Abstract

Effects of a steady magnetic field on the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of certain elements (Mn, Mg, Cr, and Ti) in aqueous solution were studied, in which the plasma plume expanded across an external steady magnetic field (∼5 kilogauss). Nearly 1.5 times enhancement in the line emission intensity was observed in the presence of the magnetic field. The temporal evolution of the line emission showed a significant enhancement in plasma emission between 2- and 7-μs gate delays for Mg in the presence of the magnetic field (5–30 μs for Mn). This enhancement in the emission is attributed to an increase in the rate of recombination because of an increase in plasma density due to a magnetic confinement after cooling the plasma. The increase in the optical line emission due to magnetic confinement was absent when the plasma was hot with a dominant background (continuum) emission. The limits of detection of Mg and Mn were reduced by a factor of two in the presence of a steady magnetic field of 5 kilogauss.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Fichet, P. Mauchien, J. F. Wagner, C. Moulin, “Quantitative elemental determination in water and oil by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 429, 269–278 (2001).
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  5. B. T. Fisher, H. A. Johnsen, S. G. Buckley, D. W. Hahn, “Temporal gating for the optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detection and analysis of toxic metals,” Appl. Opt. 55, 1312–1319 (2001).
  6. D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Song, Y. I. Lee, J. Sneddon, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183–235 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Knopp, F. J. Scherbaum, J. I. Kim, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy as an analytical tool for detection of metal ions in aqueous solutions,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 355, 16–20 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “Some studies on picosecond laser produced plasma expanding across an uniform external magnetic field,” Laser Particle Beam 16, 431–443 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “An x-ray biplanar photodiode and the x-ray emission from magnetically confined laser produced plasma,” Pramana J. Phys. 52, 49–65 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. Y. Yueh, R. C. Sharma, H. Zhang, J. P. Singh, W. A. Spencer, “Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace element in liquid,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 174–185 (2002).
  24. V. N. Rai, A. K. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, “Optical emission from laser-induced breakdown plasma of solid and liquid samples in the presence of a magnetic field,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2085–2093 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “Density oscillation in laser produced plasma decelerated by external magnetic field,” Pramana J. Phys. 55, 773–779 (2000).
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2003 (1)

2002 (1)

F. Y. Yueh, R. C. Sharma, H. Zhang, J. P. Singh, W. A. Spencer, “Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace element in liquid,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 174–185 (2002).

2001 (2)

P. Fichet, P. Mauchien, J. F. Wagner, C. Moulin, “Quantitative elemental determination in water and oil by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 429, 269–278 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Fisher, H. A. Johnsen, S. G. Buckley, D. W. Hahn, “Temporal gating for the optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detection and analysis of toxic metals,” Appl. Opt. 55, 1312–1319 (2001).

2000 (3)

S. G. Buckley, H. A. Johnsen, K. R. Hencken, D. W. Hahn, “Implementation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a continuous emissions monitor for toxic metals,” Waste Management 20, 455–462 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 38, 2248–2262 (2000).

V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “Density oscillation in laser produced plasma decelerated by external magnetic field,” Pramana J. Phys. 55, 773–779 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “An x-ray biplanar photodiode and the x-ray emission from magnetically confined laser produced plasma,” Pramana J. Phys. 52, 49–65 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, H. Zhang, K. P. Karney, “A preliminary study of the determination of uranium, plutonium, and neptunium by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Recent Res. Devel. Appl. Spectrosc. 2, 59–67 (1999).

H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, “Laser induced breakdown spectrometry as a multimetal continuous emission monitor,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1459–1466 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “Some studies on picosecond laser produced plasma expanding across an uniform external magnetic field,” Laser Particle Beam 16, 431–443 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Song, Y. I. Lee, J. Sneddon, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Arca, A. Ciucci, V. Palleschi, S. Rastelli, E. Tognoni, “Trace element analysis in water by the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 1102–1105 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Ng, W. F. Ho, N. H. Cheung, “Spectrochemical analysis of liquid using laser induced plasma emission effect of laser wavelength on plasma properties,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 976–983 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Pichahchy, D. A. Cremers, M. J. Ferris, “Elemental analysis of metals under water using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta. B 52, 25–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. Knopp, F. J. Scherbaum, J. I. Kim, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy as an analytical tool for detection of metal ions in aqueous solutions,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 355, 16–20 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of iron suspension in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2966 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

Y. Ito, O. Ueki, S. Nakamura, “Determination of colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 299, 401–406 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

S. Suckwer, H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Noorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

J. M. Dowson, “On the production of plasma by giant pulse lasers,” Phys. Fluid 7, 981–987 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Arca, G.

Beddows, D. C. S.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 38, 2248–2262 (2000).

Buckley, S. G.

B. T. Fisher, H. A. Johnsen, S. G. Buckley, D. W. Hahn, “Temporal gating for the optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detection and analysis of toxic metals,” Appl. Opt. 55, 1312–1319 (2001).

S. G. Buckley, H. A. Johnsen, K. R. Hencken, D. W. Hahn, “Implementation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a continuous emissions monitor for toxic metals,” Waste Management 20, 455–462 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Castle, B. C.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F. F.

F. F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Plenum, New York, 1974).

Cheung, N. H.

Ciucci, A.

Cremer, D. A.

Cremers, D. A.

A. E. Pichahchy, D. A. Cremers, M. J. Ferris, “Elemental analysis of metals under water using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta. B 52, 25–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, Laser Induced Plasma and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).

Dowson, J. M.

J. M. Dowson, “On the production of plasma by giant pulse lasers,” Phys. Fluid 7, 981–987 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ferris, M. J.

A. E. Pichahchy, D. A. Cremers, M. J. Ferris, “Elemental analysis of metals under water using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta. B 52, 25–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fichet, P.

P. Fichet, P. Mauchien, J. F. Wagner, C. Moulin, “Quantitative elemental determination in water and oil by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 429, 269–278 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, B. T.

B. T. Fisher, H. A. Johnsen, S. G. Buckley, D. W. Hahn, “Temporal gating for the optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detection and analysis of toxic metals,” Appl. Opt. 55, 1312–1319 (2001).

Goldberg, J. M.

Hahn, D. W.

B. T. Fisher, H. A. Johnsen, S. G. Buckley, D. W. Hahn, “Temporal gating for the optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detection and analysis of toxic metals,” Appl. Opt. 55, 1312–1319 (2001).

S. G. Buckley, H. A. Johnsen, K. R. Hencken, D. W. Hahn, “Implementation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a continuous emissions monitor for toxic metals,” Waste Management 20, 455–462 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hencken, K. R.

S. G. Buckley, H. A. Johnsen, K. R. Hencken, D. W. Hahn, “Implementation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a continuous emissions monitor for toxic metals,” Waste Management 20, 455–462 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hiraga, H.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of iron suspension in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2966 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, W. F.

Ito, Y.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of iron suspension in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2966 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ito, O. Ueki, S. Nakamura, “Determination of colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 299, 401–406 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Johnsen, H. A.

B. T. Fisher, H. A. Johnsen, S. G. Buckley, D. W. Hahn, “Temporal gating for the optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detection and analysis of toxic metals,” Appl. Opt. 55, 1312–1319 (2001).

S. G. Buckley, H. A. Johnsen, K. R. Hencken, D. W. Hahn, “Implementation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a continuous emissions monitor for toxic metals,” Waste Management 20, 455–462 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, J.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 38, 2248–2262 (2000).

Kaneko, K. I.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of iron suspension in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2966 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karney, K. P.

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, H. Zhang, K. P. Karney, “A preliminary study of the determination of uranium, plutonium, and neptunium by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Recent Res. Devel. Appl. Spectrosc. 2, 59–67 (1999).

Keane, C.

S. Suckwer, H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Noorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. I.

R. Knopp, F. J. Scherbaum, J. I. Kim, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy as an analytical tool for detection of metal ions in aqueous solutions,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 355, 16–20 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knopp, R.

R. Knopp, F. J. Scherbaum, J. I. Kim, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy as an analytical tool for detection of metal ions in aqueous solutions,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 355, 16–20 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kukhlevsky, S. V.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 38, 2248–2262 (2000).

Lee, Y. I.

K. Song, Y. I. Lee, J. Sneddon, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liska, M.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 38, 2248–2262 (2000).

Mason, K. J.

Mauchien, P.

P. Fichet, P. Mauchien, J. F. Wagner, C. Moulin, “Quantitative elemental determination in water and oil by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 429, 269–278 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H.

S. Suckwer, H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Noorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, C.

P. Fichet, P. Mauchien, J. F. Wagner, C. Moulin, “Quantitative elemental determination in water and oil by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 429, 269–278 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of iron suspension in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2966 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ito, O. Ueki, S. Nakamura, “Determination of colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 299, 401–406 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neu, W.

Ng, C. W.

Noorhees, D.

S. Suckwer, H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Noorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nyga, R.

Palleschi, V.

Pant, H. C.

V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “Density oscillation in laser produced plasma decelerated by external magnetic field,” Pramana J. Phys. 55, 773–779 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “An x-ray biplanar photodiode and the x-ray emission from magnetically confined laser produced plasma,” Pramana J. Phys. 52, 49–65 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “Some studies on picosecond laser produced plasma expanding across an uniform external magnetic field,” Laser Particle Beam 16, 431–443 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pichahchy, A. E.

A. E. Pichahchy, D. A. Cremers, M. J. Ferris, “Elemental analysis of metals under water using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta. B 52, 25–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Radziemski, L. J.

L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, Laser Induced Plasma and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).

Rai, A. K.

Rai, V. N.

V. N. Rai, A. K. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, “Optical emission from laser-induced breakdown plasma of solid and liquid samples in the presence of a magnetic field,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2085–2093 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “Density oscillation in laser produced plasma decelerated by external magnetic field,” Pramana J. Phys. 55, 773–779 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “An x-ray biplanar photodiode and the x-ray emission from magnetically confined laser produced plasma,” Pramana J. Phys. 52, 49–65 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “Some studies on picosecond laser produced plasma expanding across an uniform external magnetic field,” Laser Particle Beam 16, 431–443 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rastelli, S.

Rusak, D. A.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Samek, O.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 38, 2248–2262 (2000).

Scherbaum, F. J.

R. Knopp, F. J. Scherbaum, J. I. Kim, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy as an analytical tool for detection of metal ions in aqueous solutions,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 355, 16–20 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R. C.

F. Y. Yueh, R. C. Sharma, H. Zhang, J. P. Singh, W. A. Spencer, “Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace element in liquid,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 174–185 (2002).

Shukla, M.

V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “Density oscillation in laser produced plasma decelerated by external magnetic field,” Pramana J. Phys. 55, 773–779 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “An x-ray biplanar photodiode and the x-ray emission from magnetically confined laser produced plasma,” Pramana J. Phys. 52, 49–65 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “Some studies on picosecond laser produced plasma expanding across an uniform external magnetic field,” Laser Particle Beam 16, 431–443 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Singh, J. P.

V. N. Rai, A. K. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, “Optical emission from laser-induced breakdown plasma of solid and liquid samples in the presence of a magnetic field,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2085–2093 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Yueh, R. C. Sharma, H. Zhang, J. P. Singh, W. A. Spencer, “Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace element in liquid,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 174–185 (2002).

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, H. Zhang, K. P. Karney, “A preliminary study of the determination of uranium, plutonium, and neptunium by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Recent Res. Devel. Appl. Spectrosc. 2, 59–67 (1999).

H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, “Laser induced breakdown spectrometry as a multimetal continuous emission monitor,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1459–1466 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: elemental analysis,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2065–2087.

Skinner, H.

S. Suckwer, H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Noorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. W.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sneddon, J.

K. Song, Y. I. Lee, J. Sneddon, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sone, K.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of iron suspension in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2966 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, K.

K. Song, Y. I. Lee, J. Sneddon, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, W. A.

F. Y. Yueh, R. C. Sharma, H. Zhang, J. P. Singh, W. A. Spencer, “Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace element in liquid,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 174–185 (2002).

Suckwer, S.

S. Suckwer, H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Noorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Telle, H. H.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 38, 2248–2262 (2000).

Tognoni, E.

Ueki, O.

Y. Ito, O. Ueki, S. Nakamura, “Determination of colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 299, 401–406 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wachter, J. R.

Wagner, J. F.

P. Fichet, P. Mauchien, J. F. Wagner, C. Moulin, “Quantitative elemental determination in water and oil by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 429, 269–278 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 38, 2248–2262 (2000).

Yueh, F. Y.

V. N. Rai, A. K. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, “Optical emission from laser-induced breakdown plasma of solid and liquid samples in the presence of a magnetic field,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2085–2093 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Yueh, R. C. Sharma, H. Zhang, J. P. Singh, W. A. Spencer, “Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace element in liquid,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 174–185 (2002).

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, H. Zhang, K. P. Karney, “A preliminary study of the determination of uranium, plutonium, and neptunium by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Recent Res. Devel. Appl. Spectrosc. 2, 59–67 (1999).

H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, “Laser induced breakdown spectrometry as a multimetal continuous emission monitor,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1459–1466 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: elemental analysis,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2065–2087.

Zhang, H.

F. Y. Yueh, R. C. Sharma, H. Zhang, J. P. Singh, W. A. Spencer, “Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace element in liquid,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 174–185 (2002).

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, H. Zhang, K. P. Karney, “A preliminary study of the determination of uranium, plutonium, and neptunium by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Recent Res. Devel. Appl. Spectrosc. 2, 59–67 (1999).

H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, “Laser induced breakdown spectrometry as a multimetal continuous emission monitor,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1459–1466 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: elemental analysis,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2065–2087.

Anal. Chem. (1)

S. Nakamura, Y. Ito, K. Sone, H. Hiraga, K. I. Kaneko, “Determination of iron suspension in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with two sequential laser pulses,” Anal. Chem. 68, 2981–2966 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (2)

Y. Ito, O. Ueki, S. Nakamura, “Determination of colloidal iron in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 299, 401–406 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Fichet, P. Mauchien, J. F. Wagner, C. Moulin, “Quantitative elemental determination in water and oil by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 429, 269–278 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Spectrosc. (4)

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

K. Song, Y. I. Lee, J. Sneddon, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (1)

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. (1)

R. Knopp, F. J. Scherbaum, J. I. Kim, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy as an analytical tool for detection of metal ions in aqueous solutions,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 355, 16–20 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. (1)

F. Y. Yueh, R. C. Sharma, H. Zhang, J. P. Singh, W. A. Spencer, “Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace element in liquid,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 174–185 (2002).

Laser Particle Beam (1)

V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “Some studies on picosecond laser produced plasma expanding across an uniform external magnetic field,” Laser Particle Beam 16, 431–443 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 38, 2248–2262 (2000).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Fluid (1)

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Suckwer, H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Noorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pramana J. Phys. (2)

V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “An x-ray biplanar photodiode and the x-ray emission from magnetically confined laser produced plasma,” Pramana J. Phys. 52, 49–65 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Rai, M. Shukla, H. C. Pant, “Density oscillation in laser produced plasma decelerated by external magnetic field,” Pramana J. Phys. 55, 773–779 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Recent Res. Devel. Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, H. Zhang, K. P. Karney, “A preliminary study of the determination of uranium, plutonium, and neptunium by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Recent Res. Devel. Appl. Spectrosc. 2, 59–67 (1999).

Spectrochim. Acta. B (1)

A. E. Pichahchy, D. A. Cremers, M. J. Ferris, “Elemental analysis of metals under water using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta. B 52, 25–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Waste Management (1)

S. G. Buckley, H. A. Johnsen, K. R. Hencken, D. W. Hahn, “Implementation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a continuous emissions monitor for toxic metals,” Waste Management 20, 455–462 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, Laser Induced Plasma and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).

F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: elemental analysis,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2065–2087.

F. F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Plenum, New York, 1974).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup to record LIBS of liquid samples. Arrangement for recording LIBS in the presence of magnetic field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra of magnesium recorded at the laser energy of 140 mJ (gate delay/gate; width = 4 μs/2 μs).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra of chromium recorded at the laser energy of 140 mJ (gate delay/gate width = 4 μs/10 μs).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation in emission intensity from magnesium ions (279.55 nm) with laser energy (gate delay/gate width = 4 μs/2 μs).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation in emission intensity from neutral magnesium (285.20 nm) with laser energy (gate delay/gate width = 4 μs/2 μs).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation in the signal-to-background ratio with laser energy in the case of aqueous solution of manganese (gate delay/gate width = 10 μs/10 μs).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variation in the emission intensity from magnesium ions (279.55 nm) with gate delay (laser energy ∼270 mJ; gate width = 2 μs).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation in the emission intensity from neutral magnesium (285.20 nm) with gate delay (laser energy ∼270 mJ; gate width 2 μs).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variation in the electron density obtained with stark broadening of the Hα spectrum (656.20 nm) from the magnesium aqueous solution (laser energy ∼200 mJ; gate delay/gate width = 7μs/0.15 μs).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calibration curve of magnesium ion (279.55 nm) at the laser energy of 140 mJ (gate delay/gate width = 4 μs/2 μs).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Variation in the Enhancement of LIBS Intensity for Mn, Mg, Ti, and Cr in Solution in the Presence of the Magnetic Field

Tables Icon

Table 2 Limit of Detections Obtained for Mg and Mn Lines for Laser Energy of 140 mJ in the Absence and the Presence of the Magnetic Field

Equations (1)

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I2I1=1-1β-3/2t1t23,

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