Abstract

We present a manufacturing method based on the dynamic use of phase plates to photowrite Bragg gratings. This process allows for control of the local value of the index modulation envelope in the grating. The application to apodized fiber Bragg gratings is discussed.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Phase-shifted fibre Bragg grating photowriting using a UV phase plate in a modified Lloyd mirror configuration,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1687–1688 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Analysis of phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings written with phase plates,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3223–3228 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Singh, M. Zippin, “Apodized fiber Bragg gratings for DWDM applications using uniform phase mask,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth European Conference on Optical Communication (Lerko Print S. A., Madrid, Spain, 1998), Vol. 1, pp. 189–190.
  5. B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprimed using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–225 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodisation of the spectral response of fibre Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. J. Pan, Y. Shi, “Steep skirt fibre Bragg grating fabrication using a new apodised phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1895–1896 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P.-Y. Cortes, F. Ouellette, S. LaRochelle, “Intrinsic apodisation of Bragg gratings written using UV-pulse interferometry,” Electron. Lett. 34, 396–397 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, D. Armes, “Simple technique for apodising chirped and unchirped fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1226–1228 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, “Moving fibre/phase mask-scanning beam technique for enhanced flexibility in producing fibre gratings with uniform phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1488–1490 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Jacquinot, B. Roizen-Dossier, “Apodisation,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1964), Vol. 3, Chap. 2.
  12. M. Yamada, K. Sakuda, “Analysis of almost-periodic distributed feedback slab waveguides via a fundamental matrix approach,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3474–3478 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Roussel, S. Magne, C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Measurement of index modulation along fiber Bragg gratings by side scattering and local heating techniques,” Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 5, 119–132 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Krug, R. Stolte, R. Ulrich, “Measurement of index modulation along an optical fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1767–1769 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. K. W. Lam, B. K. Garside, “Characterization of single-mode optical fiber filters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 440–445 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. Chan, Y. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. Chan, Y. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

N. Roussel, S. Magne, C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Measurement of index modulation along fiber Bragg gratings by side scattering and local heating techniques,” Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 5, 119–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Analysis of phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings written with phase plates,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3223–3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Phase-shifted fibre Bragg grating photowriting using a UV phase plate in a modified Lloyd mirror configuration,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1687–1688 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.-Y. Cortes, F. Ouellette, S. LaRochelle, “Intrinsic apodisation of Bragg gratings written using UV-pulse interferometry,” Electron. Lett. 34, 396–397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. J. Pan, Y. Shi, “Steep skirt fibre Bragg grating fabrication using a new apodised phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1895–1896 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, D. Armes, “Simple technique for apodising chirped and unchirped fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1226–1228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodisation of the spectral response of fibre Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprimed using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–225 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, “Moving fibre/phase mask-scanning beam technique for enhanced flexibility in producing fibre gratings with uniform phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1488–1490 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Krug, R. Stolte, R. Ulrich, “Measurement of index modulation along an optical fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1767–1769 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

1981 (1)

Albert, J.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodisation of the spectral response of fibre Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprimed using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–225 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Armes, D.

R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, D. Armes, “Simple technique for apodising chirped and unchirped fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1226–1228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barcelos, S.

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, “Moving fibre/phase mask-scanning beam technique for enhanced flexibility in producing fibre gratings with uniform phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1488–1490 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodisation of the spectral response of fibre Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprimed using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–225 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y.

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. Chan, Y. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cole, M. J.

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, “Moving fibre/phase mask-scanning beam technique for enhanced flexibility in producing fibre gratings with uniform phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1488–1490 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cortes, P.-Y.

P.-Y. Cortes, F. Ouellette, S. LaRochelle, “Intrinsic apodisation of Bragg gratings written using UV-pulse interferometry,” Electron. Lett. 34, 396–397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, L. E.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodisation of the spectral response of fibre Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferdinand, P.

C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Analysis of phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings written with phase plates,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3223–3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Roussel, S. Magne, C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Measurement of index modulation along fiber Bragg gratings by side scattering and local heating techniques,” Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 5, 119–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Phase-shifted fibre Bragg grating photowriting using a UV phase plate in a modified Lloyd mirror configuration,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1687–1688 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garside, B. K.

Glenn, W. H.

Hill, K. O.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodisation of the spectral response of fibre Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprimed using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–225 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jacquinot, P.

P. Jacquinot, B. Roizen-Dossier, “Apodisation,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1964), Vol. 3, Chap. 2.

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. Chan, Y. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodisation of the spectral response of fibre Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprimed using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–225 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, D. Armes, “Simple technique for apodising chirped and unchirped fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1226–1228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krug, P.

Lam, D. K. W.

Lam, Y.

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. Chan, Y. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, “Moving fibre/phase mask-scanning beam technique for enhanced flexibility in producing fibre gratings with uniform phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1488–1490 (1995).
[CrossRef]

LaRochelle, S.

P.-Y. Cortes, F. Ouellette, S. LaRochelle, “Intrinsic apodisation of Bragg gratings written using UV-pulse interferometry,” Electron. Lett. 34, 396–397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. H.

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, “Moving fibre/phase mask-scanning beam technique for enhanced flexibility in producing fibre gratings with uniform phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1488–1490 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Magne, S.

N. Roussel, S. Magne, C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Measurement of index modulation along fiber Bragg gratings by side scattering and local heating techniques,” Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 5, 119–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodisation of the spectral response of fibre Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprimed using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–225 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, C.

N. Roussel, S. Magne, C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Measurement of index modulation along fiber Bragg gratings by side scattering and local heating techniques,” Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 5, 119–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Analysis of phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings written with phase plates,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3223–3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Phase-shifted fibre Bragg grating photowriting using a UV phase plate in a modified Lloyd mirror configuration,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1687–1688 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

Morey, W. W.

Ouellette, F.

P.-Y. Cortes, F. Ouellette, S. LaRochelle, “Intrinsic apodisation of Bragg gratings written using UV-pulse interferometry,” Electron. Lett. 34, 396–397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J. J.

J. J. Pan, Y. Shi, “Steep skirt fibre Bragg grating fabrication using a new apodised phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1895–1896 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roizen-Dossier, B.

P. Jacquinot, B. Roizen-Dossier, “Apodisation,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1964), Vol. 3, Chap. 2.

Roussel, N.

N. Roussel, S. Magne, C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Measurement of index modulation along fiber Bragg gratings by side scattering and local heating techniques,” Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 5, 119–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sakuda, K.

Shi, Y.

J. J. Pan, Y. Shi, “Steep skirt fibre Bragg grating fabrication using a new apodised phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1895–1896 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Singh, J.

J. Singh, M. Zippin, “Apodized fiber Bragg gratings for DWDM applications using uniform phase mask,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth European Conference on Optical Communication (Lerko Print S. A., Madrid, Spain, 1998), Vol. 1, pp. 189–190.

Stolte, R.

Swanton, A.

R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, D. Armes, “Simple technique for apodising chirped and unchirped fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1226–1228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thériault, S.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodisation of the spectral response of fibre Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprimed using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–225 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

Yamada, M.

Yuan, X.-C.

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. Chan, Y. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, “Moving fibre/phase mask-scanning beam technique for enhanced flexibility in producing fibre gratings with uniform phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1488–1490 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. Chan, Y. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zippin, M.

J. Singh, M. Zippin, “Apodized fiber Bragg gratings for DWDM applications using uniform phase mask,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth European Conference on Optical Communication (Lerko Print S. A., Madrid, Spain, 1998), Vol. 1, pp. 189–190.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (7)

C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Phase-shifted fibre Bragg grating photowriting using a UV phase plate in a modified Lloyd mirror configuration,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1687–1688 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprimed using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–225 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodisation of the spectral response of fibre Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Pan, Y. Shi, “Steep skirt fibre Bragg grating fabrication using a new apodised phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1895–1896 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P.-Y. Cortes, F. Ouellette, S. LaRochelle, “Intrinsic apodisation of Bragg gratings written using UV-pulse interferometry,” Electron. Lett. 34, 396–397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, D. Armes, “Simple technique for apodising chirped and unchirped fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1226–1228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, “Moving fibre/phase mask-scanning beam technique for enhanced flexibility in producing fibre gratings with uniform phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1488–1490 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. Chan, Y. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. (1)

N. Roussel, S. Magne, C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Measurement of index modulation along fiber Bragg gratings by side scattering and local heating techniques,” Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 5, 119–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

J. Singh, M. Zippin, “Apodized fiber Bragg gratings for DWDM applications using uniform phase mask,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth European Conference on Optical Communication (Lerko Print S. A., Madrid, Spain, 1998), Vol. 1, pp. 189–190.

P. Jacquinot, B. Roizen-Dossier, “Apodisation,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1964), Vol. 3, Chap. 2.

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