Abstract

We have developed an optical delivery device (catheter) capable of transmitting broadband infrared light (IR wavelengths from 2 to 10 μm) for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The catheter is 1.68 mm in outer diameter and 1 m in length. It consists of two hollow glass waveguides coupled to a high-refractive-index optic tip. The IR light interacts with the tissue at the optic-tissue interface to measure the spectral signatures and perform therapy on the tissue at this interface. Fourier-transform IR spectrophotometer light is used to obtain the spectral signatures, and an IR free-electron laser (FEL) is used to study the therapeutic interaction of evanescent waves with the tissue. We present our catheter design; preliminary IR spectroscopy of aorta, blood, fatty tissue, and muscle; and IR FEL therapy on atherosclerotic aorta.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

B. A. Hooper, G. C. LaVerde, O. T. von Ramm, “Design and construction of an evanescent optical wave device for the recanalization of vessels,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 475, 645–649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Pratisto, S. Uhlhorn, E. D. Jansen, “Beam delivery of the Vanderbilt free-electron laser with hollow waveguides: effect of temporal and spatial pulse propagation,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 83–94 (2001).

2000 (1)

J. A. Harrington, “A review of IR transmitting, hollow waveguides,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 211–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

B. A. Hooper, Y. Domankevitz, C. Lin, R. Rox Anderson, “Precise, controlled laser delivery with evanescent optical waves,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5511–5517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Hughes, A. P. Kypson, B. Yin, J. D. St. Louis, S. S. Biswas, R. E. Coleman, T. R. DeGrado, B. H. Annex, C. L. Donovan, K. P. Lanolfo, J. E. Lowe, “Induction of angiogenesis following transmyocardial laser revascularization in a model of hibernating myocardium: a comparison of holmium:YAG, carbon dioxide, and excimer lasers,” Surg. Forum 50, 115–117 (1999).

1998 (2)

K. Awazu, A. Nagai, K. Aizawa, “Selective removal of cholesterol esters in an arteriosclerotic region of blood vessels with a free-electron laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 233–237 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Colarusso, L. Kidder, I. Levin, J. Fraser, J. Arens, E. N. Lewis, “Infrared spectroscopic imaging: from planetary to cellular systems,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52(3), 106A–119A (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Nilsson, D. Heinrich, J. Olajos, S. AnderssonEngels, “Near infrared diffuse reflection and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for myocardial tissue characterisation,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 51, 1901–1912 (1997).

1996 (5)

W. Casscells, B. Hathorn, M. David, T. Krabach, W. K. Vaughn, H. A. McAllister, G. Bearman, J. T. Willerson, “Thermal detection of cellular infiltrates in living atherosclerotic plaques: possible implications for plaque rupture and thrombosis,” Lancet 347, 1447–1449 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuura, K. Matsuura, J. A. Harrington, “Power delivery of free-electron laser light by hollow glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5395–5397 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kolodgie, A. Katocs, E. Largis, S. Wrenn, J. Cornhill, E. Herderick, S. Lee, R. Virmani, “Hypercholesterolemia in the rabbit induced by feeding graded amounts of low-level cholesterol,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 16, 1454–1464 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Ross, Y. Domankevitz, R. R. Anderson, “Effects of heterogeneous absorption of laser radiation in biotissue ablation: characterization of ablation of fat with a pulsed CO2 laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 1–6 (1996).

I. Gannot, A. Inberg, M. Oksman, R. Waynant, N. Croitoru, “Current status of flexible waveguides for IR laser radiation transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 880–889 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

Y. Matsuura, T. Abel, J. A. Harrington, “Optical properties of small-bore hollow waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6842–6847 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 564–571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, J. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, D. O’Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature (London) 371, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, R. P. Rava, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, M. S. Feld, “Biochemical-analysis and mapping of atherosclerotic human artery using FT-IR microspectroscopy,” Atherosclerosis 103(2), 181–193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Cummings, J. T. Walsh, “Erbium laser ablation—the effect of dynamic optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1988–1990 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Parsons, J. C. Rembert, R. P. Bauman, J. C. Greenfield, F. G. Duhaylongsod, C. A. Piantadosi, “Myocardial oxygenation in dogs during partial and complete coronary artery occlusion,” Circ. Res. 73(3), 458–464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (5)

D. R. Kodali, D. M. Small, J. Powell, K. Krishna, “Infrared micro-imaging of atherosclerotic arteries,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 1310–1317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “Detection of atherosclerosis in human artery by midinfrared attenuated total reflectance,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 709–710 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, E. D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

D. R. Holmes, J. F. Bresnahan, “Interventional cardiology,” Cardiol. Clin. 9, 115–134 (1991).
[PubMed]

R. P. Rava, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, “Near-infrared Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy of human artery,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 47, 509–512 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

T. Arai, K. Mizuno, A. Fujikawa, M. Nakagawa, M. Kikuchi, “Infrared absorption spectra ranging from 2.5 to 10 μm at various layers of human normal abdominal aorta and fibrofatty atheroma in vitro,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 357–362 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Parsons, J. C. Rembert, R. P. Bauman, J. C. Greenfield, C. A. Piantadosi, “Dynamic mechanisms of cardiac oxygenation during brief ischemia and reperfusion,” Am. J. Physiol. 259, H1477–H1485 (1990).
[PubMed]

1988 (1)

J. T. Walsh, T. H. Flotte, R. R. Anderson, T. F. Deutsch, “Pulse CO2 laser tissue ablation: effect of tissue type and pulse duration on thermal damage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 108–118 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Alder, “Excimer laser ablation of cornea and lens: experimental studies,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

R. Linsker, R. Srinivasan, J. J. Wynne, D. R. Alonso, “Far-ultraviolet laser ablation of atherosclerotic lesions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 4, 201–206 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

F. F. Jobsis, “Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1267 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abel, T.

Aggarwal, I. D.

L. E. Busse, J. A. Moon, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-IR high power transmission through chalcogenide fibers: current results and future challenges,” in Lasers-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 553–563 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aizawa, K.

K. Awazu, A. Nagai, K. Aizawa, “Selective removal of cholesterol esters in an arteriosclerotic region of blood vessels with a free-electron laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 233–237 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alder, C. M.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Alder, “Excimer laser ablation of cornea and lens: experimental studies,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Alonso, D. R.

R. Linsker, R. Srinivasan, J. J. Wynne, D. R. Alonso, “Far-ultraviolet laser ablation of atherosclerotic lesions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 4, 201–206 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

E. V. Ross, Y. Domankevitz, R. R. Anderson, “Effects of heterogeneous absorption of laser radiation in biotissue ablation: characterization of ablation of fat with a pulsed CO2 laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 1–6 (1996).

J. T. Walsh, T. H. Flotte, R. R. Anderson, T. F. Deutsch, “Pulse CO2 laser tissue ablation: effect of tissue type and pulse duration on thermal damage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 108–118 (1988).
[CrossRef]

AnderssonEngels, S.

M. Nilsson, D. Heinrich, J. Olajos, S. AnderssonEngels, “Near infrared diffuse reflection and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for myocardial tissue characterisation,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 51, 1901–1912 (1997).

Annex, B. H.

G. C. Hughes, A. P. Kypson, B. Yin, J. D. St. Louis, S. S. Biswas, R. E. Coleman, T. R. DeGrado, B. H. Annex, C. L. Donovan, K. P. Lanolfo, J. E. Lowe, “Induction of angiogenesis following transmyocardial laser revascularization in a model of hibernating myocardium: a comparison of holmium:YAG, carbon dioxide, and excimer lasers,” Surg. Forum 50, 115–117 (1999).

Arai, T.

T. Arai, K. Mizuno, A. Fujikawa, M. Nakagawa, M. Kikuchi, “Infrared absorption spectra ranging from 2.5 to 10 μm at various layers of human normal abdominal aorta and fibrofatty atheroma in vitro,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 357–362 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Arens, J.

Awazu, K.

K. Awazu, A. Nagai, K. Aizawa, “Selective removal of cholesterol esters in an arteriosclerotic region of blood vessels with a free-electron laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 233–237 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baraga, J. J.

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, R. P. Rava, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, M. S. Feld, “Biochemical-analysis and mapping of atherosclerotic human artery using FT-IR microspectroscopy,” Atherosclerosis 103(2), 181–193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “Detection of atherosclerosis in human artery by midinfrared attenuated total reflectance,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 709–710 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Rava, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, “Near-infrared Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy of human artery,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 47, 509–512 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, R. P.

W. J. Parsons, J. C. Rembert, R. P. Bauman, J. C. Greenfield, F. G. Duhaylongsod, C. A. Piantadosi, “Myocardial oxygenation in dogs during partial and complete coronary artery occlusion,” Circ. Res. 73(3), 458–464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Parsons, J. C. Rembert, R. P. Bauman, J. C. Greenfield, C. A. Piantadosi, “Dynamic mechanisms of cardiac oxygenation during brief ischemia and reperfusion,” Am. J. Physiol. 259, H1477–H1485 (1990).
[PubMed]

Bearman, G.

W. Casscells, B. Hathorn, M. David, T. Krabach, W. K. Vaughn, H. A. McAllister, G. Bearman, J. T. Willerson, “Thermal detection of cellular infiltrates in living atherosclerotic plaques: possible implications for plaque rupture and thrombosis,” Lancet 347, 1447–1449 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biswas, S. S.

G. C. Hughes, A. P. Kypson, B. Yin, J. D. St. Louis, S. S. Biswas, R. E. Coleman, T. R. DeGrado, B. H. Annex, C. L. Donovan, K. P. Lanolfo, J. E. Lowe, “Induction of angiogenesis following transmyocardial laser revascularization in a model of hibernating myocardium: a comparison of holmium:YAG, carbon dioxide, and excimer lasers,” Surg. Forum 50, 115–117 (1999).

Borst, C.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 564–571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bresnahan, J. F.

D. R. Holmes, J. F. Bresnahan, “Interventional cardiology,” Cardiol. Clin. 9, 115–134 (1991).
[PubMed]

Busse, L. E.

L. E. Busse, J. A. Moon, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-IR high power transmission through chalcogenide fibers: current results and future challenges,” in Lasers-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 553–563 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Casscells, W.

W. Casscells, B. Hathorn, M. David, T. Krabach, W. K. Vaughn, H. A. McAllister, G. Bearman, J. T. Willerson, “Thermal detection of cellular infiltrates in living atherosclerotic plaques: possible implications for plaque rupture and thrombosis,” Lancet 347, 1447–1449 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colarusso, P.

Coleman, R. E.

G. C. Hughes, A. P. Kypson, B. Yin, J. D. St. Louis, S. S. Biswas, R. E. Coleman, T. R. DeGrado, B. H. Annex, C. L. Donovan, K. P. Lanolfo, J. E. Lowe, “Induction of angiogenesis following transmyocardial laser revascularization in a model of hibernating myocardium: a comparison of holmium:YAG, carbon dioxide, and excimer lasers,” Surg. Forum 50, 115–117 (1999).

Copeland, M.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, J. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, D. O’Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature (London) 371, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cornhill, J.

F. Kolodgie, A. Katocs, E. Largis, S. Wrenn, J. Cornhill, E. Herderick, S. Lee, R. Virmani, “Hypercholesterolemia in the rabbit induced by feeding graded amounts of low-level cholesterol,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 16, 1454–1464 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Croitoru, N.

I. Gannot, A. Inberg, M. Oksman, R. Waynant, N. Croitoru, “Current status of flexible waveguides for IR laser radiation transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 880–889 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cummings, J. P.

J. P. Cummings, J. T. Walsh, “Erbium laser ablation—the effect of dynamic optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1988–1990 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, R. P. Rava, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, M. S. Feld, “Biochemical-analysis and mapping of atherosclerotic human artery using FT-IR microspectroscopy,” Atherosclerosis 103(2), 181–193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

David, M.

W. Casscells, B. Hathorn, M. David, T. Krabach, W. K. Vaughn, H. A. McAllister, G. Bearman, J. T. Willerson, “Thermal detection of cellular infiltrates in living atherosclerotic plaques: possible implications for plaque rupture and thrombosis,” Lancet 347, 1447–1449 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, J.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, J. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, D. O’Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature (London) 371, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

DeGrado, T. R.

G. C. Hughes, A. P. Kypson, B. Yin, J. D. St. Louis, S. S. Biswas, R. E. Coleman, T. R. DeGrado, B. H. Annex, C. L. Donovan, K. P. Lanolfo, J. E. Lowe, “Induction of angiogenesis following transmyocardial laser revascularization in a model of hibernating myocardium: a comparison of holmium:YAG, carbon dioxide, and excimer lasers,” Surg. Forum 50, 115–117 (1999).

Dehm, E. J.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Alder, “Excimer laser ablation of cornea and lens: experimental studies,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Deutsch, T. F.

J. T. Walsh, T. H. Flotte, R. R. Anderson, T. F. Deutsch, “Pulse CO2 laser tissue ablation: effect of tissue type and pulse duration on thermal damage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 108–118 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Alder, “Excimer laser ablation of cornea and lens: experimental studies,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Domankevitz, Y.

B. A. Hooper, Y. Domankevitz, C. Lin, R. Rox Anderson, “Precise, controlled laser delivery with evanescent optical waves,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5511–5517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Ross, Y. Domankevitz, R. R. Anderson, “Effects of heterogeneous absorption of laser radiation in biotissue ablation: characterization of ablation of fat with a pulsed CO2 laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 1–6 (1996).

Donovan, C. L.

G. C. Hughes, A. P. Kypson, B. Yin, J. D. St. Louis, S. S. Biswas, R. E. Coleman, T. R. DeGrado, B. H. Annex, C. L. Donovan, K. P. Lanolfo, J. E. Lowe, “Induction of angiogenesis following transmyocardial laser revascularization in a model of hibernating myocardium: a comparison of holmium:YAG, carbon dioxide, and excimer lasers,” Surg. Forum 50, 115–117 (1999).

Duhaylongsod, F. G.

W. J. Parsons, J. C. Rembert, R. P. Bauman, J. C. Greenfield, F. G. Duhaylongsod, C. A. Piantadosi, “Myocardial oxygenation in dogs during partial and complete coronary artery occlusion,” Circ. Res. 73(3), 458–464 (1993).
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G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, J. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, D. O’Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature (London) 371, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, R. P. Rava, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, M. S. Feld, “Biochemical-analysis and mapping of atherosclerotic human artery using FT-IR microspectroscopy,” Atherosclerosis 103(2), 181–193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Rava, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, “Near-infrared Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy of human artery,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 47, 509–512 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “Detection of atherosclerosis in human artery by midinfrared attenuated total reflectance,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 709–710 (1991).
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R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, R. P. Rava, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, M. S. Feld, “Biochemical-analysis and mapping of atherosclerotic human artery using FT-IR microspectroscopy,” Atherosclerosis 103(2), 181–193 (1993).
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J. T. Walsh, T. H. Flotte, R. R. Anderson, T. F. Deutsch, “Pulse CO2 laser tissue ablation: effect of tissue type and pulse duration on thermal damage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 108–118 (1988).
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T. Arai, K. Mizuno, A. Fujikawa, M. Nakagawa, M. Kikuchi, “Infrared absorption spectra ranging from 2.5 to 10 μm at various layers of human normal abdominal aorta and fibrofatty atheroma in vitro,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 357–362 (1990).
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I. Gannot, A. Inberg, M. Oksman, R. Waynant, N. Croitoru, “Current status of flexible waveguides for IR laser radiation transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 880–889 (1996).
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W. J. Parsons, J. C. Rembert, R. P. Bauman, J. C. Greenfield, F. G. Duhaylongsod, C. A. Piantadosi, “Myocardial oxygenation in dogs during partial and complete coronary artery occlusion,” Circ. Res. 73(3), 458–464 (1993).
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W. J. Parsons, J. C. Rembert, R. P. Bauman, J. C. Greenfield, C. A. Piantadosi, “Dynamic mechanisms of cardiac oxygenation during brief ischemia and reperfusion,” Am. J. Physiol. 259, H1477–H1485 (1990).
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Hathorn, B.

W. Casscells, B. Hathorn, M. David, T. Krabach, W. K. Vaughn, H. A. McAllister, G. Bearman, J. T. Willerson, “Thermal detection of cellular infiltrates in living atherosclerotic plaques: possible implications for plaque rupture and thrombosis,” Lancet 347, 1447–1449 (1996).
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M. Nilsson, D. Heinrich, J. Olajos, S. AnderssonEngels, “Near infrared diffuse reflection and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for myocardial tissue characterisation,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 51, 1901–1912 (1997).

Herderick, E.

F. Kolodgie, A. Katocs, E. Largis, S. Wrenn, J. Cornhill, E. Herderick, S. Lee, R. Virmani, “Hypercholesterolemia in the rabbit induced by feeding graded amounts of low-level cholesterol,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 16, 1454–1464 (1996).
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Hillenkamp, F.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Alder, “Excimer laser ablation of cornea and lens: experimental studies,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
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B. A. Hooper, G. C. LaVerde, O. T. von Ramm, “Design and construction of an evanescent optical wave device for the recanalization of vessels,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 475, 645–649 (2001).
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B. A. Hooper, Y. Domankevitz, C. Lin, R. Rox Anderson, “Precise, controlled laser delivery with evanescent optical waves,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5511–5517 (1999).
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G. C. Hughes, A. P. Kypson, B. Yin, J. D. St. Louis, S. S. Biswas, R. E. Coleman, T. R. DeGrado, B. H. Annex, C. L. Donovan, K. P. Lanolfo, J. E. Lowe, “Induction of angiogenesis following transmyocardial laser revascularization in a model of hibernating myocardium: a comparison of holmium:YAG, carbon dioxide, and excimer lasers,” Surg. Forum 50, 115–117 (1999).

Inberg, A.

I. Gannot, A. Inberg, M. Oksman, R. Waynant, N. Croitoru, “Current status of flexible waveguides for IR laser radiation transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 880–889 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, E. D.

H. Pratisto, S. Uhlhorn, E. D. Jansen, “Beam delivery of the Vanderbilt free-electron laser with hollow waveguides: effect of temporal and spatial pulse propagation,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 83–94 (2001).

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 564–571 (1995).
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J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, E. D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
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F. F. Jobsis, “Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1267 (1977).
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G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, J. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, D. O’Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature (London) 371, 416–419 (1994).
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Katocs, A.

F. Kolodgie, A. Katocs, E. Largis, S. Wrenn, J. Cornhill, E. Herderick, S. Lee, R. Virmani, “Hypercholesterolemia in the rabbit induced by feeding graded amounts of low-level cholesterol,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 16, 1454–1464 (1996).
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Kidder, L.

Kikuchi, M.

T. Arai, K. Mizuno, A. Fujikawa, M. Nakagawa, M. Kikuchi, “Infrared absorption spectra ranging from 2.5 to 10 μm at various layers of human normal abdominal aorta and fibrofatty atheroma in vitro,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 357–362 (1990).
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Kodali, D. R.

Kolodgie, F.

F. Kolodgie, A. Katocs, E. Largis, S. Wrenn, J. Cornhill, E. Herderick, S. Lee, R. Virmani, “Hypercholesterolemia in the rabbit induced by feeding graded amounts of low-level cholesterol,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 16, 1454–1464 (1996).
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Krabach, T.

W. Casscells, B. Hathorn, M. David, T. Krabach, W. K. Vaughn, H. A. McAllister, G. Bearman, J. T. Willerson, “Thermal detection of cellular infiltrates in living atherosclerotic plaques: possible implications for plaque rupture and thrombosis,” Lancet 347, 1447–1449 (1996).
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Krishna, K.

Kypson, A. P.

G. C. Hughes, A. P. Kypson, B. Yin, J. D. St. Louis, S. S. Biswas, R. E. Coleman, T. R. DeGrado, B. H. Annex, C. L. Donovan, K. P. Lanolfo, J. E. Lowe, “Induction of angiogenesis following transmyocardial laser revascularization in a model of hibernating myocardium: a comparison of holmium:YAG, carbon dioxide, and excimer lasers,” Surg. Forum 50, 115–117 (1999).

Lanolfo, K. P.

G. C. Hughes, A. P. Kypson, B. Yin, J. D. St. Louis, S. S. Biswas, R. E. Coleman, T. R. DeGrado, B. H. Annex, C. L. Donovan, K. P. Lanolfo, J. E. Lowe, “Induction of angiogenesis following transmyocardial laser revascularization in a model of hibernating myocardium: a comparison of holmium:YAG, carbon dioxide, and excimer lasers,” Surg. Forum 50, 115–117 (1999).

Largis, E.

F. Kolodgie, A. Katocs, E. Largis, S. Wrenn, J. Cornhill, E. Herderick, S. Lee, R. Virmani, “Hypercholesterolemia in the rabbit induced by feeding graded amounts of low-level cholesterol,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 16, 1454–1464 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LaVerde, G. C.

B. A. Hooper, G. C. LaVerde, O. T. von Ramm, “Design and construction of an evanescent optical wave device for the recanalization of vessels,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 475, 645–649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

LeCarpentier, G. L.

J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, E. D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

Lee, S.

F. Kolodgie, A. Katocs, E. Largis, S. Wrenn, J. Cornhill, E. Herderick, S. Lee, R. Virmani, “Hypercholesterolemia in the rabbit induced by feeding graded amounts of low-level cholesterol,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 16, 1454–1464 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levin, I.

Lewis, E. N.

Lin, C.

Linsker, R.

R. Linsker, R. Srinivasan, J. J. Wynne, D. R. Alonso, “Far-ultraviolet laser ablation of atherosclerotic lesions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 4, 201–206 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Logan, R.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, J. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, D. O’Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature (London) 371, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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G. C. Hughes, A. P. Kypson, B. Yin, J. D. St. Louis, S. S. Biswas, R. E. Coleman, T. R. DeGrado, B. H. Annex, C. L. Donovan, K. P. Lanolfo, J. E. Lowe, “Induction of angiogenesis following transmyocardial laser revascularization in a model of hibernating myocardium: a comparison of holmium:YAG, carbon dioxide, and excimer lasers,” Surg. Forum 50, 115–117 (1999).

Maciunas, R.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, J. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, D. O’Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature (London) 371, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Manoharan, R.

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, R. P. Rava, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, M. S. Feld, “Biochemical-analysis and mapping of atherosclerotic human artery using FT-IR microspectroscopy,” Atherosclerosis 103(2), 181–193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, K.

Matsuura, Y.

McAllister, H. A.

W. Casscells, B. Hathorn, M. David, T. Krabach, W. K. Vaughn, H. A. McAllister, G. Bearman, J. T. Willerson, “Thermal detection of cellular infiltrates in living atherosclerotic plaques: possible implications for plaque rupture and thrombosis,” Lancet 347, 1447–1449 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mendenhall, M.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, J. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, D. O’Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature (London) 371, 416–419 (1994).
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F. Mirabella, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy, Vol. 15 of Practical Spectroscopy Series (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992).

Mizuno, K.

T. Arai, K. Mizuno, A. Fujikawa, M. Nakagawa, M. Kikuchi, “Infrared absorption spectra ranging from 2.5 to 10 μm at various layers of human normal abdominal aorta and fibrofatty atheroma in vitro,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 357–362 (1990).
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Moon, J. A.

L. E. Busse, J. A. Moon, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-IR high power transmission through chalcogenide fibers: current results and future challenges,” in Lasers-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 553–563 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Motamedi, M.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 564–571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, E. D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

Nagai, A.

K. Awazu, A. Nagai, K. Aizawa, “Selective removal of cholesterol esters in an arteriosclerotic region of blood vessels with a free-electron laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 233–237 (1998).
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Nakagawa, M.

T. Arai, K. Mizuno, A. Fujikawa, M. Nakagawa, M. Kikuchi, “Infrared absorption spectra ranging from 2.5 to 10 μm at various layers of human normal abdominal aorta and fibrofatty atheroma in vitro,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 357–362 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, M.

M. Nilsson, D. Heinrich, J. Olajos, S. AnderssonEngels, “Near infrared diffuse reflection and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for myocardial tissue characterisation,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 51, 1901–1912 (1997).

O’Day, D.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, J. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, D. O’Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature (London) 371, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oksman, M.

I. Gannot, A. Inberg, M. Oksman, R. Waynant, N. Croitoru, “Current status of flexible waveguides for IR laser radiation transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 880–889 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Olajos, J.

M. Nilsson, D. Heinrich, J. Olajos, S. AnderssonEngels, “Near infrared diffuse reflection and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for myocardial tissue characterisation,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 51, 1901–1912 (1997).

Ossoff, R.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, J. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, D. O’Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature (London) 371, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, W. J.

W. J. Parsons, J. C. Rembert, R. P. Bauman, J. C. Greenfield, F. G. Duhaylongsod, C. A. Piantadosi, “Myocardial oxygenation in dogs during partial and complete coronary artery occlusion,” Circ. Res. 73(3), 458–464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Parsons, J. C. Rembert, R. P. Bauman, J. C. Greenfield, C. A. Piantadosi, “Dynamic mechanisms of cardiac oxygenation during brief ischemia and reperfusion,” Am. J. Physiol. 259, H1477–H1485 (1990).
[PubMed]

Piantadosi, C. A.

W. J. Parsons, J. C. Rembert, R. P. Bauman, J. C. Greenfield, F. G. Duhaylongsod, C. A. Piantadosi, “Myocardial oxygenation in dogs during partial and complete coronary artery occlusion,” Circ. Res. 73(3), 458–464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Parsons, J. C. Rembert, R. P. Bauman, J. C. Greenfield, C. A. Piantadosi, “Dynamic mechanisms of cardiac oxygenation during brief ischemia and reperfusion,” Am. J. Physiol. 259, H1477–H1485 (1990).
[PubMed]

Powell, J.

Pratisto, H.

H. Pratisto, S. Uhlhorn, E. D. Jansen, “Beam delivery of the Vanderbilt free-electron laser with hollow waveguides: effect of temporal and spatial pulse propagation,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 83–94 (2001).

Puliafito, C. A.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Alder, “Excimer laser ablation of cornea and lens: experimental studies,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Rastegar, S.

J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, E. D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

Rava, R. P.

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, R. P. Rava, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, M. S. Feld, “Biochemical-analysis and mapping of atherosclerotic human artery using FT-IR microspectroscopy,” Atherosclerosis 103(2), 181–193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “Detection of atherosclerosis in human artery by midinfrared attenuated total reflectance,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 709–710 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Rava, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, “Near-infrared Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy of human artery,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 47, 509–512 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reinisch, L.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, J. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, D. O’Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature (London) 371, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rembert, J. C.

W. J. Parsons, J. C. Rembert, R. P. Bauman, J. C. Greenfield, F. G. Duhaylongsod, C. A. Piantadosi, “Myocardial oxygenation in dogs during partial and complete coronary artery occlusion,” Circ. Res. 73(3), 458–464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Parsons, J. C. Rembert, R. P. Bauman, J. C. Greenfield, C. A. Piantadosi, “Dynamic mechanisms of cardiac oxygenation during brief ischemia and reperfusion,” Am. J. Physiol. 259, H1477–H1485 (1990).
[PubMed]

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E. V. Ross, Y. Domankevitz, R. R. Anderson, “Effects of heterogeneous absorption of laser radiation in biotissue ablation: characterization of ablation of fat with a pulsed CO2 laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 1–6 (1996).

Rox Anderson, R.

Sanghera, J. S.

L. E. Busse, J. A. Moon, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-IR high power transmission through chalcogenide fibers: current results and future challenges,” in Lasers-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 553–563 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Small, D. M.

Srinivasan, R.

R. Linsker, R. Srinivasan, J. J. Wynne, D. R. Alonso, “Far-ultraviolet laser ablation of atherosclerotic lesions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 4, 201–206 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

St. Louis, J. D.

G. C. Hughes, A. P. Kypson, B. Yin, J. D. St. Louis, S. S. Biswas, R. E. Coleman, T. R. DeGrado, B. H. Annex, C. L. Donovan, K. P. Lanolfo, J. E. Lowe, “Induction of angiogenesis following transmyocardial laser revascularization in a model of hibernating myocardium: a comparison of holmium:YAG, carbon dioxide, and excimer lasers,” Surg. Forum 50, 115–117 (1999).

Steinert, R. F.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Alder, “Excimer laser ablation of cornea and lens: experimental studies,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Tribble, J.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, J. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, D. O’Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature (London) 371, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Uhlhorn, S.

H. Pratisto, S. Uhlhorn, E. D. Jansen, “Beam delivery of the Vanderbilt free-electron laser with hollow waveguides: effect of temporal and spatial pulse propagation,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 83–94 (2001).

van Leeuwen, T. G.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 564–571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vaughn, W. K.

W. Casscells, B. Hathorn, M. David, T. Krabach, W. K. Vaughn, H. A. McAllister, G. Bearman, J. T. Willerson, “Thermal detection of cellular infiltrates in living atherosclerotic plaques: possible implications for plaque rupture and thrombosis,” Lancet 347, 1447–1449 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virmani, R.

F. Kolodgie, A. Katocs, E. Largis, S. Wrenn, J. Cornhill, E. Herderick, S. Lee, R. Virmani, “Hypercholesterolemia in the rabbit induced by feeding graded amounts of low-level cholesterol,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 16, 1454–1464 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Ramm, O. T.

B. A. Hooper, G. C. LaVerde, O. T. von Ramm, “Design and construction of an evanescent optical wave device for the recanalization of vessels,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 475, 645–649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. T.

J. P. Cummings, J. T. Walsh, “Erbium laser ablation—the effect of dynamic optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1988–1990 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Walsh, T. H. Flotte, R. R. Anderson, T. F. Deutsch, “Pulse CO2 laser tissue ablation: effect of tissue type and pulse duration on thermal damage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 108–118 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Waynant, R.

I. Gannot, A. Inberg, M. Oksman, R. Waynant, N. Croitoru, “Current status of flexible waveguides for IR laser radiation transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 880–889 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 564–571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Welch, J.

J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, E. D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

Werkhaven, J.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, J. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, D. O’Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature (London) 371, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Willerson, J. T.

W. Casscells, B. Hathorn, M. David, T. Krabach, W. K. Vaughn, H. A. McAllister, G. Bearman, J. T. Willerson, “Thermal detection of cellular infiltrates in living atherosclerotic plaques: possible implications for plaque rupture and thrombosis,” Lancet 347, 1447–1449 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wrenn, S.

F. Kolodgie, A. Katocs, E. Largis, S. Wrenn, J. Cornhill, E. Herderick, S. Lee, R. Virmani, “Hypercholesterolemia in the rabbit induced by feeding graded amounts of low-level cholesterol,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 16, 1454–1464 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wynne, J. J.

R. Linsker, R. Srinivasan, J. J. Wynne, D. R. Alonso, “Far-ultraviolet laser ablation of atherosclerotic lesions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 4, 201–206 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, B.

G. C. Hughes, A. P. Kypson, B. Yin, J. D. St. Louis, S. S. Biswas, R. E. Coleman, T. R. DeGrado, B. H. Annex, C. L. Donovan, K. P. Lanolfo, J. E. Lowe, “Induction of angiogenesis following transmyocardial laser revascularization in a model of hibernating myocardium: a comparison of holmium:YAG, carbon dioxide, and excimer lasers,” Surg. Forum 50, 115–117 (1999).

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

W. J. Parsons, J. C. Rembert, R. P. Bauman, J. C. Greenfield, C. A. Piantadosi, “Dynamic mechanisms of cardiac oxygenation during brief ischemia and reperfusion,” Am. J. Physiol. 259, H1477–H1485 (1990).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. P. Cummings, J. T. Walsh, “Erbium laser ablation—the effect of dynamic optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1988–1990 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (3)

Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1)

F. Kolodgie, A. Katocs, E. Largis, S. Wrenn, J. Cornhill, E. Herderick, S. Lee, R. Virmani, “Hypercholesterolemia in the rabbit induced by feeding graded amounts of low-level cholesterol,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 16, 1454–1464 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atherosclerosis (1)

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, R. P. Rava, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, M. S. Feld, “Biochemical-analysis and mapping of atherosclerotic human artery using FT-IR microspectroscopy,” Atherosclerosis 103(2), 181–193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cardiol. Clin. (1)

D. R. Holmes, J. F. Bresnahan, “Interventional cardiology,” Cardiol. Clin. 9, 115–134 (1991).
[PubMed]

Circ. Res. (1)

W. J. Parsons, J. C. Rembert, R. P. Bauman, J. C. Greenfield, F. G. Duhaylongsod, C. A. Piantadosi, “Myocardial oxygenation in dogs during partial and complete coronary artery occlusion,” Circ. Res. 73(3), 458–464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (2)

H. Pratisto, S. Uhlhorn, E. D. Jansen, “Beam delivery of the Vanderbilt free-electron laser with hollow waveguides: effect of temporal and spatial pulse propagation,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 83–94 (2001).

J. A. Harrington, “A review of IR transmitting, hollow waveguides,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 211–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Gannot, A. Inberg, M. Oksman, R. Waynant, N. Croitoru, “Current status of flexible waveguides for IR laser radiation transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 880–889 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 564–571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lancet (1)

W. Casscells, B. Hathorn, M. David, T. Krabach, W. K. Vaughn, H. A. McAllister, G. Bearman, J. T. Willerson, “Thermal detection of cellular infiltrates in living atherosclerotic plaques: possible implications for plaque rupture and thrombosis,” Lancet 347, 1447–1449 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (5)

T. Arai, K. Mizuno, A. Fujikawa, M. Nakagawa, M. Kikuchi, “Infrared absorption spectra ranging from 2.5 to 10 μm at various layers of human normal abdominal aorta and fibrofatty atheroma in vitro,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 357–362 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Walsh, T. H. Flotte, R. R. Anderson, T. F. Deutsch, “Pulse CO2 laser tissue ablation: effect of tissue type and pulse duration on thermal damage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 108–118 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Linsker, R. Srinivasan, J. J. Wynne, D. R. Alonso, “Far-ultraviolet laser ablation of atherosclerotic lesions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 4, 201–206 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Awazu, A. Nagai, K. Aizawa, “Selective removal of cholesterol esters in an arteriosclerotic region of blood vessels with a free-electron laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 233–237 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Ross, Y. Domankevitz, R. R. Anderson, “Effects of heterogeneous absorption of laser radiation in biotissue ablation: characterization of ablation of fat with a pulsed CO2 laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 1–6 (1996).

Nature (London) (1)

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, J. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, D. O’Day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature (London) 371, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

B. A. Hooper, G. C. LaVerde, O. T. von Ramm, “Design and construction of an evanescent optical wave device for the recanalization of vessels,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 475, 645–649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (1)

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Alder, “Excimer laser ablation of cornea and lens: experimental studies,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, E. D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

Science (1)

F. F. Jobsis, “Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1267 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta Part A (2)

M. Nilsson, D. Heinrich, J. Olajos, S. AnderssonEngels, “Near infrared diffuse reflection and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for myocardial tissue characterisation,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 51, 1901–1912 (1997).

R. P. Rava, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, “Near-infrared Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy of human artery,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 47, 509–512 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Surg. Forum (1)

G. C. Hughes, A. P. Kypson, B. Yin, J. D. St. Louis, S. S. Biswas, R. E. Coleman, T. R. DeGrado, B. H. Annex, C. L. Donovan, K. P. Lanolfo, J. E. Lowe, “Induction of angiogenesis following transmyocardial laser revascularization in a model of hibernating myocardium: a comparison of holmium:YAG, carbon dioxide, and excimer lasers,” Surg. Forum 50, 115–117 (1999).

Other (6)

L. E. Busse, J. A. Moon, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-IR high power transmission through chalcogenide fibers: current results and future challenges,” in Lasers-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 553–563 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Klocek, ed. Handbook of Infrared Optical Materials (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1991).

W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughn, eds., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).

F. Mirabella, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy, Vol. 15 of Practical Spectroscopy Series (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992).

Photran Inc., Amherst, N.H., www.photran.com .

Remspec Inc., Charlton, Mass., www.remspec.com .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram showing the design of the HWG catheter for tissue spectroscopy. Broadband FTIR light is focused into the input HWG, directed to a high-refractive-index optic-tissue interface, reflected back into the output HWG, and delivered to a MCT detector. The optic is ZnS or diamond, with a refractive index n = 2.25 or 2.38, respectively. O.D., outer diameter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the FTIR spectrophotometer sample chamber. The broadband IR light enters the chamber from the right and is then focused into the input HGW by the parabolic mirror (f = 25.4 mm). The output HWG returns the attenuated total reflected light from the catheter to a MCT detector. The sample chamber is maintained under a nitrogen purge.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectra acquired with the Golden Gate showing detected peaks for DI H2O, blood, aorta, adipose, and muscle tissue. Spectra are shown offset.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption spectra acquired by use of the catheter with detected peaks for DI H2O, blood, aorta, adipose, and muscle tissue. Spectra are shown offset.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histology images of an IR FEL-treated cholesterol-fed rabbit aorta at λ = 3.50 μm. (a) Atherosclerotic lesion irradiated by evanescent waves delivered by our therapy catheter. Energy delivered to the tissue was 2.6 mJ/pulse for 100 pulses at 10 Hz. (b) Nonlesion aorta ablated at normal incidence (θ i = 0). Energy delivered to the tissue was 12.4 mJ/pulse for 100 pulses at 10 Hz. Arrows show direction of laser light onto the endothelial surface of the vessel wall. (Masson trichrome stain; SML, smooth muscle layer; A, adventitia; bar is 100 μm).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 IR Laser Therapy Parameters

Equations (3)

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τrδ2/4α=4μa2α-1,
Eth=WablδA,
ΔT=Fμaρc,

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