Abstract

The absorption cross sections of spherical particles and droplets must be integrated over frequency or droplet size or both for various applications. Morphology-dependent resonances (MDRs) of the spheres can make evaluation of such integrals difficult because the MDRs can contribute significantly to the integrals even when their linewidths are extremely narrow, especially when the absorption is weak. A method of evaluating these integrals by use of Lorentzian approximations near MDRs is described. Calculated frequency-integrated absorption cross sections illustrate how the method obtains accurate cross sections with far fewer integration points than a method that uses equally spaced points. The method reported here suggests a way to integrate over frequency in more-complicated scattering and emission problems and should also be useful for integrating scattering and absorption by other shapes, e.g., spheroids and cylinders, for which the MDR positions and linewidths can be calculated.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. L. Mitchell, “Parameterization of the Mie extinction and absorption coefficients for water clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 1311–1326 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Cairns, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, “Absorption within inhomogeneous clouds and its parameterization in general circulation models,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 700–714 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, “Cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius, and number density measurements using a Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,411–31,419 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. J. Davis, G. Schweiger, The Airborne Microparticle (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 2002).
  8. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 82–101.
  9. P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods (World Scientific, Singapore, 1990).
  10. J. Mevel, “Étude de la structure détaillée des courbes de diffusion des ondes electromagnetiques par les sphères diélectriques,” J. Phys. Radium 19, 630–636 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, “Optical levitation and partial-wave resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229–2233 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, “Morphology dependent resonances,” in Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), pp. 3–61.
  13. S. D. Druger, S. Arnold, L. M. Folan, “Theory of enhanced energy transfer between molecules embedded in spherical dielectric particles,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 2649–2659 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. C. Hill, D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, “Third-order sum-frequency generation in droplets: model with numerical results for third-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 34–45 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Arnold, “Cavity-enhanced fluorescence decay rates from microdroplets,” J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8280–8282 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. C. Hill, H. I. Saleheen, M. D. Barnes, W. B. Whitten, J. M. Ramsey, “Modeling fluorescence collection from single molecules in microspheres: effects of position, orientation, and frequency,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6278–6288 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. C. Hill, V. Boutou, J. Yu, S. Ramstein, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, “Enhanced backward-directed multi-photon-excited fluorescence from dielectric microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 54–57 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Kaiser, S. Lange, G. Schweiger, “Structural resonances in a coated sphere: investigation of the volume-averaged source function and resonance positions,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7789–7797 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. V. Markel, “The effects of averaging on the enhancement factor for absorption of light by carbon particles in microdroplets of water,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 765–774 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, “Absorption of light by soot particles in micro-droplets of water,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 63, 321–339 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. S. Fry, “Reply to criticisms of the Pope and Fry paper on pure water absorption made in a comment by Quickenden et al.,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5843–5846 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. The imaginary part of the refractive index is obtained from the data in Refs. 22–24 as mi = αλ/4π, where α is the absorption coefficient. After making the calculations and figures I realized that the value of mi used here was lower than that of water at 800 nm. I did not recalculate the figures because the calculation that use equally spaced points of the integrals shown in subsequent figures are time consuming and tedious and because the point of the paper is the method and concepts, not some particular case. Although the results scale with ratio of size to wavelength if m is constant, the value of mr used is a little different from that of water at 600 nm.
  26. R. Fuchs, K. L. Kliewar, “Optical modes of vibration in an ionic crystal sphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 319–330 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  27. For example, gn could be the an or bn coefficient of Ref. 8. A second index, i, is convenient, beyond the n already defined, because one mode n may have multiple MDRs. Also, for calculations, the i index is over all MDRs that have sufficiently high Q in the wavelength or radius interval of the integral.
  28. J. M. Blatt, V. Weisskopf, Theoretical Nuclear Physics (Wiley, New York, 1952; reprinted by Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979), Chap. VIII, Sec. 8, esp. pp. 400 and 401.
  29. P. R. Conwell, C. K. Rushforth, R. E. Benner, S. C. Hill, “Efficient automated algorithm for the sizing of dielectric microspheres using the resonance spectrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1181–1187 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, P. T. Leung, S. Y. Liu, K. Young, “High-precision identification of morphology-dependent resonances in optical processes in microdroplets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1955–1968 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. C. Hill, C. K. Rushforth, R. E. Benner, P. R. Conwell, “Sizing dielectric spheres and cylinders by aligning structural resonance locations: algorithm for multiple orders,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2380–2390 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. G. Videen, P. Chylek, “Resonances and poles of weakly absorbing spheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 916–921 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  33. L. G. Guimaraes, H. M. Nussenzveig, “Uniform approximation to Mie resonances,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 625–647 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. C. Lam, P. T. Leung, K. Young, “Explicit asymptotic formulas for the positions, widths, and strengths of resonances in Mie scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1585–1592 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  35. S. Schiller, R. L. Byer, “High-resolution spectroscopy of whispering gallery modes in large dielectric spheres,” Opt. Lett. 16, 138–1140 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  36. H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984), Chap. 7. The reciprocals of the Q sum because they are proportional to the rate of energy loss (by loss to the external world or by absorption in the cavity).
  37. P. Chylek, H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, “Absorption effects on microdroplet resonant emission structure,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1723–1725 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. J. R. Probert-Jones, “Resonance component of backscattering by large dielectric spheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 822–830 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  39. W. Wiscombe, “Improved Mie scattering algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1505–1509 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, “Time-independent pertubation for leaking electromagnetic modes in open systems with application to resonances in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187–5198 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. H. M. Lai, C. C. Lam, P. T. Leung, K. Young, “Effect of perturbations on the widths of narrow morphology-dependent resonances in Mie scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1962–1973 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  42. S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, “Morphology-dependent resonances associated with stimulated processes in microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1509–1514 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  43. L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused silica microspheres,” Europhys. Lett. 23, 327–334 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  44. A. Serpenguzel, S. Arnold, G. Griffel, J. A. Lock, “Enhanced coupling to microsphere resonances with optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 790–795 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  45. E. E. M. Khaled, D. Q. Chowdhury, S. C. Hill, P. W. Barber, “Internal and scattered time-dependent intensity of a dielectric sphere illuminated with a Gaussian or a plane wave pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2065–2071 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  46. L. Mees, G. Gouesbet, G. Grehan, “Interaction between femtosecond pulses and a spherical microcavity,” Opt. Commun. 199, 33–38 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  47. H. Chew, P. J. McNulty, M. Kerker, “Model for Raman and fluorescent scattering by molecules embedded in small particles,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 396–404 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  48. I. Veselovskii, V. Griaznov, A. Kolgotin, D. N. Whiteman, “Angle- and size-dependent characteristics of incoherent Raman and fluorescent scattering by microspheres,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5783–5791 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. J. Kasparian, B. Kramer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hubner, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependences of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  50. H. M. Nussenzveig, “Light tunneling in clouds,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1588–1593 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

I. Veselovskii, V. Griaznov, A. Kolgotin, D. N. Whiteman, “Angle- and size-dependent characteristics of incoherent Raman and fluorescent scattering by microspheres,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5783–5791 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Markel, “The effects of averaging on the enhancement factor for absorption of light by carbon particles in microdroplets of water,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 765–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Mees, G. Gouesbet, G. Grehan, “Interaction between femtosecond pulses and a spherical microcavity,” Opt. Commun. 199, 33–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

E. S. Fry, “Reply to criticisms of the Pope and Fry paper on pure water absorption made in a comment by Quickenden et al.,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5843–5846 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Mitchell, “Parameterization of the Mie extinction and absorption coefficients for water clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 1311–1326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Cairns, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, “Absorption within inhomogeneous clouds and its parameterization in general circulation models,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 700–714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, V. Boutou, J. Yu, S. Ramstein, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, “Enhanced backward-directed multi-photon-excited fluorescence from dielectric microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 54–57 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

V. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, “Absorption of light by soot particles in micro-droplets of water,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 63, 321–339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, “Cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius, and number density measurements using a Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,411–31,419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, “Cavity-enhanced fluorescence decay rates from microdroplets,” J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8280–8282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Serpenguzel, S. Arnold, G. Griffel, J. A. Lock, “Enhanced coupling to microsphere resonances with optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 790–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, B. Kramer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hubner, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependences of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (3)

1993 (3)

1992 (1)

1991 (3)

1990 (1)

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, “Time-independent pertubation for leaking electromagnetic modes in open systems with application to resonances in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187–5198 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

S. D. Druger, S. Arnold, L. M. Folan, “Theory of enhanced energy transfer between molecules embedded in spherical dielectric particles,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 2649–2659 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (2)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

1978 (1)

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, “Optical levitation and partial-wave resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229–2233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

H. Chew, P. J. McNulty, M. Kerker, “Model for Raman and fluorescent scattering by molecules embedded in small particles,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 396–404 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1958 (1)

J. Mevel, “Étude de la structure détaillée des courbes de diffusion des ondes electromagnetiques par les sphères diélectriques,” J. Phys. Radium 19, 630–636 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, T. P.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. L.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

S. Arnold, “Cavity-enhanced fluorescence decay rates from microdroplets,” J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8280–8282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Serpenguzel, S. Arnold, G. Griffel, J. A. Lock, “Enhanced coupling to microsphere resonances with optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 790–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Druger, S. Arnold, L. M. Folan, “Theory of enhanced energy transfer between molecules embedded in spherical dielectric particles,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 2649–2659 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

Barber, P. W.

E. E. M. Khaled, D. Q. Chowdhury, S. C. Hill, P. W. Barber, “Internal and scattered time-dependent intensity of a dielectric sphere illuminated with a Gaussian or a plane wave pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2065–2071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, “Time-independent pertubation for leaking electromagnetic modes in open systems with application to resonances in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187–5198 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods (World Scientific, Singapore, 1990).

Barnes, M. D.

Bennemann, K. H.

J. Kasparian, B. Kramer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hubner, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependences of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benner, R. E.

Bergstrom, B.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blatt, J. M.

J. M. Blatt, V. Weisskopf, Theoretical Nuclear Physics (Wiley, New York, 1952; reprinted by Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979), Chap. VIII, Sec. 8, esp. pp. 400 and 401.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 82–101.

Bonnel, B.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, O.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boutou, V.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Hill, V. Boutou, J. Yu, S. Ramstein, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, “Enhanced backward-directed multi-photon-excited fluorescence from dielectric microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 54–57 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, B. Kramer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hubner, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependences of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brune, M.

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused silica microspheres,” Europhys. Lett. 23, 327–334 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Cadirola, M.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

B. Cairns, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, “Absorption within inhomogeneous clouds and its parameterization in general circulation models,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 700–714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Campillo, A. J.

Carlson, B. E.

B. Cairns, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, “Absorption within inhomogeneous clouds and its parameterization in general circulation models,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 700–714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Hill, V. Boutou, J. Yu, S. Ramstein, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, “Enhanced backward-directed multi-photon-excited fluorescence from dielectric microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 54–57 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Hill, D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, “Third-order sum-frequency generation in droplets: model with numerical results for third-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 34–45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chew, H.

H. Chew, P. J. McNulty, M. Kerker, “Model for Raman and fluorescent scattering by molecules embedded in small particles,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 396–404 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, D. Q.

Chylek, P.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Videen, P. Chylek, “Resonances and poles of weakly absorbing spheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 916–921 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Chylek, H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, “Absorption effects on microdroplet resonant emission structure,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1723–1725 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, “Optical levitation and partial-wave resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229–2233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Collot, L.

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused silica microspheres,” Europhys. Lett. 23, 327–334 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Conwell, P. R.

Dahlback, A.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davis, E. J.

E. J. Davis, G. Schweiger, The Airborne Microparticle (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002).
[CrossRef]

Demoz, B.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dewitz, J. P.

J. Kasparian, B. Kramer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hubner, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependences of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Druger, S. D.

S. D. Druger, S. Arnold, L. M. Folan, “Theory of enhanced energy transfer between molecules embedded in spherical dielectric particles,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 2649–2659 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E. W.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Evans, K. D.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eversole, J. D.

Favre, C.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feltz, W.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Folan, L. M.

S. D. Druger, S. Arnold, L. M. Folan, “Theory of enhanced energy transfer between molecules embedded in spherical dielectric particles,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 2649–2659 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fouquart, Y.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Fu, Q.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, R.

Gouesbet, G.

L. Mees, G. Gouesbet, G. Grehan, “Interaction between femtosecond pulses and a spherical microcavity,” Opt. Commun. 199, 33–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grehan, G.

L. Mees, G. Gouesbet, G. Grehan, “Interaction between femtosecond pulses and a spherical microcavity,” Opt. Commun. 199, 33–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Griaznov, V.

Griffel, G.

Guimaraes, L. G.

L. G. Guimaraes, H. M. Nussenzveig, “Uniform approximation to Mie resonances,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 625–647 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gutman, S. I.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Halthore, R. N.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused silica microspheres,” Europhys. Lett. 23, 327–334 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984), Chap. 7. The reciprocals of the Q sum because they are proportional to the rate of energy loss (by loss to the external world or by absorption in the cavity).

Haywood, J. M.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. C.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Hill, V. Boutou, J. Yu, S. Ramstein, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, “Enhanced backward-directed multi-photon-excited fluorescence from dielectric microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 54–57 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Hill, H. I. Saleheen, M. D. Barnes, W. B. Whitten, J. M. Ramsey, “Modeling fluorescence collection from single molecules in microspheres: effects of position, orientation, and frequency,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6278–6288 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. M. Khaled, D. Q. Chowdhury, S. C. Hill, P. W. Barber, “Internal and scattered time-dependent intensity of a dielectric sphere illuminated with a Gaussian or a plane wave pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2065–2071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, “Third-order sum-frequency generation in droplets: model with numerical results for third-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 34–45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, “Time-independent pertubation for leaking electromagnetic modes in open systems with application to resonances in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187–5198 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, “Morphology-dependent resonances associated with stimulated processes in microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1509–1514 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, C. K. Rushforth, R. E. Benner, P. R. Conwell, “Sizing dielectric spheres and cylinders by aligning structural resonance locations: algorithm for multiple orders,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2380–2390 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Conwell, C. K. Rushforth, R. E. Benner, S. C. Hill, “Efficient automated algorithm for the sizing of dielectric microspheres using the resonance spectrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1181–1187 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, “Morphology dependent resonances,” in Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), pp. 3–61.

P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods (World Scientific, Singapore, 1990).

Holler, S.

S. C. Hill, V. Boutou, J. Yu, S. Ramstein, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, “Enhanced backward-directed multi-photon-excited fluorescence from dielectric microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 54–57 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubner, W.

J. Kasparian, B. Kramer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hubner, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependences of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 82–101.

Huston, A. L.

Iversen, T.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jedlovec, G. J.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, T.

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian, B. Kramer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hubner, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependences of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kato, S.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kerker, M.

H. Chew, P. J. McNulty, M. Kerker, “Model for Raman and fluorescent scattering by molecules embedded in small particles,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 396–404 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Khaled, E. E. M.

Kiehl, J. T.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, “Optical levitation and partial-wave resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229–2233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kinne, S.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kirkevag, A.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kliewar, K. L.

Knapp, K. R.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ko, M. K. W.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, “Optical levitation and partial-wave resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229–2233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kolgotin, A.

Kramer, B.

J. Kasparian, B. Kramer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hubner, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependences of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krenz, M.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacis, A.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lacis, A. A.

B. Cairns, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, “Absorption within inhomogeneous clouds and its parameterization in general circulation models,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 700–714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 2002).

Lai, H. M.

H. M. Lai, C. C. Lam, P. T. Leung, K. Young, “Effect of perturbations on the widths of narrow morphology-dependent resonances in Mie scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1962–1973 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, “Time-independent pertubation for leaking electromagnetic modes in open systems with application to resonances in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187–5198 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, C. C.

Lambrecht, H.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lange, S.

Laszlo, I.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leach, D. H.

Lefevre-Seguin, V.

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused silica microspheres,” Europhys. Lett. 23, 327–334 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leisner, T.

J. Kasparian, B. Kramer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hubner, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependences of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leung, P. T.

Lin, H.-B.

Liu, S. Y.

Lock, J. A.

Markel, V.

V. Markel, “The effects of averaging on the enhancement factor for absorption of light by carbon particles in microdroplets of water,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 765–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, “Absorption of light by soot particles in micro-droplets of water,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 63, 321–339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McNulty, P. J.

H. Chew, P. J. McNulty, M. Kerker, “Model for Raman and fluorescent scattering by molecules embedded in small particles,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 396–404 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mees, L.

L. Mees, G. Gouesbet, G. Grehan, “Interaction between femtosecond pulses and a spherical microcavity,” Opt. Commun. 199, 33–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Melfi, S. H.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, “Cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius, and number density measurements using a Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,411–31,419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mevel, J.

J. Mevel, “Étude de la structure détaillée des courbes de diffusion des ondes electromagnetiques par les sphères diélectriques,” J. Phys. Radium 19, 630–636 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 2002).

Mitchell, D. L.

D. L. Mitchell, “Parameterization of the Mie extinction and absorption coefficients for water clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 1311–1326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nemesure, S.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nussenzveig, H. M.

H. M. Nussenzveig, “Light tunneling in clouds,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1588–1593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Guimaraes, H. M. Nussenzveig, “Uniform approximation to Mie resonances,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 625–647 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y.-L.

S. C. Hill, V. Boutou, J. Yu, S. Ramstein, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, “Enhanced backward-directed multi-photon-excited fluorescence from dielectric microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 54–57 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pope, R. M.

Probert-Jones, J. R.

Raimond, J. M.

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused silica microspheres,” Europhys. Lett. 23, 327–334 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rairoux, P.

J. Kasparian, B. Kramer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hubner, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependences of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, V.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, J. M.

Ramstein, S.

S. C. Hill, V. Boutou, J. Yu, S. Ramstein, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, “Enhanced backward-directed multi-photon-excited fluorescence from dielectric microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 54–57 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, D. L.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rushforth, C. K.

Russell, P.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saleheen, H. I.

Schiller, S.

Schlesinger, M. E.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmidlin, F. J.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, S. E.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schweiger, G.

Schwemmer, G. K.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Serpenguzel, A.

Shalaev, V. M.

V. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, “Absorption of light by soot particles in micro-droplets of water,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 63, 321–339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

Starr, D. O’C.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, G. L.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 2002).

Vajda, S.

J. Kasparian, B. Kramer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hubner, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependences of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Veselovskii, I.

Vezin, B.

J. Kasparian, B. Kramer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hubner, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependences of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Videen, G.

Wagener, R.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weisskopf, V.

J. M. Blatt, V. Weisskopf, Theoretical Nuclear Physics (Wiley, New York, 1952; reprinted by Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979), Chap. VIII, Sec. 8, esp. pp. 400 and 401.

Whiteman, D. N.

I. Veselovskii, V. Griaznov, A. Kolgotin, D. N. Whiteman, “Angle- and size-dependent characteristics of incoherent Raman and fluorescent scattering by microspheres,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5783–5791 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, “Cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius, and number density measurements using a Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,411–31,419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Whitten, W. B.

Wiscombe, W.

Woeste, L.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J. P.

J. Kasparian, B. Kramer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hubner, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependences of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Hill, V. Boutou, J. Yu, S. Ramstein, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, “Enhanced backward-directed multi-photon-excited fluorescence from dielectric microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 54–57 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, J.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Woste, L.

J. Kasparian, B. Kramer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hubner, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependences of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Young, K.

Yu, J.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Hill, V. Boutou, J. Yu, S. Ramstein, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, “Enhanced backward-directed multi-photon-excited fluorescence from dielectric microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 54–57 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmer, W.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (9)

S. C. Hill, H. I. Saleheen, M. D. Barnes, W. B. Whitten, J. M. Ramsey, “Modeling fluorescence collection from single molecules in microspheres: effects of position, orientation, and frequency,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6278–6288 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kaiser, S. Lange, G. Schweiger, “Structural resonances in a coated sphere: investigation of the volume-averaged source function and resonance positions,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7789–7797 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Fry, “Reply to criticisms of the Pope and Fry paper on pure water absorption made in a comment by Quickenden et al.,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5843–5846 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, C. K. Rushforth, R. E. Benner, P. R. Conwell, “Sizing dielectric spheres and cylinders by aligning structural resonance locations: algorithm for multiple orders,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2380–2390 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wiscombe, “Improved Mie scattering algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1505–1509 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Veselovskii, V. Griaznov, A. Kolgotin, D. N. Whiteman, “Angle- and size-dependent characteristics of incoherent Raman and fluorescent scattering by microspheres,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5783–5791 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Nussenzveig, “Light tunneling in clouds,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1588–1593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused silica microspheres,” Europhys. Lett. 23, 327–334 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

D. L. Mitchell, “Parameterization of the Mie extinction and absorption coefficients for water clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 1311–1326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Cairns, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, “Absorption within inhomogeneous clouds and its parameterization in general circulation models,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 700–714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

S. D. Druger, S. Arnold, L. M. Folan, “Theory of enhanced energy transfer between molecules embedded in spherical dielectric particles,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 2649–2659 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, “Cavity-enhanced fluorescence decay rates from microdroplets,” J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8280–8282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

O. Boucher, S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chylek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevag, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, “Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,979–16,998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, “Cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius, and number density measurements using a Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,411–31,419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

L. G. Guimaraes, H. M. Nussenzveig, “Uniform approximation to Mie resonances,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 625–647 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (6)

J. Phys. Radium (1)

J. Mevel, “Étude de la structure détaillée des courbes de diffusion des ondes electromagnetiques par les sphères diélectriques,” J. Phys. Radium 19, 630–636 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

V. Markel, “The effects of averaging on the enhancement factor for absorption of light by carbon particles in microdroplets of water,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 765–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, “Absorption of light by soot particles in micro-droplets of water,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 63, 321–339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Mees, G. Gouesbet, G. Grehan, “Interaction between femtosecond pulses and a spherical microcavity,” Opt. Commun. 199, 33–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, “Optical levitation and partial-wave resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229–2233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Chew, P. J. McNulty, M. Kerker, “Model for Raman and fluorescent scattering by molecules embedded in small particles,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 396–404 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, “Time-independent pertubation for leaking electromagnetic modes in open systems with application to resonances in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187–5198 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. Kasparian, B. Kramer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hubner, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependences of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, V. Boutou, J. Yu, S. Ramstein, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, “Enhanced backward-directed multi-photon-excited fluorescence from dielectric microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 54–57 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, J.-P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (9)

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, “Morphology dependent resonances,” in Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), pp. 3–61.

E. J. Davis, G. Schweiger, The Airborne Microparticle (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 2002).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 82–101.

P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods (World Scientific, Singapore, 1990).

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984), Chap. 7. The reciprocals of the Q sum because they are proportional to the rate of energy loss (by loss to the external world or by absorption in the cavity).

For example, gn could be the an or bn coefficient of Ref. 8. A second index, i, is convenient, beyond the n already defined, because one mode n may have multiple MDRs. Also, for calculations, the i index is over all MDRs that have sufficiently high Q in the wavelength or radius interval of the integral.

J. M. Blatt, V. Weisskopf, Theoretical Nuclear Physics (Wiley, New York, 1952; reprinted by Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979), Chap. VIII, Sec. 8, esp. pp. 400 and 401.

The imaginary part of the refractive index is obtained from the data in Refs. 22–24 as mi = αλ/4π, where α is the absorption coefficient. After making the calculations and figures I realized that the value of mi used here was lower than that of water at 800 nm. I did not recalculate the figures because the calculation that use equally spaced points of the integrals shown in subsequent figures are time consuming and tedious and because the point of the paper is the method and concepts, not some particular case. Although the results scale with ratio of size to wavelength if m is constant, the value of mr used is a little different from that of water at 600 nm.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Absorption cross section versus wavelength for a dielectric sphere with refractive index m = 1.329 + i10-8 and radius a = 12 µm. The wavelengths used, 5 × 105, are equally spaced. (b) Cumulated integrated Cabs, where the parameters are as in (a).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized frequency-integrated absorption cross section (〈Cabs〉) versus the number of integration points, N. (a) a = 8 µm, log plot; (b) a = 8 µm, linear plot; (c) a = 12 µm. The sphere has m = 1.329 + i10-8. The limits of integration are 0.78–0.82 µm. The center frequency and width of the incident-intensity Gaussian distribution are λ = 0.8 µm and Δλ = 0.012 µm (FWHM for intensity), respectively. The large diamonds illustrate the LA method. The small dots illustrate the equally spaced frequencies method. Only selected values of numbers of wavelengths are used, because otherwise too many points overlap and because the ESF calculations for large N take too long. The horizontal line shows the value to which the integrals converge. For the LA method, one varies N by changing the value of Ns in Eq. (25).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized frequency-integrated absorption cross section (〈Cabs〉) versus the number of integration points as in Fig. 2(b) but with mi = 10-4.

Equations (28)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Cabs=ωbωe Qabsπa2Fωdω,
βabsω=abae Qabsπa2Nada,
βabs=abaeωbωe Qabsπa2NaFωdωda.
gnω, ωi, ΔωiGiΔωi1/2ω-ωi+iΔωi/2,
|gnω, ωi, Δωi|2=Gi2Liω, ωi, Δωi,
Liω, ωi, Δωi=Δωiω-ωi2+Δωi/22.
Cabs=πk2n2n+1Rean-|an|2+Rebn-|bn|2,
Cabs=n=1nmaxν=01 Cabs,n,ν,
Cabs,n,0=πk22n+1Rean-|an|2,
Cabs,n,1=πk22n+1Rebn-|bn|2.
Cabs=ωbωe CabsFωdω,
Cabs=n=1nmaxν=01ωbωe Cabs,n,νFωdω.
ωbωe Cabs,n,νFωdω
QL,i=xiΔxiL.
1Qi=1QL,i+1QA,
QA=mr/2mi
Δxi=xiQi=ΔxiL+2ximimr.
ωi=ca xi,
ωil=ωi-BΔωi,
ωih=ωi+BΔωi,
Δωi=ca Δxi=ΔωiL+2ωimimr.
Cabs,n,νFωA Δωiω-ωi2+Δωi/22,
A=Cabs,n,νωiFωiΔωi4.
ωilωih Cabs,n,νFωdω=A ωilωihΔωiω-ωi2+Δωi/22dω
=2A-arctan2 ωi-ωihΔωi+arctan2 ωi-ωilΔωi.
xn,ν,l+1-xn,ν,lNs=πNsmr2-11/2,
nmax=x+4.05x1/3+h,
Fω=exp-ω-ωc/ωg2ωbωeexp-ω-ωc/ωg2dω.

Metrics