Abstract

A novel frequency-domain multiplexing system has been developed for in vivo measurements of rapid cerebral hemodynamics. The instrument operates in the frequency-domain with three optical wavelengths, six source positions, and two detectors. Frequency-division multiplexing was used to modulate three wavelengths (690, 786, and 830 nm) at slightly different frequencies around 70 MHz. The three laser output beams were combined and switched into different source positions by use of fast optical switches (switch time <10 ms). Three narrowband, in-phase and in-quadrature demodulators decode the modulated signals. Our full-frame-acquisition rate is 2.5 Hz, with flexibility for acquisition rates greater than 50 Hz with smaller detection areas. We evaluate the performance of the instrument with tissue phantoms, and then employ the system to measure in vivo cerebral blood oxygenation during forepaw stimulation of a rat’s brain.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002 (3)

T. Q. Duong, D. S. Kim, K. U. Urbil, S. G. Kim, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of the BOLD fMRI signals: toward mapping submillimeter cortical columns using the early negative response,” Magn. Reson. Med. 44, 231–242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Schmitz, M. Locker, J. Mlasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for fast functional optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1–11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847–2862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (7)

J. Mayhew, D. Johnston, J. Martindale, M. Jones, J. Berwick, Y. Zheng, “Increased oxygen consumption following activation of brain: theoretical footnotes using spectroscopic data from barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 13, 975–987 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. D. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, “A parallel-detection frequency-domain near-infrared tomography system for hemoglobin imaging of the breast in vivo,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1817–1824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Ances, D. G. Buerk, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, “Temporal dynamics of the partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen during functional forepaw stimulation in rats,” Neurosci. Lett. 306, 106–110 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Hintz, D. A. Benaron, A. M. Siegel, A. Zourabian, D. K. Stevenson, D. A. Boas, “Bedside functional imaging of the premature infant brain during passive motor activation,” J. Perinat Med. 29, 335–343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, T. J. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. A. Marota, J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13, 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, J. Mayhew, “Concurrent optical imaging spectroscopy and laser-Doppler flowmetry: the relationship between blood flow, oxygenation, and volume in rodent barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 13, 1002–1015 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

J. Steinbrink, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, G. Curio, F. Syre, F. Thomas, H. Wabnitz, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, “Somatosensory evoked fast optical intensity changes detected non-invasively in the adult human head,” Neurosci. Lett. 291, 105–108 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. W. Schmit, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Franceschini, V. Toronov, M. E. Filiaci, E. Gratton, S. Fantini, “On-line optical imaging of the human brain with 160-ms temporal resolution,” Opt. Express 6, 49–57 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-6-3-49 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

A. M. Siegel, J. J. A. Marota, D. A. Boas, “Design and evaluation of a continuous-wave diffuse optical tomography system,” Opt. Express 4, 287–298 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-4-8-287 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543–1563 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Mandeville, J. Marota, “Vascular filters of functional MRI: spatial localization using BOLD and CBV contrast,” Magn. Reson. Med. 42, 591–598 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (7)

S. R. Arridge, W. R. B. Lionheart, “Non-uniqueness in diffusion-based optical tomography,” Opti. Lett. 23, 882–884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kakihana, M. M. Kessler, A. Krug, H. Yamada, T. Oda, N. Yoshimura, “Dynamic changes in intracapillary hemoglobin oxygenation in human skin following various temperature changes,” Microvasc. Res. 56, 104–112 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Ances, J. A. Detre, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, “Transcranial laser Doppler mapping of activation flow coupling of the rat somatosensory cortex,” Neurosci. Lett. 257, 25–28 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, E. Anday, S. Nioka, S. Zhou, L. Hong, K. Worden, C. Li, T. Murray, Y. Ovetsky, D. Pidikiti, R. Thomas, “A novel method for fast imaging of brain function, non-invasively, with light,” Opt. Express 2, 411–423 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-2-10-411
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Danen, Y. Wang, X. D. Li, W. S. Thayer, A. G. Yodh, “Regional imager for low-resolution functional imaging of the brain with diffusing near-infrared light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 33–40 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, X. Ma, B. Chance, “Time-correlated single photon counting imager for simultaneous magnetic resonance and near infrared mammography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221–4233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Detre, B. M. Ances, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, “Signal averaged laser Doppler measurements of activation-flow coupling in the rat forepaw somatosensory cortex,” Brain Res. 796, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Y. Yang, H. L. Liu, X. D. Li, B. Chance, “Low cost frequency-domain photon migration instrument for tissue spectroscopy, oximetry, and imaging,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1562–1569 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. B. King, G. M. Raymond, J. B. Bassingthwaighte, “Modeling blood flow heterogeneity,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 24, 352–372 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, U. Dirnagl, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 154, 101–104 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

C. R. Honig, C. L. Odoroff, J. L. Frierson, “Capillary recruitment in exercise: rate, extent, uniformity and relation to blood flow,” Am. J. Physiol. 238, H31–H42 (1980).
[PubMed]

Ances, B. M.

B. M. Ances, D. G. Buerk, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, “Temporal dynamics of the partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen during functional forepaw stimulation in rats,” Neurosci. Lett. 306, 106–110 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Detre, B. M. Ances, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, “Signal averaged laser Doppler measurements of activation-flow coupling in the rat forepaw somatosensory cortex,” Brain Res. 796, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Ances, J. A. Detre, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, “Transcranial laser Doppler mapping of activation flow coupling of the rat somatosensory cortex,” Neurosci. Lett. 257, 25–28 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anday, E.

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, W. R. B. Lionheart, “Non-uniqueness in diffusion-based optical tomography,” Opti. Lett. 23, 882–884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barbour, R. L.

C. H. Schmitz, M. Locker, J. Mlasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for fast functional optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1–11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bassingthwaighte, J. B.

R. B. King, G. M. Raymond, J. B. Bassingthwaighte, “Modeling blood flow heterogeneity,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 24, 352–372 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benaron, D. A.

S. R. Hintz, D. A. Benaron, A. M. Siegel, A. Zourabian, D. K. Stevenson, D. A. Boas, “Bedside functional imaging of the premature infant brain during passive motor activation,” J. Perinat Med. 29, 335–343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berwick, J.

J. Mayhew, D. Johnston, J. Martindale, M. Jones, J. Berwick, Y. Zheng, “Increased oxygen consumption following activation of brain: theoretical footnotes using spectroscopic data from barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 13, 975–987 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, J. Mayhew, “Concurrent optical imaging spectroscopy and laser-Doppler flowmetry: the relationship between blood flow, oxygenation, and volume in rodent barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 13, 1002–1015 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas, T. J. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. A. Marota, J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13, 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Hintz, D. A. Benaron, A. M. Siegel, A. Zourabian, D. K. Stevenson, D. A. Boas, “Bedside functional imaging of the premature infant brain during passive motor activation,” J. Perinat Med. 29, 335–343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Siegel, J. J. A. Marota, D. A. Boas, “Design and evaluation of a continuous-wave diffuse optical tomography system,” Opt. Express 4, 287–298 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-4-8-287 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buerk, D. G.

B. M. Ances, D. G. Buerk, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, “Temporal dynamics of the partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen during functional forepaw stimulation in rats,” Neurosci. Lett. 306, 106–110 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847–2862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, E. Anday, S. Nioka, S. Zhou, L. Hong, K. Worden, C. Li, T. Murray, Y. Ovetsky, D. Pidikiti, R. Thomas, “A novel method for fast imaging of brain function, non-invasively, with light,” Opt. Express 2, 411–423 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-2-10-411
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, X. Ma, B. Chance, “Time-correlated single photon counting imager for simultaneous magnetic resonance and near infrared mammography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221–4233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, H. L. Liu, X. D. Li, B. Chance, “Low cost frequency-domain photon migration instrument for tissue spectroscopy, oximetry, and imaging,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1562–1569 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Vasilis, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, X. H. Ma, B. Chance, “Calculation of local optical properties in highly scattering media using a-priori structural information for application to simultaneous NIR-MR breast examination,” in Photon Propagation in Tissues IV, D. A. Benaron, B. Chance, M. Ferrari, eds., Proc. SPIE3566, 200–206 (1998).

Cheng, X.

D. A. Boas, T. J. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. A. Marota, J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13, 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, C.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, C. Cheung, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of hemoglobin concentrations, and cerebral blood flow in rat brain during focal ischemia,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 170–172.

T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. P. Culver, C. Cheung, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Hemodynamics of cortical spreading depression and forepaw stimulation,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 164–166.

T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. P. Culver, C. Cheung, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Brain hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism: hybrid approach,” in in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 47–49.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of hemoglobin and cerebral blood flow in rat brain during hypercapnia, hypoxia and cardiac arrest,” in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Oxygen Transport to Tissue Volume XXIII, D. F. Wilson, S. M. Evans, J. Biaglow, A. Pastuszko, eds. (Plenum, 2002), pp. 293–298.

Choe, R.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847–2862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, R. Choe, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Frequency domain diffuse optical multiplexing system for rapid hemodynamics,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 184–186.

Choi, J. H.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, J. H. Choi, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, E. Gratton, “Functional fast neuronal signals in the visual and motor cortex detected by frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002) pp. 205–207.

Clemence, M.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847–2862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, C. Cheung, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of hemoglobin concentrations, and cerebral blood flow in rat brain during focal ischemia,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 170–172.

T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. P. Culver, C. Cheung, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Hemodynamics of cortical spreading depression and forepaw stimulation,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 164–166.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of hemoglobin and cerebral blood flow in rat brain during hypercapnia, hypoxia and cardiac arrest,” in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Oxygen Transport to Tissue Volume XXIII, D. F. Wilson, S. M. Evans, J. Biaglow, A. Pastuszko, eds. (Plenum, 2002), pp. 293–298.

T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. P. Culver, C. Cheung, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Brain hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism: hybrid approach,” in in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 47–49.

Curio, G.

J. Steinbrink, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, G. Curio, F. Syre, F. Thomas, H. Wabnitz, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, “Somatosensory evoked fast optical intensity changes detected non-invasively in the adult human head,” Neurosci. Lett. 291, 105–108 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danen, R. M.

R. M. Danen, Y. Wang, X. D. Li, W. S. Thayer, A. G. Yodh, “Regional imager for low-resolution functional imaging of the brain with diffusing near-infrared light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 33–40 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

F. E. W. Schmit, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Detre, J. A.

B. M. Ances, D. G. Buerk, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, “Temporal dynamics of the partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen during functional forepaw stimulation in rats,” Neurosci. Lett. 306, 106–110 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Detre, B. M. Ances, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, “Signal averaged laser Doppler measurements of activation-flow coupling in the rat forepaw somatosensory cortex,” Brain Res. 796, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Ances, J. A. Detre, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, “Transcranial laser Doppler mapping of activation flow coupling of the rat somatosensory cortex,” Neurosci. Lett. 257, 25–28 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dirnagl, U.

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, U. Dirnagl, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 154, 101–104 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, A.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duong, T. Q.

T. Q. Duong, D. S. Kim, K. U. Urbil, S. G. Kim, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of the BOLD fMRI signals: toward mapping submillimeter cortical columns using the early negative response,” Magn. Reson. Med. 44, 231–242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Durduran, T.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847–2862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. P. Culver, C. Cheung, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Hemodynamics of cortical spreading depression and forepaw stimulation,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 164–166.

J. P. Culver, C. Cheung, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of hemoglobin concentrations, and cerebral blood flow in rat brain during focal ischemia,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 170–172.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of hemoglobin and cerebral blood flow in rat brain during hypercapnia, hypoxia and cardiac arrest,” in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Oxygen Transport to Tissue Volume XXIII, D. F. Wilson, S. M. Evans, J. Biaglow, A. Pastuszko, eds. (Plenum, 2002), pp. 293–298.

T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. P. Culver, C. Cheung, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Brain hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism: hybrid approach,” in in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 47–49.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, R. Choe, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Frequency domain diffuse optical multiplexing system for rapid hemodynamics,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 184–186.

Elwell, C. E.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

M. A. Franceschini, V. Toronov, M. E. Filiaci, E. Gratton, S. Fantini, “On-line optical imaging of the human brain with 160-ms temporal resolution,” Opt. Express 6, 49–57 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-6-3-49 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543–1563 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Filiaci, M. E.

Franceschini, M. A.

M. A. Franceschini, V. Toronov, M. E. Filiaci, E. Gratton, S. Fantini, “On-line optical imaging of the human brain with 160-ms temporal resolution,” Opt. Express 6, 49–57 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-6-3-49 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543–1563 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frierson, J. L.

C. R. Honig, C. L. Odoroff, J. L. Frierson, “Capillary recruitment in exercise: rate, extent, uniformity and relation to blood flow,” Am. J. Physiol. 238, H31–H42 (1980).
[PubMed]

Fry, M. E.

F. E. W. Schmit, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Furuya, D.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of hemoglobin and cerebral blood flow in rat brain during hypercapnia, hypoxia and cardiac arrest,” in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Oxygen Transport to Tissue Volume XXIII, D. F. Wilson, S. M. Evans, J. Biaglow, A. Pastuszko, eds. (Plenum, 2002), pp. 293–298.

T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. P. Culver, C. Cheung, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Brain hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism: hybrid approach,” in in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 47–49.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, R. Choe, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Frequency domain diffuse optical multiplexing system for rapid hemodynamics,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 184–186.

J. P. Culver, C. Cheung, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of hemoglobin concentrations, and cerebral blood flow in rat brain during focal ischemia,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 170–172.

T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. P. Culver, C. Cheung, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Hemodynamics of cortical spreading depression and forepaw stimulation,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 164–166.

Gaudette, T. J.

D. A. Boas, T. J. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. A. Marota, J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13, 76–90 (2001).
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Giammarco, J.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847–2862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

M. A. Franceschini, V. Toronov, M. E. Filiaci, E. Gratton, S. Fantini, “On-line optical imaging of the human brain with 160-ms temporal resolution,” Opt. Express 6, 49–57 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-6-3-49 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543–1563 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, J. H. Choi, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, E. Gratton, “Functional fast neuronal signals in the visual and motor cortex detected by frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002) pp. 205–207.

Greenberg, J. H.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053–2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Ances, D. G. Buerk, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, “Temporal dynamics of the partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen during functional forepaw stimulation in rats,” Neurosci. Lett. 306, 106–110 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Ances, J. A. Detre, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, “Transcranial laser Doppler mapping of activation flow coupling of the rat somatosensory cortex,” Neurosci. Lett. 257, 25–28 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Detre, B. M. Ances, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, “Signal averaged laser Doppler measurements of activation-flow coupling in the rat forepaw somatosensory cortex,” Brain Res. 796, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, C. Cheung, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of hemoglobin concentrations, and cerebral blood flow in rat brain during focal ischemia,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 170–172.

T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. P. Culver, C. Cheung, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Hemodynamics of cortical spreading depression and forepaw stimulation,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 164–166.

T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. P. Culver, C. Cheung, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Brain hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism: hybrid approach,” in in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 47–49.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of hemoglobin and cerebral blood flow in rat brain during hypercapnia, hypoxia and cardiac arrest,” in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Oxygen Transport to Tissue Volume XXIII, D. F. Wilson, S. M. Evans, J. Biaglow, A. Pastuszko, eds. (Plenum, 2002), pp. 293–298.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, R. Choe, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, “Frequency domain diffuse optical multiplexing system for rapid hemodynamics,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 184–186.

Gupta, R.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, J. H. Choi, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, E. Gratton, “Functional fast neuronal signals in the visual and motor cortex detected by frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002) pp. 205–207.

Hebden, J. C.

F. E. W. Schmit, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, A. H.

C. H. Schmitz, M. Locker, J. Mlasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for fast functional optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1–11 (2002).
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F. E. W. Schmit, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256–265 (2000).
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Hintz, S. R.

S. R. Hintz, D. A. Benaron, A. M. Siegel, A. Zourabian, D. K. Stevenson, D. A. Boas, “Bedside functional imaging of the premature infant brain during passive motor activation,” J. Perinat Med. 29, 335–343 (2001).
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Hock, C.

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, U. Dirnagl, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 154, 101–104 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holboke, M. J.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2847–2862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, L.

Honig, C. R.

C. R. Honig, C. L. Odoroff, J. L. Frierson, “Capillary recruitment in exercise: rate, extent, uniformity and relation to blood flow,” Am. J. Physiol. 238, H31–H42 (1980).
[PubMed]

Hueber, D.

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543–1563 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isobe, K.

I. Oda, Y. Wada, S. Takeuchi, Y. Oikawa, N. Sakauchi, Y. Ito, I. Konishi, Y. Tsunazawa, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, S. Itoh, S. Onishi, “Near-infrared optical imager for cerebral blood flow and oxygenation detection,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 371–379 (2001).
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I. Oda, Y. Wada, S. Takeuchi, Y. Oikawa, N. Sakauchi, Y. Ito, I. Konishi, Y. Tsunazawa, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, S. Itoh, S. Onishi, “Near-infrared optical imager for cerebral blood flow and oxygenation detection,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 371–379 (2001).
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I. Oda, Y. Wada, S. Takeuchi, Y. Oikawa, N. Sakauchi, Y. Ito, I. Konishi, Y. Tsunazawa, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, S. Itoh, S. Onishi, “Near-infrared optical imager for cerebral blood flow and oxygenation detection,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 371–379 (2001).
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T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. D. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, “A parallel-detection frequency-domain near-infrared tomography system for hemoglobin imaging of the breast in vivo,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1817–1824 (2001).
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J. Mayhew, D. Johnston, J. Martindale, M. Jones, J. Berwick, Y. Zheng, “Increased oxygen consumption following activation of brain: theoretical footnotes using spectroscopic data from barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 13, 975–987 (2001).
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J. Mayhew, D. Johnston, J. Martindale, M. Jones, J. Berwick, Y. Zheng, “Increased oxygen consumption following activation of brain: theoretical footnotes using spectroscopic data from barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 13, 975–987 (2001).
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M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, J. Mayhew, “Concurrent optical imaging spectroscopy and laser-Doppler flowmetry: the relationship between blood flow, oxygenation, and volume in rodent barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 13, 1002–1015 (2001).
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Kakihana, Y.

Y. Kakihana, M. M. Kessler, A. Krug, H. Yamada, T. Oda, N. Yoshimura, “Dynamic changes in intracapillary hemoglobin oxygenation in human skin following various temperature changes,” Microvasc. Res. 56, 104–112 (1998).
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Y. Kakihana, M. M. Kessler, A. Krug, H. Yamada, T. Oda, N. Yoshimura, “Dynamic changes in intracapillary hemoglobin oxygenation in human skin following various temperature changes,” Microvasc. Res. 56, 104–112 (1998).
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T. Q. Duong, D. S. Kim, K. U. Urbil, S. G. Kim, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of the BOLD fMRI signals: toward mapping submillimeter cortical columns using the early negative response,” Magn. Reson. Med. 44, 231–242 (2002).
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Kim, S. G.

T. Q. Duong, D. S. Kim, K. U. Urbil, S. G. Kim, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of the BOLD fMRI signals: toward mapping submillimeter cortical columns using the early negative response,” Magn. Reson. Med. 44, 231–242 (2002).
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I. Oda, Y. Wada, S. Takeuchi, Y. Oikawa, N. Sakauchi, Y. Ito, I. Konishi, Y. Tsunazawa, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, S. Itoh, S. Onishi, “Near-infrared optical imager for cerebral blood flow and oxygenation detection,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 371–379 (2001).
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Krug, A.

Y. Kakihana, M. M. Kessler, A. Krug, H. Yamada, T. Oda, N. Yoshimura, “Dynamic changes in intracapillary hemoglobin oxygenation in human skin following various temperature changes,” Microvasc. Res. 56, 104–112 (1998).
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Kusaka, T.

I. Oda, Y. Wada, S. Takeuchi, Y. Oikawa, N. Sakauchi, Y. Ito, I. Konishi, Y. Tsunazawa, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, S. Itoh, S. Onishi, “Near-infrared optical imager for cerebral blood flow and oxygenation detection,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 371–379 (2001).
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Li, X. D.

R. M. Danen, Y. Wang, X. D. Li, W. S. Thayer, A. G. Yodh, “Regional imager for low-resolution functional imaging of the brain with diffusing near-infrared light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 33–40 (1998).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

FDM system with three wavelengths (690, 786, and 830 nm), six source positions (S1, S2, … and S6), and two detectors (D1 and D2). Three oscillators (ω1, ω2, and ω3) drive three laser diodes and provide the reference signals to three demodulators (I&Q 1, I&Q 2, and I&Q 3).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Dynamic range test result (measured amplitude versus power through medium) for the 786-nm wavelength (only amplitude is shown); noise level: <-40 dBmV; saturation level: 40 dBmV; dynamic range: >70 dB (amplitude in vertical axis). (b) Percent deviation of amplitude from a least-squares-fit line (is less than ±1%).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scheme for measuring the HbO2 and Hbr concentrations in a rat’s somatosensory cortex during periodic electrical forepaw stimulation. The left part of the figure shows the optical probe map over the brain (depicted with dark solid lines) with six source positions (S1 to S6) and two detectors (D1 and D2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-dimensional images of relative absorption coefficient-at 690 nm are reconstructed 2 mm below the top of the skull. A decrease in absorption at 690 nm (due to a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin concentration) is apparent in the middle image (S4, D1, and D2), taken at peak of stimulus response (5 s after stimulus onset). Left and right images correspond to baseline (-4 s) and recovery (25 s) periods, where t = 0 is the stimulus onset. Circles represent detector positions, and crosses represent source positions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Concentration changes (relative to baseline) of HbO2 and Hbr for the serial stimulation. (b) Relative concentration changes of HbT. (c) Percent changes (relative to baseline) of StO2. The stimulus duration was 8 s with an intrastimulus time of 30 s; stimulus frequency was 5 Hz at 2 mA. The sampling rate was 20 Hz with one source and two detectors (S4, D1, and D2). StO2 is given in percentage and concentrations are given in micromole.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

StO2 changes for 8 s (open circles) or 4 s (solid dots) of forepaw stimulation with 30-s or 34-s interstimulus interval. Stimulus frequency was 5 Hz at 2mA. The sampling rate was 20 Hz with one source and two detectors (S4, D1, and D2).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Performance Characteristics of the Generation I System

Tables Icon

Table 2 Temporal, Spectral, and Spatial Resolutions of the Generation II System

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of Some Instruments for DOT in Frequency Domain Recently Reported

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ai=Qi-dc2+Ii-dc21/2,
θi=tan-1Qi-dc/Ii-dc.
χ2=Φmt/Φmt0-Φct/Φct02.

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