Abstract

We describe a new interferometer setup for optical coherence tomography (OCT). The interferometer is based on a fiber arrangement similar to Young’s two-pinhole interference experiment with spatial coherent and temporal incoherent light. Depth gating is achieved detection of the interference signal on a linear CCD array. Therefore no reference optical delay scanning is needed. The interference signal, the modulation of the signal, the axial resolution, and the depth range are derived theoretically and compared with experiments. The dynamic range of the setup is compared with OCT sensors in the time domain. To our knowledge, the first images of porcine brain and heart tissue and human skin are presented.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  4. M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography, feasibility for surgical diagnostics,” J. Surg. Res. 71, 32–40 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. I. Feldchtein, G. V. Gelikonov, V. M. Gelikonov, R. R. Iksanov, R. V. Kuranov, A. M. Sergeev, N. D. Gladkova, M. N. Ourutina, J. A. Warren, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo OCT imaging of hard and soft tissue of the oral cavity,” Opt. Express 3, 239–250 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. D. Kulkarni, T. G. v. Leeuwen, S. Yazdanfar, J. A. Izatt, “Velocity-estimation accuracy and frame-rate limitations in color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1057–1059 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Häusler, M. W. Lindner, “Coherent radar and spectral radar: new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21–31 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22, 340–342 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. U. Haberland, P. Jansen, V. Blazek, H. J. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser,” in Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedical Science and Clinical Applications, V. V. Tuchin, H. Podbielska, B. Ovryn, eds., Proc. SPIE2981, 20–28 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
  13. P. Andretzky, M. W. Lindner, J. M. Herrmann, A. Schutz, M. Konzog, F. Kiesewetter, G. Häusler, “Optical coherence tomography by spectral radar: dynamic range estimation and in-vivo measurements of skin,” in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring IV, M. D. Fante, H. J. Foth, N. Marchesini, H. Podbielska, eds., Proc. SPIE3567, 78–87 (1999).
  14. S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, C. Pitris, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for neurosurgical imaging of human intracortical melanoma,” Neurosurgery 43, 834–841 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 208, 81–86 (1998).
    [PubMed]

1998 (5)

F. I. Feldchtein, G. V. Gelikonov, V. M. Gelikonov, R. R. Iksanov, R. V. Kuranov, A. M. Sergeev, N. D. Gladkova, M. N. Ourutina, J. A. Warren, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo OCT imaging of hard and soft tissue of the oral cavity,” Opt. Express 3, 239–250 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kulkarni, T. G. v. Leeuwen, S. Yazdanfar, J. A. Izatt, “Velocity-estimation accuracy and frame-rate limitations in color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1057–1059 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Häusler, M. W. Lindner, “Coherent radar and spectral radar: new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, C. Pitris, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for neurosurgical imaging of human intracortical melanoma,” Neurosurgery 43, 834–841 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 208, 81–86 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (2)

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22, 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography, feasibility for surgical diagnostics,” J. Surg. Res. 71, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andretzky, P.

P. Andretzky, M. W. Lindner, J. M. Herrmann, A. Schutz, M. Konzog, F. Kiesewetter, G. Häusler, “Optical coherence tomography by spectral radar: dynamic range estimation and in-vivo measurements of skin,” in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring IV, M. D. Fante, H. J. Foth, N. Marchesini, H. Podbielska, eds., Proc. SPIE3567, 78–87 (1999).

Blazek, V.

U. Haberland, P. Jansen, V. Blazek, H. J. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser,” in Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedical Science and Clinical Applications, V. V. Tuchin, H. Podbielska, B. Ovryn, eds., Proc. SPIE2981, 20–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, C. Pitris, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for neurosurgical imaging of human intracortical melanoma,” Neurosurgery 43, 834–841 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 208, 81–86 (1998).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography, feasibility for surgical diagnostics,” J. Surg. Res. 71, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 208, 81–86 (1998).
[PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 208, 81–86 (1998).
[PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, C. Pitris, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for neurosurgical imaging of human intracortical melanoma,” Neurosurgery 43, 834–841 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography, feasibility for surgical diagnostics,” J. Surg. Res. 71, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chinn, S. R.

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Feldchtein, F. I.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 208, 81–86 (1998).
[PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, C. Pitris, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for neurosurgical imaging of human intracortical melanoma,” Neurosurgery 43, 834–841 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22, 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography, feasibility for surgical diagnostics,” J. Surg. Res. 71, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, G. V.

Gelikonov, V. M.

Gladkova, N. D.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haberland, U.

U. Haberland, P. Jansen, V. Blazek, H. J. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser,” in Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedical Science and Clinical Applications, V. V. Tuchin, H. Podbielska, B. Ovryn, eds., Proc. SPIE2981, 20–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler, M. W. Lindner, “Coherent radar and spectral radar: new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Andretzky, M. W. Lindner, J. M. Herrmann, A. Schutz, M. Konzog, F. Kiesewetter, G. Häusler, “Optical coherence tomography by spectral radar: dynamic range estimation and in-vivo measurements of skin,” in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring IV, M. D. Fante, H. J. Foth, N. Marchesini, H. Podbielska, eds., Proc. SPIE3567, 78–87 (1999).

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J. M.

P. Andretzky, M. W. Lindner, J. M. Herrmann, A. Schutz, M. Konzog, F. Kiesewetter, G. Häusler, “Optical coherence tomography by spectral radar: dynamic range estimation and in-vivo measurements of skin,” in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring IV, M. D. Fante, H. J. Foth, N. Marchesini, H. Podbielska, eds., Proc. SPIE3567, 78–87 (1999).

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iksanov, R. R.

Izatt, J. A.

M. D. Kulkarni, T. G. v. Leeuwen, S. Yazdanfar, J. A. Izatt, “Velocity-estimation accuracy and frame-rate limitations in color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1057–1059 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jansen, P.

U. Haberland, P. Jansen, V. Blazek, H. J. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser,” in Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedical Science and Clinical Applications, V. V. Tuchin, H. Podbielska, B. Ovryn, eds., Proc. SPIE2981, 20–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Kiesewetter, F.

P. Andretzky, M. W. Lindner, J. M. Herrmann, A. Schutz, M. Konzog, F. Kiesewetter, G. Häusler, “Optical coherence tomography by spectral radar: dynamic range estimation and in-vivo measurements of skin,” in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring IV, M. D. Fante, H. J. Foth, N. Marchesini, H. Podbielska, eds., Proc. SPIE3567, 78–87 (1999).

Kobayashi, K.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Konzog, M.

P. Andretzky, M. W. Lindner, J. M. Herrmann, A. Schutz, M. Konzog, F. Kiesewetter, G. Häusler, “Optical coherence tomography by spectral radar: dynamic range estimation and in-vivo measurements of skin,” in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring IV, M. D. Fante, H. J. Foth, N. Marchesini, H. Podbielska, eds., Proc. SPIE3567, 78–87 (1999).

Kulkarni, M. D.

M. D. Kulkarni, T. G. v. Leeuwen, S. Yazdanfar, J. A. Izatt, “Velocity-estimation accuracy and frame-rate limitations in color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1057–1059 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuranov, R. V.

Leeuwen, T. G. v.

Lin, C. P.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Häusler, M. W. Lindner, “Coherent radar and spectral radar: new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Andretzky, M. W. Lindner, J. M. Herrmann, A. Schutz, M. Konzog, F. Kiesewetter, G. Häusler, “Optical coherence tomography by spectral radar: dynamic range estimation and in-vivo measurements of skin,” in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring IV, M. D. Fante, H. J. Foth, N. Marchesini, H. Podbielska, eds., Proc. SPIE3567, 78–87 (1999).

Ourutina, M. N.

Pitris, C.

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, C. Pitris, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for neurosurgical imaging of human intracortical melanoma,” Neurosurgery 43, 834–841 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 208, 81–86 (1998).
[PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitze, D. H.

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Sattmann, H.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Schmitt, H. J.

U. Haberland, P. Jansen, V. Blazek, H. J. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser,” in Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedical Science and Clinical Applications, V. V. Tuchin, H. Podbielska, B. Ovryn, eds., Proc. SPIE2981, 20–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schutz, A.

P. Andretzky, M. W. Lindner, J. M. Herrmann, A. Schutz, M. Konzog, F. Kiesewetter, G. Häusler, “Optical coherence tomography by spectral radar: dynamic range estimation and in-vivo measurements of skin,” in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring IV, M. D. Fante, H. J. Foth, N. Marchesini, H. Podbielska, eds., Proc. SPIE3567, 78–87 (1999).

Sergeev, A. M.

Sivak, M. V.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 208, 81–86 (1998).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography, feasibility for surgical diagnostics,” J. Surg. Res. 71, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography, feasibility for surgical diagnostics,” J. Surg. Res. 71, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22, 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 208, 81–86 (1998).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography, feasibility for surgical diagnostics,” J. Surg. Res. 71, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Wang, H-W.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Yazdanfar, S.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. Häusler, M. W. Lindner, “Coherent radar and spectral radar: new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Surg. Res. (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography, feasibility for surgical diagnostics,” J. Surg. Res. 71, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurosurgery (1)

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, C. Pitris, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for neurosurgical imaging of human intracortical melanoma,” Neurosurgery 43, 834–841 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Radiology (1)

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 208, 81–86 (1998).
[PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

U. Haberland, P. Jansen, V. Blazek, H. J. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser,” in Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedical Science and Clinical Applications, V. V. Tuchin, H. Podbielska, B. Ovryn, eds., Proc. SPIE2981, 20–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).

P. Andretzky, M. W. Lindner, J. M. Herrmann, A. Schutz, M. Konzog, F. Kiesewetter, G. Häusler, “Optical coherence tomography by spectral radar: dynamic range estimation and in-vivo measurements of skin,” in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring IV, M. D. Fante, H. J. Foth, N. Marchesini, H. Podbielska, eds., Proc. SPIE3567, 78–87 (1999).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the fiber two-pinhole sensor with interference signal at position x 0 on the linear CCD array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Setup of a time-domain OCT interferometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characterization of the LOCT setup by use of a mirror as a sample. (a) Output of the CCD array. (b) Modulated signal after bandpass filtering. (c) Demodulated logarithmical amplified signal. (d) Fourier transform of the modulated signal. Modulation frequency f m (e) and axial point-spread function ΔL (f) of the interference signal as a function of the fiber distance a with theoretical (solid lines) and experimental values (dots).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

LOCT images of different biological samples. (a) Porcine brain with blood vessel in vitro. (b) Porcine heart muscle with three blood vessels in vitro. (c) Human skin in vivo. Dimension of the images are 0.8 mm axial and 5 mm lateral.

Equations (28)

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Uxexp-x2/w2Urexpikr1r1 +Usexpikr2+i2kΔlr2,
r1=x+a/22+d2,
r2=x-a/22+d2,
r1d+a28d+ax2d,
r2d+a28d-ax2d.
Ux1dexp-x2/w2expikd+a2/8dUr exp×ikax/2d+Us exp-ikax/2d-2Δl.
Φx|Ux|21d2exp-2x2w2ΦrN+ΦsN+ΦrΦsN 2 coskθx-2Δl,
Iifx=eλhcΦrΦsN 2 coskθx-2Δl.
Sk=1S0exp-4 ln 2k-k02Δk2,
S0=-+exp-4 ln 2k-k02Δk2dk=πΔk2ln 2.
I¯ifx=eλ0hc1S0-+exp-4 ln 2k-k02Δk2×ΦrΦsN 2 coskθx-2Δldk =eλ0hcΦrΦsNexp-Δk216 ln 2θx-2Δl2×2 cosk0θx-2Δl.
xFWHM=4 ln 2πλ2Δλ1θ=2ΔLθ,
ΔL=2 ln 2λ2πΔλ.
2Δlmax=θLCCD=θNΔx=NaΔx/d
θ=2ΔlmaxLCCD.
t=xTLCCD.
θx=2ΔlmaxT t.
I¯ift=eλ0hcΦrΦsNexp-Δk216 ln 22ΔlmaxT t-2Δl2×2 cosk02ΔlmaxT t-2Δl.
P=xa/Δx=λ0d/aΔx,
Δlmax=Nλ02P.
fm=Δxfp/xa,
Iift=eλhcΦrΦsN 2 cosk2vt-2Δl.
I¯ift=eλ0hcΦrΦsNexp-Δk216 ln 22vt-2Δl2×2 cosk02vt-2Δl.
2vt=2ΔlmaxT t,
I¯if2  ΦrNΦsNN ΔLΔlmax2.
σI¯if2  ΦrNN ΔLΔlmax1T.
SNRLOCT=I¯if2σI¯if2  ΦsΔlmax/TΔL.
SNRTDOCT=I¯if2σI¯if2  Φsv/ΔL,

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