Abstract

The Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft, a mission of the European Space Agency to comet P/Wirtanen, includes two cameras for acquiring images of the comet. A set of interference filters deposited upon glass and fused-silica substrates will be added to the cameras for wavelength tuning. For this mission of more than 10/years in an interplanetary environment, the requirement of preserving the optical characteristics of the filters is a critical one. We checked the variation in the transmission of some filter substrates after proton irradiation that simulated the solar wind. To produce a situation that is representative of the interplanetary environment, we irradiated proton fluences at three energies: 1.5 × 1011 protons/cm2 at 4 MeV, 1.9 × 1010 protons/cm2 at 8 MeV, and 7.1 × 109 protons/cm2 at 18 MeV. Seven substrates were tested: three Suprasil-1; three colored glasses, namely, OG590, KG3, and RG9; and one quartz. In addition, two interference filters were checked. The results obtained show that Suprasil-1 is rather insensitive to this irradiation, whereas very small reductions in transmission, of the order of a few percent, occur for colored glasses. The transmission of these filters was remeasured 2 years after the irradiation, and showed a general decrease in the transmission reduction.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  37. J. Wyss, D. Bisello, D. Pantano, “SIRAD: an irradiation facility at the LNL tandem accelerator for radiation damage studies on semiconductor detectors and electronic devices and systems,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 462, 426–434 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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2002 (2)

2001 (1)

J. Wyss, D. Bisello, D. Pantano, “SIRAD: an irradiation facility at the LNL tandem accelerator for radiation damage studies on semiconductor detectors and electronic devices and systems,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 462, 426–434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. Bisello, M. Descovich, A. Kaminsky, D. Pantano, J. Wyss, A. Zanet, “Radiation damage of oxygenated silicon diodes by 27 MeV protons,” Nuovo Cimento A 112, 1377–1382 (1999).

1998 (1)

N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Tylka, J. Adams, P. Boberg, B. Brownstein, W. Dietrich, E. Flueckiger, E. Petersen, M. Shea, D. Smart, E. Smith, “CREME96: a revision of the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics code,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 44, 2150–2160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Dohlen, M. Saisse, G. Claeysen, J. -L. Boit, “Optical designs for the Rosetta narrow-angle camera,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1150–1157 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

T. Appourchaux, G. Gourmelon, B. Johlander, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiations on optical filter glass,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1659–1668 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Gaffey, D. Bilitza, “NASA/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation models,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 31, 172–176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Feynman, G. Spitale, J. Wang, S. Gabriel, “Interplanetary proton fluence model: JPL 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 13281–13294 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

A. Straede, “Ion implantation as an efficient surface treatment,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 68, 380–388 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Tranquille, E. Daly, “An evaluation of solar-proton event models for ESA mission,” ESA J. 16, 275–297 (1992).

1991 (1)

B. Nielsen, B. Torp, C. Rangel, M. Simplicio, A. Consiglieri, M. DaSilva, F. Paszti, J. Soares, A. Dodd, J. Kinder, M. Pitaval, P. Thevenard, R. Wing, “Improvement of corrosion resistance of M50 bearing steel by implantation with metal ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 59/60, 772–777 (1991).

1990 (2)

J. Feynman, T. Armstrong, L. Dao-Gibner, S. Silverman, “New interplanetary proton fluence model,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 27, 403–410 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Feynman, T. Armstrong, L. Dao-Gibner, S. Silverman, “Solar proton events during solar Cycles 19, 20, and 21,” Solar Phys. 126, 385–401 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

D. Gorney, “Solar cycle effects on near-Earth plasmas and space systems,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 26, 428–435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Grillot, W. Rosenberg, “Proton radiation damage in optical filter glass,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4473–4477 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

R. Fry, D. Nacthwey, “Radiation protection guidelines for space missions,” Health Phys. 55, 159–166 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

R. McGuire, T. V. Rosenvinge, F. McDonald, “The composition of solar energetic particles,” Astrophys. J. 301, 938–947 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. Chcnette, W. Dietrich, “The solar flare heavy ion environment for single-event upsets: a summary of observations over the last solar cycle,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 31, 1217–1225 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. Mewaldt, “The elemental and isotopic composition of galactic gosmic ray nuclei,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 21, 295–303 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

1974 (1)

J. King, “Solar proton fluences for 1977–1983 space missions,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 11, 401–407 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A’Hearn, M.

N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abtreu, V.

Adams, J.

A. Tylka, J. Adams, P. Boberg, B. Brownstein, W. Dietrich, E. Flueckiger, E. Petersen, M. Shea, D. Smart, E. Smith, “CREME96: a revision of the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics code,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 44, 2150–2160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Angrilli, F.

N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appourchaux, T.

T. Appourchaux, G. Gourmelon, B. Johlander, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiations on optical filter glass,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1659–1668 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Appourchaux, “Effect of space radiation on optical filters,” in Passive Materials for Optical Elements II, G. Wilkerson, ed., Proc. SPIE2018, 80–91 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arijs, E.

N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, T.

J. Feynman, T. Armstrong, L. Dao-Gibner, S. Silverman, “Solar proton events during solar Cycles 19, 20, and 21,” Solar Phys. 126, 385–401 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Feynman, T. Armstrong, L. Dao-Gibner, S. Silverman, “New interplanetary proton fluence model,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 27, 403–410 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, M.

N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, C.

N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barucci, M.

N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berghmans, F.

Bertaux, J. -L.

N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biersack, J.

J. Ziegler, J. Biersack, U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, London, 1985).

Bilitza, D.

J. Gaffey, D. Bilitza, “NASA/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation models,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 31, 172–176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bisello, D.

J. Wyss, D. Bisello, D. Pantano, “SIRAD: an irradiation facility at the LNL tandem accelerator for radiation damage studies on semiconductor detectors and electronic devices and systems,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 462, 426–434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Bisello, M. Descovich, A. Kaminsky, D. Pantano, J. Wyss, A. Zanet, “Radiation damage of oxygenated silicon diodes by 27 MeV protons,” Nuovo Cimento A 112, 1377–1382 (1999).

Blondel, M.

Boberg, P.

A. Tylka, J. Adams, P. Boberg, B. Brownstein, W. Dietrich, E. Flueckiger, E. Petersen, M. Shea, D. Smart, E. Smith, “CREME96: a revision of the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics code,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 44, 2150–2160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boit, J. -L.

K. Dohlen, M. Saisse, G. Claeysen, J. -L. Boit, “Optical designs for the Rosetta narrow-angle camera,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1150–1157 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Briess, K.

N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brownstein, B.

A. Tylka, J. Adams, P. Boberg, B. Brownstein, W. Dietrich, E. Flueckiger, E. Petersen, M. Shea, D. Smart, E. Smith, “CREME96: a revision of the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics code,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 44, 2150–2160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burns, J.

N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chcnette, D.

D. Chcnette, W. Dietrich, “The solar flare heavy ion environment for single-event upsets: a summary of observations over the last solar cycle,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 31, 1217–1225 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Claeysen, G.

K. Dohlen, M. Saisse, G. Claeysen, J. -L. Boit, “Optical designs for the Rosetta narrow-angle camera,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1150–1157 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Consiglieri, A.

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N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
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N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
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N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
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R. Fry, D. Nacthwey, “Radiation protection guidelines for space missions,” Health Phys. 55, 159–166 (1988).
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G. Naletto, V. Da Deppo, M. G. Pelizzo, R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, “The optical design of the wide angle camera for the Rosetta mission,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1446–1453 (2002).
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N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
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N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
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B. Nielsen, B. Torp, C. Rangel, M. Simplicio, A. Consiglieri, M. DaSilva, F. Paszti, J. Soares, A. Dodd, J. Kinder, M. Pitaval, P. Thevenard, R. Wing, “Improvement of corrosion resistance of M50 bearing steel by implantation with metal ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 59/60, 772–777 (1991).

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J. Wyss, D. Bisello, D. Pantano, “SIRAD: an irradiation facility at the LNL tandem accelerator for radiation damage studies on semiconductor detectors and electronic devices and systems,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 462, 426–434 (2001).
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D. Bisello, M. Descovich, A. Kaminsky, D. Pantano, J. Wyss, A. Zanet, “Radiation damage of oxygenated silicon diodes by 27 MeV protons,” Nuovo Cimento A 112, 1377–1382 (1999).

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B. Nielsen, B. Torp, C. Rangel, M. Simplicio, A. Consiglieri, M. DaSilva, F. Paszti, J. Soares, A. Dodd, J. Kinder, M. Pitaval, P. Thevenard, R. Wing, “Improvement of corrosion resistance of M50 bearing steel by implantation with metal ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 59/60, 772–777 (1991).

Pelizzo, M. G.

Pellicori, S.

Petersen, E.

A. Tylka, J. Adams, P. Boberg, B. Brownstein, W. Dietrich, E. Flueckiger, E. Petersen, M. Shea, D. Smart, E. Smith, “CREME96: a revision of the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics code,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 44, 2150–2160 (1997).
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B. Nielsen, B. Torp, C. Rangel, M. Simplicio, A. Consiglieri, M. DaSilva, F. Paszti, J. Soares, A. Dodd, J. Kinder, M. Pitaval, P. Thevenard, R. Wing, “Improvement of corrosion resistance of M50 bearing steel by implantation with metal ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 59/60, 772–777 (1991).

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G. Possnert, J. Lagerros, H. Rickman, “Radiation damage in OSIRIS filter substrates,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc SPIE3738, 428–435 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

G. Naletto, V. Da Deppo, M. G. Pelizzo, R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, “The optical design of the wide angle camera for the Rosetta mission,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1446–1453 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
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B. Nielsen, B. Torp, C. Rangel, M. Simplicio, A. Consiglieri, M. DaSilva, F. Paszti, J. Soares, A. Dodd, J. Kinder, M. Pitaval, P. Thevenard, R. Wing, “Improvement of corrosion resistance of M50 bearing steel by implantation with metal ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 59/60, 772–777 (1991).

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N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
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G. Possnert, J. Lagerros, H. Rickman, “Radiation damage in OSIRIS filter substrates,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc SPIE3738, 428–435 (1999).
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N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
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N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
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P. Silverglate, E. Zalewski, P. Petrone, “Proton-induced radiation effects on optical glasses,” in Damage to Space Optics, and Properties and Characteristics of Optical Glass, J. Breckinridge, A. Marker, eds., Proc. SPIE1761, 46–57 (1992).
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B. Nielsen, B. Torp, C. Rangel, M. Simplicio, A. Consiglieri, M. DaSilva, F. Paszti, J. Soares, A. Dodd, J. Kinder, M. Pitaval, P. Thevenard, R. Wing, “Improvement of corrosion resistance of M50 bearing steel by implantation with metal ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 59/60, 772–777 (1991).

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N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
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A. Tylka, J. Adams, P. Boberg, B. Brownstein, W. Dietrich, E. Flueckiger, E. Petersen, M. Shea, D. Smart, E. Smith, “CREME96: a revision of the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics code,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 44, 2150–2160 (1997).
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A. Tylka, J. Adams, P. Boberg, B. Brownstein, W. Dietrich, E. Flueckiger, E. Petersen, M. Shea, D. Smart, E. Smith, “CREME96: a revision of the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics code,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 44, 2150–2160 (1997).
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B. Nielsen, B. Torp, C. Rangel, M. Simplicio, A. Consiglieri, M. DaSilva, F. Paszti, J. Soares, A. Dodd, J. Kinder, M. Pitaval, P. Thevenard, R. Wing, “Improvement of corrosion resistance of M50 bearing steel by implantation with metal ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 59/60, 772–777 (1991).

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N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
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N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
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B. Nielsen, B. Torp, C. Rangel, M. Simplicio, A. Consiglieri, M. DaSilva, F. Paszti, J. Soares, A. Dodd, J. Kinder, M. Pitaval, P. Thevenard, R. Wing, “Improvement of corrosion resistance of M50 bearing steel by implantation with metal ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 59/60, 772–777 (1991).

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N. Thomas, H. Keller, E. Arijs, C. Barbieri, M. Grande, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Ro-drigo, K. -P. Wenzel, M. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Bailey, M. Barucci, J. -L. Bertaux, K. Briess, J. Burns, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, H. Deceuninck, R. Emery, M. Festou, M. Fulle, W. -H. Ip, L. Jorda, A. Korth, D. Koschny, J. -R. Kramm, E. Kürt, M. Lara, A. Llebaria, J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, D. Moreau, C. Muller, C. Murray, G. Naletto, D. Nevejans, R. Ragazzoni, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J. -P. Sivan, G. Tondello, “OSIRIS—the Optical, spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System for the Rosetta orbiter,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 1505–1515 (1998).
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B. Nielsen, B. Torp, C. Rangel, M. Simplicio, A. Consiglieri, M. DaSilva, F. Paszti, J. Soares, A. Dodd, J. Kinder, M. Pitaval, P. Thevenard, R. Wing, “Improvement of corrosion resistance of M50 bearing steel by implantation with metal ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 59/60, 772–777 (1991).

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J. Wyss, D. Bisello, D. Pantano, “SIRAD: an irradiation facility at the LNL tandem accelerator for radiation damage studies on semiconductor detectors and electronic devices and systems,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 462, 426–434 (2001).
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J. Feynman, T. Armstrong, L. Dao-Gibner, S. Silverman, “New interplanetary proton fluence model,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 27, 403–410 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Gorney, “Solar cycle effects on near-Earth plasmas and space systems,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 26, 428–435 (1989).
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J. King, “Solar proton fluences for 1977–1983 space missions,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 11, 401–407 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

J. Wyss, D. Bisello, D. Pantano, “SIRAD: an irradiation facility at the LNL tandem accelerator for radiation damage studies on semiconductor detectors and electronic devices and systems,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 462, 426–434 (2001).
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Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (2)

B. Nielsen, B. Torp, C. Rangel, M. Simplicio, A. Consiglieri, M. DaSilva, F. Paszti, J. Soares, A. Dodd, J. Kinder, M. Pitaval, P. Thevenard, R. Wing, “Improvement of corrosion resistance of M50 bearing steel by implantation with metal ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 59/60, 772–777 (1991).

A. Straede, “Ion implantation as an efficient surface treatment,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 68, 380–388 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nuovo Cimento A (1)

D. Bisello, M. Descovich, A. Kaminsky, D. Pantano, J. Wyss, A. Zanet, “Radiation damage of oxygenated silicon diodes by 27 MeV protons,” Nuovo Cimento A 112, 1377–1382 (1999).

Opt. Eng. (2)

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Solar Phys. (1)

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Other (16)

G. Possnert, J. Lagerros, H. Rickman, “Radiation damage in OSIRIS filter substrates,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc SPIE3738, 428–435 (1999).
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M. Walt, Introduction to Geomagnetically Trapped Radiation Space Science (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, (1994).
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P. Foukal, Solar Astrophysics (Wiley, New York, 1990).

National Space Science Data Center at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. Web page: http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/ .

The SPENVIS project is funded by the ESA through the General Support Technologies Programme. The project was developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, with sub-contractors Space Applications Services and the Paul Scherrer Institute. SPENVIS is registered as ESA contract 11711-W01. Web page: http://www.spenvis.oma.be/spenvis/ .

“ROSETTA: experiment interface document part A: issue 2 Rev. 0,” Tech. Rep. (European Space Agency, Paris, 1999).

Multilayer insulation (MLI) is commonly used to provide thermal insulation. MLI usually consists of 25-μm thick polyester or polyamide layers or films that are metallized with aluminum or gold on one or both sides.

T. Appourchaux, “Effect of space radiation on optical filters,” in Passive Materials for Optical Elements II, G. Wilkerson, ed., Proc. SPIE2018, 80–91 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Doyle, R. Czichy, “Influence of simulated space radiation on optical glasses,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, T. Dewandre, J. S. in-den Baeumen, E. Sein, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 434–449 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Silverglate, E. Zalewski, P. Petrone, “Proton-induced radiation effects on optical glasses,” in Damage to Space Optics, and Properties and Characteristics of Optical Glass, J. Breckinridge, A. Marker, eds., Proc. SPIE1761, 46–57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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We made simulations by using 27-MeV protons orthogonally incident onto aluminum absorbers. The means and dispersions (rms) reported refer to samples of 2000 events for each case.

Unfortunately it was not possible to measure the substrate transmission immediately after the irradiation. In fact, the irradiation was concluded during the night, much later than was initially foreseen, and the Department of Chemistry-Physics where the spectrophotometer was available opened only the following morning.

G. Schwehm, Y. Langevin, ROSETTA/CNSR A Comet-Nucleus Sample-Return Mission. ESA Special Publication 1125, (European Space Agency: Paris, 1991).

More information on the Rosetta mission can be found at the Web page http://sci.esa.int/rosetta/

The OSIRIS acronym derives from an old configuration of the instrument, when the optical design still had spectroscopic and infrared capabilities. After several modification in the design, in the present configuration only imaging in the visible and the near ultraviolet remains, but the instrument name has not changed.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Expected proton fluence that is due to solar proton events as a function of energy E. The integrated fluence, that is, the fluence of protons that have energy greater than E, is plotted. These data were obtained with the software available at the ESA/SPENVIS Web page by use of the JPL-91 model and for the mission profile described in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured transmission of the NB 810-nm interference filter as a function of wavelength. Continuous curve, non-irradiated filter; dashed curve, 30-keV irradiated portion of the filter. (b) Difference between the non-irradiated portion of the filter and the irradiated portion.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured transmission of the 572-nm interference filter as a function of wavelength. Continuous curve, non-irradiated filter; dashed 30-keV irradiated portion of the filter. (b) Difference between the non-irradiated portion of the filter and the irradiated portion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Differential proton fluence owing to solar proton events as a function of energy. These data were obtained with the software available at the ESA/SPENVIS Web page. Dashed lines, values of the fluences integrated over the energy range limited by the lines. Open squares, energy of the protons used for the irradiation (see text).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of the SIRAD beam line, the facility used for the medium-energy filter irradiation. A, adjustable slits (rollers); B, quadrupole doublet; C, adjustable slits (bobbit); D, rastering system; E, extractable X-Y wire system (BPM); F, extractable Faraday cup (FC70); G, target plane; H, battery of small Faraday cups.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured transmission of the KG3 glass as a function of wavelength for several medium-energy irradiation values. Continuous curve, non-irradiated filter; dashed curve, irradiation at half the nominal fluence; dashed-dotted curves, irradiation at the nominal fluence; dashed-triple-dotted curves, irradiation at twice the nominal fluence. (b) Difference between the transmissions of the non-irradiated portions of the glass and the irradiated portions. (c) same as (b), 2 years later.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Measured transmission of the OG590 glass as a function of wavelength for several medium-energy irradiation values. Continuous curve, non-irradiated filter; dashed curve, irradiation at half the nominal fluence; dashed-dotted curve, irradiation at the nominal fluence; dashed-triple-dotted curve, irradiation at twice the nominal fluence. (b) Difference between the transmissions of the non-irradiated portions of the glass and the irradiated portions. (c) same as (b), 2 years later.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Measured transmission of the RG9 glass as a function of wavelength for various medium-energy irradiation values. Continuous curve, non-irradiated filter; dashed curve, irradiation at half the nominal fluence; dashed-dotted curve, irradiation at the nominal fluence; dashed-triple dotted curve, irradiation at twice the nominal fluence. (b) Difference between the transmissions of the non-irradiated portions of the glass and the irradiated portions. (c) same as (b), 2 years later.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Measured transmission of Suprasil 1/A as a function of wavelength for several medium energy irradiation values. Continuous curve, non-irradiated filter; dashed curve, irradiation at half the nominal fluence; dashed-dotted curve, irradiation at the nominal fluence; dashed-double-dotted curve, irradiation at twice the nominal fluence. (b) Difference between the transmissions of the non-irradiated portions of the substrate and the irradiated portions.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of the Available Filters and the Performed Testsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Final Mean Energy and Relative rms Distributions of Protons of 27 MeV Passing through Aluminium Absorbers of 1.8-, 3.1-, and 3.4-mm Thickness

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