Abstract

The optical constants of a nematic liquid crystal, 4′-n-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), in the frequency range 0.3–1.4 THz were determined by terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy. The real parts of the extraordinary refractive index n e and the ordinary refractive index n o of 5CB varied from 1.74 to 2.04 and from 1.59 to 1.83, respectively. Liquid-crystal 5CB exhibits a relatively small absorption loss in this frequency range. The birefringence of 5CB was found to be as large as 0.21. The experimental results indicate that liquid-crystal 5CB is potentially useful for device applications in the THz frequency range.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Grischkowsky, S. R. Keiding, M. V. Exter, C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. B. Hu, M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716–1718 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, “Time domain terahertz impulse ranging studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1960–1962 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. For example, session M8, “Terahertz Technologies for Sensing and Communication,” Annual American Physical Society Meeting, Indianapolis, Indiana, 18–22 March 2002.
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    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Kersting, G. Strasser, K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1156–1158 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Chang, “Orientational order in MBBA from optical anisotropy measurements,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 30, 155–165 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. A. Soref, M. J. Rafuse, “Electrically controlled birefringence of thin nematic films,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2029–2037 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Haase, D. Potzsch, “Light transmission experiments with nematic liquid crystals showing positive and negative dielectric anisotropy,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 38, 77–85 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. G. Hanson, Y. R. Shen, “Refractive indices and optical anisotropy of homologous liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 36, 193–207 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Miraldi, C. Oldano, L. Trossi, P. T. Valabrega, “Direct measurement of the two refractive indexes of a nematic liquid crystal slab,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4163–4166 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. T. Wu, U. Efron, L. V. Hess, “Infrared birefringence of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 1033–1035 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. C. Khoo, R. P. Michael, G. M. Finn, “Self-phase modulation and optical limiting of a low-power CO2 laser with a nematic liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2108–2110 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Joffre, G. Illiaquer, J. P. Huignard, “Electro-optical properties of nematic liquid crystals for phase modulation in the infrared 10.6 µm,” in Electro-Optic and Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, J. P. Castero, ed., Proc. SPIE1126, 13–20 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. T. Wu, J. D. Margerum, H. B. Meng, C. S. Hsu, L. R. Dalton, “Potential liquid crystal mixtures for CO2 laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1204–1206 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, L. J. Miller, E. Sherman, W. H. Smith, “Liquid crystal birefringence for millimeter wave radar,” Liq. Cryst. 14, 327–337 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065–1067 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Guérin, J. M. Chappe, P. Joffre, D. Dolfi, “Modeling, synthesis and characterization of a millimeter-wave multilayer microstrip liquid crystal phase shifter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 4409–4413 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Nose, S. Sato, K. Mizuno, J. Bae, T. Nozokido, “Refractive index of nematic liquid crystals in the submillimeter wave region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6383–6387 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Turchinovich, P. Knobloch, G. Luessem, M. Koch, “THz time-domain spectroscopy on 4-(trans-4′-pentylcyclohexyl)-benzonitril,” in Liquid Crystals V, I. C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE4463, 65–70 (2001).
  22. U. Finkenzeller, T. Geelhaar, G. Weber, L. Pohl, “Liquid-crystalline reference compounds,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 313–321 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. P. Karat, N. V. Madhusudana, “Elastic and optical properties of some 4′-n-alkyl-4-cyanobiphenyls,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 36, 51–64 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  24. For example, M. Nakamura, “Surface topography and alignment of liquid crystals on rubbed oxide surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4561–4567 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Z. Jiang, M. Li, X.-C. Zhang, “Dielectric constant measurement of thin films by differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3221–3223 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), Chap. 6.
  27. L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739–746 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. G. de Gennes, J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1993).
  29. K. H. Yang, “Measurements of empty cell gap for liquid-crystal displays using interferometric methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4780–4781 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (3)

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, M. Li, X.-C. Zhang, “Dielectric constant measurement of thin films by differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3221–3223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

F. Guérin, J. M. Chappe, P. Joffre, D. Dolfi, “Modeling, synthesis and characterization of a millimeter-wave multilayer microstrip liquid crystal phase shifter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 4409–4413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Nose, S. Sato, K. Mizuno, J. Bae, T. Nozokido, “Refractive index of nematic liquid crystals in the submillimeter wave region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6383–6387 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739–746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, “Time domain terahertz impulse ranging studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1960–1962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716–1718 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

S. T. Wu, J. D. Margerum, H. B. Meng, C. S. Hsu, L. R. Dalton, “Potential liquid crystal mixtures for CO2 laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1204–1206 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, L. J. Miller, E. Sherman, W. H. Smith, “Liquid crystal birefringence for millimeter wave radar,” Liq. Cryst. 14, 327–337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065–1067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

M. V. Exter, C. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of water vapor,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1128–1130 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Finkenzeller, T. Geelhaar, G. Weber, L. Pohl, “Liquid-crystalline reference compounds,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 313–321 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

K. H. Yang, “Measurements of empty cell gap for liquid-crystal displays using interferometric methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4780–4781 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, R. P. Michael, G. M. Finn, “Self-phase modulation and optical limiting of a low-power CO2 laser with a nematic liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2108–2110 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, L. V. Hess, “Infrared birefringence of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 1033–1035 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

For example, M. Nakamura, “Surface topography and alignment of liquid crystals on rubbed oxide surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4561–4567 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

W. Haase, D. Potzsch, “Light transmission experiments with nematic liquid crystals showing positive and negative dielectric anisotropy,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 38, 77–85 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

E. G. Hanson, Y. R. Shen, “Refractive indices and optical anisotropy of homologous liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 36, 193–207 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Karat, N. V. Madhusudana, “Elastic and optical properties of some 4′-n-alkyl-4-cyanobiphenyls,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 36, 51–64 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. Chang, “Orientational order in MBBA from optical anisotropy measurements,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 30, 155–165 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. A. Soref, M. J. Rafuse, “Electrically controlled birefringence of thin nematic films,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2029–2037 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bae, J.

Baumgärtner, S.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), Chap. 6.

Chang, R.

R. Chang, “Orientational order in MBBA from optical anisotropy measurements,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 30, 155–165 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Chappe, J. M.

F. Guérin, J. M. Chappe, P. Joffre, D. Dolfi, “Modeling, synthesis and characterization of a millimeter-wave multilayer microstrip liquid crystal phase shifter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 4409–4413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheville, R. A.

R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, “Time domain terahertz impulse ranging studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1960–1962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coutaz, J.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739–746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

S. T. Wu, J. D. Margerum, H. B. Meng, C. S. Hsu, L. R. Dalton, “Potential liquid crystal mixtures for CO2 laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1204–1206 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, P.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes, J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1993).

Dolfi, D.

F. Guérin, J. M. Chappe, P. Joffre, D. Dolfi, “Modeling, synthesis and characterization of a millimeter-wave multilayer microstrip liquid crystal phase shifter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 4409–4413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duvillaret, L.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739–746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Efron, U.

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, L. V. Hess, “Infrared birefringence of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 1033–1035 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Exter, M. V.

Fattinger, C.

Feldmann, J.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Finkenzeller, U.

U. Finkenzeller, T. Geelhaar, G. Weber, L. Pohl, “Liquid-crystalline reference compounds,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 313–321 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Finn, G. M.

I. C. Khoo, R. P. Michael, G. M. Finn, “Self-phase modulation and optical limiting of a low-power CO2 laser with a nematic liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2108–2110 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Garet, F.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739–746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Geelhaar, T.

U. Finkenzeller, T. Geelhaar, G. Weber, L. Pohl, “Liquid-crystalline reference compounds,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 313–321 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Guérin, F.

F. Guérin, J. M. Chappe, P. Joffre, D. Dolfi, “Modeling, synthesis and characterization of a millimeter-wave multilayer microstrip liquid crystal phase shifter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 4409–4413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haase, W.

W. Haase, D. Potzsch, “Light transmission experiments with nematic liquid crystals showing positive and negative dielectric anisotropy,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 38, 77–85 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, E. G.

E. G. Hanson, Y. R. Shen, “Refractive indices and optical anisotropy of homologous liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 36, 193–207 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hecker, N. E.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hempel, M.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hess, L. V.

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, L. V. Hess, “Infrared birefringence of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 1033–1035 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. S.

S. T. Wu, J. D. Margerum, H. B. Meng, C. S. Hsu, L. R. Dalton, “Potential liquid crystal mixtures for CO2 laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1204–1206 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

Huignard, J. P.

P. Joffre, G. Illiaquer, J. P. Huignard, “Electro-optical properties of nematic liquid crystals for phase modulation in the infrared 10.6 µm,” in Electro-Optic and Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, J. P. Castero, ed., Proc. SPIE1126, 13–20 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Illiaquer, G.

P. Joffre, G. Illiaquer, J. P. Huignard, “Electro-optical properties of nematic liquid crystals for phase modulation in the infrared 10.6 µm,” in Electro-Optic and Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, J. P. Castero, ed., Proc. SPIE1126, 13–20 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, M. Li, X.-C. Zhang, “Dielectric constant measurement of thin films by differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3221–3223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, P.

F. Guérin, J. M. Chappe, P. Joffre, D. Dolfi, “Modeling, synthesis and characterization of a millimeter-wave multilayer microstrip liquid crystal phase shifter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 4409–4413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Joffre, G. Illiaquer, J. P. Huignard, “Electro-optical properties of nematic liquid crystals for phase modulation in the infrared 10.6 µm,” in Electro-Optic and Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, J. P. Castero, ed., Proc. SPIE1126, 13–20 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Karat, P. P.

P. P. Karat, N. V. Madhusudana, “Elastic and optical properties of some 4′-n-alkyl-4-cyanobiphenyls,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 36, 51–64 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

Kersting, R.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, R. P. Michael, G. M. Finn, “Self-phase modulation and optical limiting of a low-power CO2 laser with a nematic liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2108–2110 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Knobloch, P.

D. Turchinovich, P. Knobloch, G. Luessem, M. Koch, “THz time-domain spectroscopy on 4-(trans-4′-pentylcyclohexyl)-benzonitril,” in Liquid Crystals V, I. C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE4463, 65–70 (2001).

Koch, M.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Turchinovich, P. Knobloch, G. Luessem, M. Koch, “THz time-domain spectroscopy on 4-(trans-4′-pentylcyclohexyl)-benzonitril,” in Liquid Crystals V, I. C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE4463, 65–70 (2001).

Lackner, A. M.

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, L. J. Miller, E. Sherman, W. H. Smith, “Liquid crystal birefringence for millimeter wave radar,” Liq. Cryst. 14, 327–337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065–1067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Z. Jiang, M. Li, X.-C. Zhang, “Dielectric constant measurement of thin films by differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3221–3223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Libon, I. H.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lim, K. C.

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, L. J. Miller, E. Sherman, W. H. Smith, “Liquid crystal birefringence for millimeter wave radar,” Liq. Cryst. 14, 327–337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065–1067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Luessem, G.

D. Turchinovich, P. Knobloch, G. Luessem, M. Koch, “THz time-domain spectroscopy on 4-(trans-4′-pentylcyclohexyl)-benzonitril,” in Liquid Crystals V, I. C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE4463, 65–70 (2001).

Madhusudana, N. V.

P. P. Karat, N. V. Madhusudana, “Elastic and optical properties of some 4′-n-alkyl-4-cyanobiphenyls,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 36, 51–64 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Margerum, J. D.

S. T. Wu, J. D. Margerum, H. B. Meng, C. S. Hsu, L. R. Dalton, “Potential liquid crystal mixtures for CO2 laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1204–1206 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065–1067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, L. J. Miller, E. Sherman, W. H. Smith, “Liquid crystal birefringence for millimeter wave radar,” Liq. Cryst. 14, 327–337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meng, H. B.

S. T. Wu, J. D. Margerum, H. B. Meng, C. S. Hsu, L. R. Dalton, “Potential liquid crystal mixtures for CO2 laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1204–1206 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Michael, R. P.

I. C. Khoo, R. P. Michael, G. M. Finn, “Self-phase modulation and optical limiting of a low-power CO2 laser with a nematic liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2108–2110 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Miller, L. J.

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, L. J. Miller, E. Sherman, W. H. Smith, “Liquid crystal birefringence for millimeter wave radar,” Liq. Cryst. 14, 327–337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miraldi, E.

Mizuno, K.

Nakamura, M.

For example, M. Nakamura, “Surface topography and alignment of liquid crystals on rubbed oxide surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4561–4567 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nose, T.

Nozokido, T.

Nuss, M. C.

Oldano, C.

Pohl, L.

U. Finkenzeller, T. Geelhaar, G. Weber, L. Pohl, “Liquid-crystalline reference compounds,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 313–321 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Potzsch, D.

W. Haase, D. Potzsch, “Light transmission experiments with nematic liquid crystals showing positive and negative dielectric anisotropy,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 38, 77–85 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Prost, J.

P. G. de Gennes, J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1993).

Rafuse, M. J.

R. A. Soref, M. J. Rafuse, “Electrically controlled birefringence of thin nematic films,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2029–2037 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

Shen, Y. R.

E. G. Hanson, Y. R. Shen, “Refractive indices and optical anisotropy of homologous liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 36, 193–207 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, E.

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, L. J. Miller, E. Sherman, W. H. Smith, “Liquid crystal birefringence for millimeter wave radar,” Liq. Cryst. 14, 327–337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. H.

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, L. J. Miller, E. Sherman, W. H. Smith, “Liquid crystal birefringence for millimeter wave radar,” Liq. Cryst. 14, 327–337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, M. J. Rafuse, “Electrically controlled birefringence of thin nematic films,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2029–2037 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trossi, L.

Turchinovich, D.

D. Turchinovich, P. Knobloch, G. Luessem, M. Koch, “THz time-domain spectroscopy on 4-(trans-4′-pentylcyclohexyl)-benzonitril,” in Liquid Crystals V, I. C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE4463, 65–70 (2001).

Unterrainer, K.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Valabrega, P. T.

Weber, G.

U. Finkenzeller, T. Geelhaar, G. Weber, L. Pohl, “Liquid-crystalline reference compounds,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 313–321 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), Chap. 6.

Wu, S. T.

S. T. Wu, J. D. Margerum, H. B. Meng, C. S. Hsu, L. R. Dalton, “Potential liquid crystal mixtures for CO2 laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1204–1206 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, L. V. Hess, “Infrared birefringence of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 1033–1035 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K. H.

K. H. Yang, “Measurements of empty cell gap for liquid-crystal displays using interferometric methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4780–4781 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental setup for the THz spectrometer: BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Temporal THz waveforms transmitted through a vacant reference cell and a LC cell. The LC director is either parallel or perpendicular to E THz, the direction of polarization of the incident THz wave. (b) Expanded view of (a) in the time window 1.8–3.4 ps.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Amplitude spectra of the measured THz wave after its propagation through a vacant reference cell.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Frequency dependence of (a) the real and (b) the imaginary parts of the complex refractive index of 5CB.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Frequency dependence of the birefringence of 5CB.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Esampleω=T12ωP2ω, LT23ω×k=0R23ωP22ω, LR21ωkEω,
Rij=ni-nj/ni+nj, Tij=2ni/ni+nj, P2ω, d=expin2ωd/c,
Eω=T12ωT23ωexpin2ωd/cEω/1+R21ωR23ωexp2in2ωd/c.
Erefω=T1airωPairω, LTair3ω×k=0Rair3ωPair2ω, LRair1ωkEω.
Tω=Esampleω/Erefω.

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