Abstract

We previously developed a retinal birefringence scanning (RBS) device to detect eye fixation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a new binocular RBS (BRBS) instrument can detect simultaneous fixation of both eyes. Control (nonmyopic and myopic) and strabismic subjects were studied by use of BRBS at a fixation distance of 45 cm. Binocularity (the percentage of measurements with bilateral fixation) was determined from the BRBS output. All nonstrabismic subjects with good quality signals had binocularity >75%. Binocularity averaged 5% in four subjects with strabismus (range of 0–20%). BRBS may potentially be used to screen individuals for abnormal eye alignment.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Sjöstrand, M. Abrahamsson, “Risk factors in amblyopia,” Eye 4, 787–793 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Köhler, G. Stigmar, “Vision screening of four-year-old children,” Acta Paediatr. Scand. 62, 17–27 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Simons, “Preschool vision screening: rationale, methodology and outcome,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 41, 3–30 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. G. Hunter, S. N. Patel, D. L. Guyton, “Automated detection of foveal fixation by use of retinal birefringence scanning,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1273–1277 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. L. Guyton, D. G. Hunter, J. C. Sandruck, S. N. Patel, R. L. Fry, “Eye fixation monitor and tracker,” U.S. patent6,027,216 (15October1997).
  6. D. G. Hunter, J. C. Sandruck, S. Sau, S. N. Patel, D. L. Guyton, “Mathematical modeling of retinal birefringence scanning,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2103–2111 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. S. Shah, “Automated detection of strabismus: simultaneous bilateral foveal birefringence scanning,” M.S. thesis (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., 1998).
  8. S. N. Patel, “Analysis of foveal birefringence to monitor eye fixation,” M.S. thesis (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., 1995).

1999

1996

K. Simons, “Preschool vision screening: rationale, methodology and outcome,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 41, 3–30 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

J. Sjöstrand, M. Abrahamsson, “Risk factors in amblyopia,” Eye 4, 787–793 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

L. Köhler, G. Stigmar, “Vision screening of four-year-old children,” Acta Paediatr. Scand. 62, 17–27 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abrahamsson, M.

J. Sjöstrand, M. Abrahamsson, “Risk factors in amblyopia,” Eye 4, 787–793 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fry, R. L.

D. L. Guyton, D. G. Hunter, J. C. Sandruck, S. N. Patel, R. L. Fry, “Eye fixation monitor and tracker,” U.S. patent6,027,216 (15October1997).

Guyton, D. L.

Hunter, D. G.

Köhler, L.

L. Köhler, G. Stigmar, “Vision screening of four-year-old children,” Acta Paediatr. Scand. 62, 17–27 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, S. N.

D. G. Hunter, S. N. Patel, D. L. Guyton, “Automated detection of foveal fixation by use of retinal birefringence scanning,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1273–1277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Hunter, J. C. Sandruck, S. Sau, S. N. Patel, D. L. Guyton, “Mathematical modeling of retinal birefringence scanning,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2103–2111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Guyton, D. G. Hunter, J. C. Sandruck, S. N. Patel, R. L. Fry, “Eye fixation monitor and tracker,” U.S. patent6,027,216 (15October1997).

S. N. Patel, “Analysis of foveal birefringence to monitor eye fixation,” M.S. thesis (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., 1995).

Sandruck, J. C.

D. G. Hunter, J. C. Sandruck, S. Sau, S. N. Patel, D. L. Guyton, “Mathematical modeling of retinal birefringence scanning,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2103–2111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Guyton, D. G. Hunter, J. C. Sandruck, S. N. Patel, R. L. Fry, “Eye fixation monitor and tracker,” U.S. patent6,027,216 (15October1997).

Sau, S.

Shah, A. S.

A. S. Shah, “Automated detection of strabismus: simultaneous bilateral foveal birefringence scanning,” M.S. thesis (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., 1998).

Simons, K.

K. Simons, “Preschool vision screening: rationale, methodology and outcome,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 41, 3–30 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sjöstrand, J.

J. Sjöstrand, M. Abrahamsson, “Risk factors in amblyopia,” Eye 4, 787–793 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stigmar, G.

L. Köhler, G. Stigmar, “Vision screening of four-year-old children,” Acta Paediatr. Scand. 62, 17–27 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Paediatr. Scand.

L. Köhler, G. Stigmar, “Vision screening of four-year-old children,” Acta Paediatr. Scand. 62, 17–27 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Eye

J. Sjöstrand, M. Abrahamsson, “Risk factors in amblyopia,” Eye 4, 787–793 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Surv. Ophthalmol.

K. Simons, “Preschool vision screening: rationale, methodology and outcome,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 41, 3–30 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. L. Guyton, D. G. Hunter, J. C. Sandruck, S. N. Patel, R. L. Fry, “Eye fixation monitor and tracker,” U.S. patent6,027,216 (15October1997).

A. S. Shah, “Automated detection of strabismus: simultaneous bilateral foveal birefringence scanning,” M.S. thesis (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., 1998).

S. N. Patel, “Analysis of foveal birefringence to monitor eye fixation,” M.S. thesis (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., 1995).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conceptual depiction of the BRBS device. Both eyes are scanned simultaneously to detect ocular misalignment. Scanning optics are omitted for clarity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detail of light pathway for bilateral, simultaneous scanning of the eyes in BRBS.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ray-tracing diagram and physical layout of one channel of the BRBS device, as modified for hand-held operation. One eye pathway is omitted for clarity. Light emerges from the laser diode on the left and travels toward the right, following the pathway described in Fig. 2. Rays of light are shown for four different positions of the tilted, spinning mirror.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-based laser modulation used to distinguish reflected light from right and left eyes. The right and left laser diodes were alternately pulsed at a frequency of 1056 Hz. Modulation was synchronized to motor position, so that the annulus observed by each eye appeared to be a stationary dashed circle rather than a solid annulus. Returning light reaching the photodetectors was a composite, time-multiplexed signal recovered by use of demultiplexing circuitry synchronized to motor position.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Prototype BRBS device. Subject is seated on a chair or lap and asked to view a blinking LED target. The laser diode range finder is used to aim and adjust axial distance until two laser spots overlap on the bridge of the nose.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Scatter diagram of quality score (QS) versus pupil size. (b) Scatter diagram of quality score (QS) versus age. Regression line shown. R 2 = correlation coefficient.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Binocularity averages over subjects, by groups. Controls, n = 13; myopes, n = 8; strabismics, n = 4. Error bars reflect one standard deviation.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P0=power at 88 Hzpower at 88 Hz+power at 44 Hz.
SN=power at 44 Hz+power at 88 Hztotal ac power.
Y=number of bilateral readings+number of unilateral readingstotal number of acquisitions×100%.
BIN=number of bilateral readingsnumber of unilateral readings+number of bilateral readings×100%.
QS=SNY,

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