Abstract

Anisotropic in-plane strain arises in quantum-well systems by design or unintentionally. We propose two methods of measuring the in-plane strain anisotropy based on the optical polarization anisotropy that arises with anisotropic in-plane strain. One method uses purely optical means to determine the strain anisotropy in quantum wells under a compressive strain that is spatially varying. A second approach, applicable to quantum wells under tensile strain or with strain that does not vary with position, requires the application of a uniaxial in-plane stress. Although the second method is experimentally more difficult, it allows analysis of systems that would otherwise be inaccessible.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. M.-F. Huang, E. Garmire, A. Partovi, M. Hong, “Room temperature optical absorption characteristics of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures under external anisotropic strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 736–738 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M.-F. Huang, E. Garmire, Y.-K. Kuo, “Absorption anisotropy for lattice matched GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures under external anisotropic biaxial strain: compression along [110] and tension along [-110],” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1776–1781 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13933–13936 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, A. Ballato, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence high contrast multiple quantum well light modulator based on polarization rotation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2908–2910 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Pamulapati, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Dutta, H. C. Kuo, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well polarization modulator using an induced uniaxial strain,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 40, 2144–2145 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, M. Taysing-Lara, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of excitonic optical non-linearities in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under in-plane uniaxial strain,” Surf. Sci. 305, 238–242 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Burak, J. V. Moloney, R. Binder, “Macroscopic versus microscopic description of polarization properties of optically anisotropic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 956–970 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, M.-F. Li, “Uniaxial strain effect on the electronic and optical properties of wurtzite GaN-AlGaN quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2224–2232 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Fierling, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, J. P. Lainé, C. Priester, “Piezoelectrically induced electronic confinement obtained by three-dimensional elastic relaxation in III-V semiconducting overhanging beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1990–1992 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Tomm, R. Muller, A. Barwolff, T. Elseasser, A. Gerhardt, J. Donecker, D. Lorenzen, F. X. Daiminger, S. Weiss, M. Hutter, E. Kaulfersch, H. Reichl, “Spectroscopic measurement of packaging-induced strains in quantum-well laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1196–1201 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Lee, M. O. Vassell, “Effects of uniaxial stress on hole subbands in semiconductor quantum wells. II. Numerical results,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 8861–8866 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Rau, A. R. Glanfield, P. C. Klipstein, N. F. Johnson, G. W. Smith, “Optical properties of GaAs/Al1-xGaxAs quantum wells subjected to large in-plane uniaxial stress,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 1900–1914 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Fierling, M. Buchheit, X. Letartre, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, F. Sidoroff, J. P. Laine, “Mechanical relaxation of strained semiconducting stripes: influence on optoelectronic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1516–1518 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Rau, P. C. Klipstein, V. N. Nicopoulos, N. F. Johnson, “Analytic solutions for the valence subband mixing at the zone center of a GaAs/Al1-xGaxAs quantum well under uniaxial stress perpendicular to the growth direction,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5700–5711 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. R. Tribe, P. C. Klipstein, G. W. Smith, R. Grey, “Uniaxial-stress investigation of the phonon-assisted recombination mechanisms associated with the X state in type-II GaAs/AlAs superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 8721–8727 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. R. Glanfield, G. Rau, P. C. Klipstein, G. W. Smith, “Stress induced exciton mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 211, 269–274 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Shen, P. Parayanthal, Y. F. Liu, P. H. Pollak, “New normalization procedure for modulation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1429–1432 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Lee, C. Jagannath, M. O. Vassell, E. S. Koteles, “Mixing of valence subbands in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells by uniaxial stress,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 4164–4170 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Jagannath, E. S. Koteles, J. Lee, Y. J. Chen, B. S. Elman, J. Y. Chi, “Uniaxial stress dependence of spatially confined excitons,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 7027–7030 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, 7th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1996), p. 86.
  28. B. K. Ridley, Quantum Processes in Semiconductors, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, 1988), pp. 184–188.

2003

M. L. Biermann, J. Diaz-Barriga, W. S. Rabinovich, “Enhanced optical polarization anisotropy in quantum wells under anisotropic tensile strain,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 401–403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

M.-F. Huang, E. Garmire, Y.-K. Kuo, “Absorption anisotropy for lattice matched GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures under external anisotropic biaxial strain: compression along [110] and tension along [-110],” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1776–1781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Burak, J. V. Moloney, R. Binder, “Macroscopic versus microscopic description of polarization properties of optically anisotropic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 956–970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. Fierling, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, J. P. Lainé, C. Priester, “Piezoelectrically induced electronic confinement obtained by three-dimensional elastic relaxation in III-V semiconducting overhanging beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1990–1992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Tomm, R. Muller, A. Barwolff, T. Elseasser, A. Gerhardt, J. Donecker, D. Lorenzen, F. X. Daiminger, S. Weiss, M. Hutter, E. Kaulfersch, H. Reichl, “Spectroscopic measurement of packaging-induced strains in quantum-well laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1196–1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Rau, A. R. Glanfield, P. C. Klipstein, N. F. Johnson, G. W. Smith, “Optical properties of GaAs/Al1-xGaxAs quantum wells subjected to large in-plane uniaxial stress,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 1900–1914 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Glanfield, G. Rau, P. C. Klipstein, G. W. Smith, “Stress induced exciton mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 211, 269–274 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, M.-F. Li, “Uniaxial strain effect on the electronic and optical properties of wurtzite GaN-AlGaN quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2224–2232 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. Fierling, M. Buchheit, X. Letartre, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, F. Sidoroff, J. P. Laine, “Mechanical relaxation of strained semiconducting stripes: influence on optoelectronic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1516–1518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. Rau, P. C. Klipstein, V. N. Nicopoulos, N. F. Johnson, “Analytic solutions for the valence subband mixing at the zone center of a GaAs/Al1-xGaxAs quantum well under uniaxial stress perpendicular to the growth direction,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5700–5711 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Tribe, P. C. Klipstein, G. W. Smith, R. Grey, “Uniaxial-stress investigation of the phonon-assisted recombination mechanisms associated with the X state in type-II GaAs/AlAs superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 8721–8727 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M.-F. Huang, E. Garmire, A. Partovi, M. Hong, “Room temperature optical absorption characteristics of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures under external anisotropic strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 736–738 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, M. Taysing-Lara, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of excitonic optical non-linearities in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under in-plane uniaxial strain,” Surf. Sci. 305, 238–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13933–13936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, A. Ballato, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence high contrast multiple quantum well light modulator based on polarization rotation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2908–2910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Pamulapati, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Dutta, H. C. Kuo, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well polarization modulator using an induced uniaxial strain,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 40, 2144–2145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. L. Biermann, C. R. Stroud, “Behavior of zone-center, subband energies in narrow, strongly coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 505–507 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. Lee, M. O. Vassell, “Effects of uniaxial stress on hole subbands in semiconductor quantum wells. II. Numerical results,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 8861–8866 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, C. Jagannath, M. O. Vassell, E. S. Koteles, “Mixing of valence subbands in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells by uniaxial stress,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 4164–4170 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

H. Shen, P. Parayanthal, Y. F. Liu, P. H. Pollak, “New normalization procedure for modulation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1429–1432 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. Mailhiot, D. L. Smith, “Electronic structure of [001]- and [111]-growth-axis semiconductor superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1242–1259 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. Mailhiot, D. L. Smith, “Effects of compressive uniaxial stress on the electronic structure of GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 2942–2945 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

C. Jagannath, E. S. Koteles, J. Lee, Y. J. Chen, B. S. Elman, J. Y. Chi, “Uniaxial stress dependence of spatially confined excitons,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 7027–7030 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Mailhiot, D. L. Smith, “k · p theory of semiconductor superlattice electronic structure. II. Application to Ga1-xInxAs-Al1-yInyAs [100] superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8360–8372 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Smith, C. Mailhiot, “k · p theory of semiconductor superlattice electronic structure. I. Formal results,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8345–8359 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1951

P. O. Löwdin, “A note on quantum-mechanical perturbation theory,” J. Chem. Phys. 19, 1396–1401 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, A.

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, A. Ballato, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence high contrast multiple quantum well light modulator based on polarization rotation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2908–2910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barwolff, A.

J. W. Tomm, R. Muller, A. Barwolff, T. Elseasser, A. Gerhardt, J. Donecker, D. Lorenzen, F. X. Daiminger, S. Weiss, M. Hutter, E. Kaulfersch, H. Reichl, “Spectroscopic measurement of packaging-induced strains in quantum-well laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1196–1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biermann, M. L.

M. L. Biermann, J. Diaz-Barriga, W. S. Rabinovich, “Enhanced optical polarization anisotropy in quantum wells under anisotropic tensile strain,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 401–403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Biermann, C. R. Stroud, “Behavior of zone-center, subband energies in narrow, strongly coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 505–507 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Binder, R.

D. Burak, J. V. Moloney, R. Binder, “Macroscopic versus microscopic description of polarization properties of optically anisotropic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 956–970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buchheit, M.

G. Fierling, M. Buchheit, X. Letartre, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, F. Sidoroff, J. P. Laine, “Mechanical relaxation of strained semiconducting stripes: influence on optoelectronic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1516–1518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burak, D.

D. Burak, J. V. Moloney, R. Binder, “Macroscopic versus microscopic description of polarization properties of optically anisotropic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 956–970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

C. Jagannath, E. S. Koteles, J. Lee, Y. J. Chen, B. S. Elman, J. Y. Chi, “Uniaxial stress dependence of spatially confined excitons,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 7027–7030 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chi, J. Y.

C. Jagannath, E. S. Koteles, J. Lee, Y. J. Chen, B. S. Elman, J. Y. Chi, “Uniaxial stress dependence of spatially confined excitons,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 7027–7030 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chong, T. C.

Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, M.-F. Li, “Uniaxial strain effect on the electronic and optical properties of wurtzite GaN-AlGaN quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2224–2232 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Daiminger, F. X.

J. W. Tomm, R. Muller, A. Barwolff, T. Elseasser, A. Gerhardt, J. Donecker, D. Lorenzen, F. X. Daiminger, S. Weiss, M. Hutter, E. Kaulfersch, H. Reichl, “Spectroscopic measurement of packaging-induced strains in quantum-well laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1196–1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Diaz-Barriga, J.

M. L. Biermann, J. Diaz-Barriga, W. S. Rabinovich, “Enhanced optical polarization anisotropy in quantum wells under anisotropic tensile strain,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 401–403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Donecker, J.

J. W. Tomm, R. Muller, A. Barwolff, T. Elseasser, A. Gerhardt, J. Donecker, D. Lorenzen, F. X. Daiminger, S. Weiss, M. Hutter, E. Kaulfersch, H. Reichl, “Spectroscopic measurement of packaging-induced strains in quantum-well laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1196–1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, M.

M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, M. Taysing-Lara, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of excitonic optical non-linearities in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under in-plane uniaxial strain,” Surf. Sci. 305, 238–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, A. Ballato, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence high contrast multiple quantum well light modulator based on polarization rotation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2908–2910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Pamulapati, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Dutta, H. C. Kuo, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well polarization modulator using an induced uniaxial strain,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 40, 2144–2145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13933–13936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Elman, B. S.

C. Jagannath, E. S. Koteles, J. Lee, Y. J. Chen, B. S. Elman, J. Y. Chi, “Uniaxial stress dependence of spatially confined excitons,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 7027–7030 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Elseasser, T.

J. W. Tomm, R. Muller, A. Barwolff, T. Elseasser, A. Gerhardt, J. Donecker, D. Lorenzen, F. X. Daiminger, S. Weiss, M. Hutter, E. Kaulfersch, H. Reichl, “Spectroscopic measurement of packaging-induced strains in quantum-well laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1196–1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fierling, G.

G. Fierling, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, J. P. Lainé, C. Priester, “Piezoelectrically induced electronic confinement obtained by three-dimensional elastic relaxation in III-V semiconducting overhanging beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1990–1992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Fierling, M. Buchheit, X. Letartre, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, F. Sidoroff, J. P. Laine, “Mechanical relaxation of strained semiconducting stripes: influence on optoelectronic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1516–1518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E.

M.-F. Huang, E. Garmire, Y.-K. Kuo, “Absorption anisotropy for lattice matched GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures under external anisotropic biaxial strain: compression along [110] and tension along [-110],” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1776–1781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M.-F. Huang, E. Garmire, A. Partovi, M. Hong, “Room temperature optical absorption characteristics of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures under external anisotropic strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 736–738 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gendry, M.

G. Fierling, M. Buchheit, X. Letartre, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, F. Sidoroff, J. P. Laine, “Mechanical relaxation of strained semiconducting stripes: influence on optoelectronic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1516–1518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gerhardt, A.

J. W. Tomm, R. Muller, A. Barwolff, T. Elseasser, A. Gerhardt, J. Donecker, D. Lorenzen, F. X. Daiminger, S. Weiss, M. Hutter, E. Kaulfersch, H. Reichl, “Spectroscopic measurement of packaging-induced strains in quantum-well laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1196–1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Glanfield, A. R.

G. Rau, A. R. Glanfield, P. C. Klipstein, N. F. Johnson, G. W. Smith, “Optical properties of GaAs/Al1-xGaxAs quantum wells subjected to large in-plane uniaxial stress,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 1900–1914 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Glanfield, G. Rau, P. C. Klipstein, G. W. Smith, “Stress induced exciton mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 211, 269–274 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grey, R.

W. R. Tribe, P. C. Klipstein, G. W. Smith, R. Grey, “Uniaxial-stress investigation of the phonon-assisted recombination mechanisms associated with the X state in type-II GaAs/AlAs superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 8721–8727 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M.

M.-F. Huang, E. Garmire, A. Partovi, M. Hong, “Room temperature optical absorption characteristics of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures under external anisotropic strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 736–738 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.-F.

M.-F. Huang, E. Garmire, Y.-K. Kuo, “Absorption anisotropy for lattice matched GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures under external anisotropic biaxial strain: compression along [110] and tension along [-110],” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1776–1781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M.-F. Huang, E. Garmire, A. Partovi, M. Hong, “Room temperature optical absorption characteristics of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures under external anisotropic strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 736–738 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hutter, M.

J. W. Tomm, R. Muller, A. Barwolff, T. Elseasser, A. Gerhardt, J. Donecker, D. Lorenzen, F. X. Daiminger, S. Weiss, M. Hutter, E. Kaulfersch, H. Reichl, “Spectroscopic measurement of packaging-induced strains in quantum-well laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1196–1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jagannath, C.

J. Lee, C. Jagannath, M. O. Vassell, E. S. Koteles, “Mixing of valence subbands in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells by uniaxial stress,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 4164–4170 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Jagannath, E. S. Koteles, J. Lee, Y. J. Chen, B. S. Elman, J. Y. Chi, “Uniaxial stress dependence of spatially confined excitons,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 7027–7030 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. F.

G. Rau, A. R. Glanfield, P. C. Klipstein, N. F. Johnson, G. W. Smith, “Optical properties of GaAs/Al1-xGaxAs quantum wells subjected to large in-plane uniaxial stress,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 1900–1914 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Rau, P. C. Klipstein, V. N. Nicopoulos, N. F. Johnson, “Analytic solutions for the valence subband mixing at the zone center of a GaAs/Al1-xGaxAs quantum well under uniaxial stress perpendicular to the growth direction,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5700–5711 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaulfersch, E.

J. W. Tomm, R. Muller, A. Barwolff, T. Elseasser, A. Gerhardt, J. Donecker, D. Lorenzen, F. X. Daiminger, S. Weiss, M. Hutter, E. Kaulfersch, H. Reichl, “Spectroscopic measurement of packaging-induced strains in quantum-well laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1196–1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kittel, C.

C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, 7th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1996), p. 86.

Klipstein, P. C.

A. R. Glanfield, G. Rau, P. C. Klipstein, G. W. Smith, “Stress induced exciton mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 211, 269–274 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Rau, A. R. Glanfield, P. C. Klipstein, N. F. Johnson, G. W. Smith, “Optical properties of GaAs/Al1-xGaxAs quantum wells subjected to large in-plane uniaxial stress,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 1900–1914 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Tribe, P. C. Klipstein, G. W. Smith, R. Grey, “Uniaxial-stress investigation of the phonon-assisted recombination mechanisms associated with the X state in type-II GaAs/AlAs superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 8721–8727 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Rau, P. C. Klipstein, V. N. Nicopoulos, N. F. Johnson, “Analytic solutions for the valence subband mixing at the zone center of a GaAs/Al1-xGaxAs quantum well under uniaxial stress perpendicular to the growth direction,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5700–5711 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koteles, E. S.

J. Lee, C. Jagannath, M. O. Vassell, E. S. Koteles, “Mixing of valence subbands in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells by uniaxial stress,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 4164–4170 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Jagannath, E. S. Koteles, J. Lee, Y. J. Chen, B. S. Elman, J. Y. Chi, “Uniaxial stress dependence of spatially confined excitons,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 7027–7030 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13933–13936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Pamulapati, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Dutta, H. C. Kuo, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well polarization modulator using an induced uniaxial strain,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 40, 2144–2145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-K.

M.-F. Huang, E. Garmire, Y.-K. Kuo, “Absorption anisotropy for lattice matched GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures under external anisotropic biaxial strain: compression along [110] and tension along [-110],” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1776–1781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J. P.

G. Fierling, M. Buchheit, X. Letartre, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, F. Sidoroff, J. P. Laine, “Mechanical relaxation of strained semiconducting stripes: influence on optoelectronic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1516–1518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lainé, J. P.

G. Fierling, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, J. P. Lainé, C. Priester, “Piezoelectrically induced electronic confinement obtained by three-dimensional elastic relaxation in III-V semiconducting overhanging beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1990–1992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, M. O. Vassell, “Effects of uniaxial stress on hole subbands in semiconductor quantum wells. II. Numerical results,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 8861–8866 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, C. Jagannath, M. O. Vassell, E. S. Koteles, “Mixing of valence subbands in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells by uniaxial stress,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 4164–4170 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Jagannath, E. S. Koteles, J. Lee, Y. J. Chen, B. S. Elman, J. Y. Chi, “Uniaxial stress dependence of spatially confined excitons,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 7027–7030 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Letartre, X.

G. Fierling, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, J. P. Lainé, C. Priester, “Piezoelectrically induced electronic confinement obtained by three-dimensional elastic relaxation in III-V semiconducting overhanging beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1990–1992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Fierling, M. Buchheit, X. Letartre, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, F. Sidoroff, J. P. Laine, “Mechanical relaxation of strained semiconducting stripes: influence on optoelectronic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1516–1518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.-F.

Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, M.-F. Li, “Uniaxial strain effect on the electronic and optical properties of wurtzite GaN-AlGaN quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2224–2232 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. F.

H. Shen, P. Parayanthal, Y. F. Liu, P. H. Pollak, “New normalization procedure for modulation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1429–1432 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzen, D.

J. W. Tomm, R. Muller, A. Barwolff, T. Elseasser, A. Gerhardt, J. Donecker, D. Lorenzen, F. X. Daiminger, S. Weiss, M. Hutter, E. Kaulfersch, H. Reichl, “Spectroscopic measurement of packaging-induced strains in quantum-well laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1196–1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Löwdin, P. O.

P. O. Löwdin, “A note on quantum-mechanical perturbation theory,” J. Chem. Phys. 19, 1396–1401 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, M. Taysing-Lara, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of excitonic optical non-linearities in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under in-plane uniaxial strain,” Surf. Sci. 305, 238–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Pamulapati, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Dutta, H. C. Kuo, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well polarization modulator using an induced uniaxial strain,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 40, 2144–2145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, A. Ballato, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence high contrast multiple quantum well light modulator based on polarization rotation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2908–2910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13933–13936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mailhiot, C.

C. Mailhiot, D. L. Smith, “Effects of compressive uniaxial stress on the electronic structure of GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 2942–2945 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. Mailhiot, D. L. Smith, “Electronic structure of [001]- and [111]-growth-axis semiconductor superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1242–1259 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Smith, C. Mailhiot, “k · p theory of semiconductor superlattice electronic structure. I. Formal results,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8345–8359 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Mailhiot, D. L. Smith, “k · p theory of semiconductor superlattice electronic structure. II. Application to Ga1-xInxAs-Al1-yInyAs [100] superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8360–8372 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

D. Burak, J. V. Moloney, R. Binder, “Macroscopic versus microscopic description of polarization properties of optically anisotropic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 956–970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R.

J. W. Tomm, R. Muller, A. Barwolff, T. Elseasser, A. Gerhardt, J. Donecker, D. Lorenzen, F. X. Daiminger, S. Weiss, M. Hutter, E. Kaulfersch, H. Reichl, “Spectroscopic measurement of packaging-induced strains in quantum-well laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1196–1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Newman, P. G.

M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, M. Taysing-Lara, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of excitonic optical non-linearities in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under in-plane uniaxial strain,” Surf. Sci. 305, 238–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, A. Ballato, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence high contrast multiple quantum well light modulator based on polarization rotation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2908–2910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13933–13936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nicopoulos, V. N.

G. Rau, P. C. Klipstein, V. N. Nicopoulos, N. F. Johnson, “Analytic solutions for the valence subband mixing at the zone center of a GaAs/Al1-xGaxAs quantum well under uniaxial stress perpendicular to the growth direction,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5700–5711 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pamulapati, J.

M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, M. Taysing-Lara, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of excitonic optical non-linearities in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under in-plane uniaxial strain,” Surf. Sci. 305, 238–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Pamulapati, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Dutta, H. C. Kuo, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well polarization modulator using an induced uniaxial strain,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 40, 2144–2145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, A. Ballato, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence high contrast multiple quantum well light modulator based on polarization rotation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2908–2910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13933–13936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Parayanthal, P.

H. Shen, P. Parayanthal, Y. F. Liu, P. H. Pollak, “New normalization procedure for modulation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1429–1432 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Partovi, A.

M.-F. Huang, E. Garmire, A. Partovi, M. Hong, “Room temperature optical absorption characteristics of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures under external anisotropic strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 736–738 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pollak, P. H.

H. Shen, P. Parayanthal, Y. F. Liu, P. H. Pollak, “New normalization procedure for modulation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1429–1432 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Priester, C.

G. Fierling, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, J. P. Lainé, C. Priester, “Piezoelectrically induced electronic confinement obtained by three-dimensional elastic relaxation in III-V semiconducting overhanging beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1990–1992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rabinovich, W. S.

M. L. Biermann, J. Diaz-Barriga, W. S. Rabinovich, “Enhanced optical polarization anisotropy in quantum wells under anisotropic tensile strain,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 401–403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rau, G.

A. R. Glanfield, G. Rau, P. C. Klipstein, G. W. Smith, “Stress induced exciton mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 211, 269–274 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Rau, A. R. Glanfield, P. C. Klipstein, N. F. Johnson, G. W. Smith, “Optical properties of GaAs/Al1-xGaxAs quantum wells subjected to large in-plane uniaxial stress,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 1900–1914 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Rau, P. C. Klipstein, V. N. Nicopoulos, N. F. Johnson, “Analytic solutions for the valence subband mixing at the zone center of a GaAs/Al1-xGaxAs quantum well under uniaxial stress perpendicular to the growth direction,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5700–5711 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reichl, H.

J. W. Tomm, R. Muller, A. Barwolff, T. Elseasser, A. Gerhardt, J. Donecker, D. Lorenzen, F. X. Daiminger, S. Weiss, M. Hutter, E. Kaulfersch, H. Reichl, “Spectroscopic measurement of packaging-induced strains in quantum-well laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1196–1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ridley, B. K.

B. K. Ridley, Quantum Processes in Semiconductors, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, 1988), pp. 184–188.

Shen, H.

M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, M. Taysing-Lara, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of excitonic optical non-linearities in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under in-plane uniaxial strain,” Surf. Sci. 305, 238–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Pamulapati, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Dutta, H. C. Kuo, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well polarization modulator using an induced uniaxial strain,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 40, 2144–2145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13933–13936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, A. Ballato, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence high contrast multiple quantum well light modulator based on polarization rotation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2908–2910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, P. Parayanthal, Y. F. Liu, P. H. Pollak, “New normalization procedure for modulation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1429–1432 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sidoroff, F.

G. Fierling, M. Buchheit, X. Letartre, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, F. Sidoroff, J. P. Laine, “Mechanical relaxation of strained semiconducting stripes: influence on optoelectronic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1516–1518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. L.

C. Mailhiot, D. L. Smith, “Electronic structure of [001]- and [111]-growth-axis semiconductor superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1242–1259 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. Mailhiot, D. L. Smith, “Effects of compressive uniaxial stress on the electronic structure of GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 2942–2945 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. Mailhiot, D. L. Smith, “k · p theory of semiconductor superlattice electronic structure. II. Application to Ga1-xInxAs-Al1-yInyAs [100] superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8360–8372 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Smith, C. Mailhiot, “k · p theory of semiconductor superlattice electronic structure. I. Formal results,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8345–8359 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. W.

A. R. Glanfield, G. Rau, P. C. Klipstein, G. W. Smith, “Stress induced exciton mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 211, 269–274 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Rau, A. R. Glanfield, P. C. Klipstein, N. F. Johnson, G. W. Smith, “Optical properties of GaAs/Al1-xGaxAs quantum wells subjected to large in-plane uniaxial stress,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 1900–1914 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Tribe, P. C. Klipstein, G. W. Smith, R. Grey, “Uniaxial-stress investigation of the phonon-assisted recombination mechanisms associated with the X state in type-II GaAs/AlAs superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 8721–8727 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stroud, C. R.

M. L. Biermann, C. R. Stroud, “Behavior of zone-center, subband energies in narrow, strongly coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 505–507 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Taysing-Lara, M.

M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, M. Taysing-Lara, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of excitonic optical non-linearities in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under in-plane uniaxial strain,” Surf. Sci. 305, 238–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Pamulapati, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Dutta, H. C. Kuo, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well polarization modulator using an induced uniaxial strain,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 40, 2144–2145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tomm, J. W.

J. W. Tomm, R. Muller, A. Barwolff, T. Elseasser, A. Gerhardt, J. Donecker, D. Lorenzen, F. X. Daiminger, S. Weiss, M. Hutter, E. Kaulfersch, H. Reichl, “Spectroscopic measurement of packaging-induced strains in quantum-well laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1196–1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W. R.

W. R. Tribe, P. C. Klipstein, G. W. Smith, R. Grey, “Uniaxial-stress investigation of the phonon-assisted recombination mechanisms associated with the X state in type-II GaAs/AlAs superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 8721–8727 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vassell, M. O.

J. Lee, C. Jagannath, M. O. Vassell, E. S. Koteles, “Mixing of valence subbands in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells by uniaxial stress,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 4164–4170 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, M. O. Vassell, “Effects of uniaxial stress on hole subbands in semiconductor quantum wells. II. Numerical results,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 8861–8866 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Viktorovitch, P.

G. Fierling, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, J. P. Lainé, C. Priester, “Piezoelectrically induced electronic confinement obtained by three-dimensional elastic relaxation in III-V semiconducting overhanging beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1990–1992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Fierling, M. Buchheit, X. Letartre, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, F. Sidoroff, J. P. Laine, “Mechanical relaxation of strained semiconducting stripes: influence on optoelectronic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1516–1518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, S.

J. W. Tomm, R. Muller, A. Barwolff, T. Elseasser, A. Gerhardt, J. Donecker, D. Lorenzen, F. X. Daiminger, S. Weiss, M. Hutter, E. Kaulfersch, H. Reichl, “Spectroscopic measurement of packaging-induced strains in quantum-well laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1196–1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wraback, M.

M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, M. Taysing-Lara, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of excitonic optical non-linearities in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under in-plane uniaxial strain,” Surf. Sci. 305, 238–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Pamulapati, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Dutta, H. C. Kuo, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well polarization modulator using an induced uniaxial strain,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 40, 2144–2145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, A. Ballato, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence high contrast multiple quantum well light modulator based on polarization rotation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2908–2910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13933–13936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yeo, Y. C.

Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, M.-F. Li, “Uniaxial strain effect on the electronic and optical properties of wurtzite GaN-AlGaN quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2224–2232 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M.-F. Huang, E. Garmire, A. Partovi, M. Hong, “Room temperature optical absorption characteristics of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures under external anisotropic strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 736–738 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, A. Ballato, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence high contrast multiple quantum well light modulator based on polarization rotation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2908–2910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Fierling, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, J. P. Lainé, C. Priester, “Piezoelectrically induced electronic confinement obtained by three-dimensional elastic relaxation in III-V semiconducting overhanging beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1990–1992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Fierling, M. Buchheit, X. Letartre, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, F. Sidoroff, J. P. Laine, “Mechanical relaxation of strained semiconducting stripes: influence on optoelectronic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1516–1518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Biermann, C. R. Stroud, “Behavior of zone-center, subband energies in narrow, strongly coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 505–507 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. L. Biermann, J. Diaz-Barriga, W. S. Rabinovich, “Enhanced optical polarization anisotropy in quantum wells under anisotropic tensile strain,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 401–403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Burak, J. V. Moloney, R. Binder, “Macroscopic versus microscopic description of polarization properties of optically anisotropic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 956–970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, M.-F. Li, “Uniaxial strain effect on the electronic and optical properties of wurtzite GaN-AlGaN quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2224–2232 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

J. Pamulapati, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Dutta, H. C. Kuo, Y. Lu, “Normal incidence GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well polarization modulator using an induced uniaxial strain,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 40, 2144–2145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. W. Tomm, R. Muller, A. Barwolff, T. Elseasser, A. Gerhardt, J. Donecker, D. Lorenzen, F. X. Daiminger, S. Weiss, M. Hutter, E. Kaulfersch, H. Reichl, “Spectroscopic measurement of packaging-induced strains in quantum-well laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1196–1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

P. O. Löwdin, “A note on quantum-mechanical perturbation theory,” J. Chem. Phys. 19, 1396–1401 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M.-F. Huang, E. Garmire, Y.-K. Kuo, “Absorption anisotropy for lattice matched GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures under external anisotropic biaxial strain: compression along [110] and tension along [-110],” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1776–1781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13933–13936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, M. O. Vassell, “Effects of uniaxial stress on hole subbands in semiconductor quantum wells. II. Numerical results,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 8861–8866 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Rau, A. R. Glanfield, P. C. Klipstein, N. F. Johnson, G. W. Smith, “Optical properties of GaAs/Al1-xGaxAs quantum wells subjected to large in-plane uniaxial stress,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 1900–1914 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Mailhiot, D. L. Smith, “Effects of compressive uniaxial stress on the electronic structure of GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 2942–2945 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. Rau, P. C. Klipstein, V. N. Nicopoulos, N. F. Johnson, “Analytic solutions for the valence subband mixing at the zone center of a GaAs/Al1-xGaxAs quantum well under uniaxial stress perpendicular to the growth direction,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5700–5711 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Tribe, P. C. Klipstein, G. W. Smith, R. Grey, “Uniaxial-stress investigation of the phonon-assisted recombination mechanisms associated with the X state in type-II GaAs/AlAs superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 8721–8727 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Mailhiot, D. L. Smith, “k · p theory of semiconductor superlattice electronic structure. II. Application to Ga1-xInxAs-Al1-yInyAs [100] superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8360–8372 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Smith, C. Mailhiot, “k · p theory of semiconductor superlattice electronic structure. I. Formal results,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8345–8359 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Mailhiot, D. L. Smith, “Electronic structure of [001]- and [111]-growth-axis semiconductor superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1242–1259 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, C. Jagannath, M. O. Vassell, E. S. Koteles, “Mixing of valence subbands in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells by uniaxial stress,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 4164–4170 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Jagannath, E. S. Koteles, J. Lee, Y. J. Chen, B. S. Elman, J. Y. Chi, “Uniaxial stress dependence of spatially confined excitons,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 7027–7030 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A

A. R. Glanfield, G. Rau, P. C. Klipstein, G. W. Smith, “Stress induced exciton mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 211, 269–274 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

H. Shen, P. Parayanthal, Y. F. Liu, P. H. Pollak, “New normalization procedure for modulation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1429–1432 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci.

M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. G. Newman, M. Taysing-Lara, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of excitonic optical non-linearities in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under in-plane uniaxial strain,” Surf. Sci. 305, 238–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, 7th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1996), p. 86.

B. K. Ridley, Quantum Processes in Semiconductors, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, 1988), pp. 184–188.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Squared interband optical matrix elements for three polarization directions as a function of the strain along the y axis, which varies from E yy = -0.63% (biaxial symmetry) to E yy = 0.00 (uniaxial strain). The strain along the x axis is fixed at E xx = -0.63%. (a) HH1-C1 transition; (b) LH1-C1 transition. Light is polarized along the x axis (squares), y axis (circles), and z axis (triangles).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In-plane strain as a function of the magnitude of the applied uniaxial stress along the x axis. E xx (E yy ) is the strain along the x axis (y axis). E xx changes more rapidly than does E yy because S 11 is large compared with S 12. Biaxial symmetry in in-plane strain occurs at X B = 1.67 kbars, with E xx = E yy = 0.39%. Squares, E xx ; circles, E yy .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Squared interband optical matrix elements for three polarization directions as a function of the magnitude of the stress applied along the x axis. In-plane strain is biaxially symmetric for X B = 1.67 kbars. (a) HH1-C1 transition; (b) LH1-C1 transition. Light is polarized along the x axis (squares), y axis (circles), and z axis (triangles).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔSMxy=PΔExy,
Exs=S11X,
Eys=S12X,
ΔExy=XBS11-S12.

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