b) of how the coupler was designed to direct the reflected and outcoupled light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example 2: schematic (a) of the unstable resonator laser with the multifunctional grating coupler for both feedback and outcoupling and (b) of how the coupler was designed to direct the reflected and outcoupled light.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example 1: light-current characteristic under continuous current injection. The threshold current is 100 mA and the external differential quantum efficiency is 5%.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example 1: beam profile in the focal plane at a continuous current injection of 270 mA (∼2.7Ith).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Example 1: FWHM contour plots of the spots in the focal plane for 14 different continuous injection currents between 240 and 500 mA.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Example 2: light-current characteristic under continuous current injection. The threshold current is 195 mA and the external differential quantum efficiency is 2.7%.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Example 2: beam profile in the focal plane at a continuous injection current of 280 mA. Also shown are line scans through and a FWHM contour plot of the spot.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Example 2: emission spectra for different continuous injection currents.

Equations (15)

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φnξ, η=φincξ, η-2πnΛξ-Δk,
Emum, vm, zm=Aincξ, ηrm1/nexpikeff,nrm+φnξ, η,
Ek,mum, vm, zm=cellkAincξ, ηrm1/nexpikeff,nrm+φnξ, ηdξdη.
φincξ, η=kxξ+kyη+φc,
Ek,mum, vm, zm=Ck,mum, vm, zmexpi 2πnΛ Δk,
Ck,mum, vm, zm=AkincRm1/nexpikeff,nRm+φc×1k1sink1s21k2sink2t2,
k1=keff,nxc-umRm+kx-2πnΛ, k2=keff,nyc-vmRm+ky.
δAm=Ak,mcosβm-αk,mafter-cosβm-αk,mbefore,
αk,mafter=αk,mbefore+2πn/ΛΔk,×αk,mbefore=argEk,mbefore.
δA=m δAm=m Ak,m cosβm-αk,mbefore+2πnΛ Δk-m Ak,m cosβm-αk,mbefore.
δA=C1 cosΘ+C2 sinΘ-C1+C3 cos2Θ+C4 sin2Θ-C3,
C1=m|n=1 Ak,m cosβm-αk,mbefore, C2=m|n=1 Ak,m sinβm-αk,mbefore, C3=m|n=2 Ak,m cosβm-αk,mbefore, C4=m|n=2 Ak,m sinβm-αk,mbefore,
Em=k Ek,m=k Ck,m expi 2πnΛ Δk.
C1=m WmAk,m cosβm-αk,mbefore
Wmnew=WmoldImdesiredImq,

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