Abstract

We report the fabrication and the nonlinear optical properties of Rh-doped BaTiO3 thin films. The films were deposited on SrTiO3 (100) substrates by pulsed-laser deposition. The deposited Rh:BaTiO3 thin films were single phase and c-axis orientation investigated by x-ray diffraction. The films exhibited large nonlinear optical effects, which were determined using Z-scan technique at a wavelength of 532 nm with a laser duration of 10 ns. The real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) were 5.71 × 10-7 esu and 9.59 × 10-8 esu, respectively. The value of Reχ(3) of Rh:BaTiO3 films is much larger than those of several representative nonlinear optical thin films. The results show that Rh:BaTiO3 thin films have great potential applications for nonlinear optical devices.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. Zhang, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, P. X. Ye, “Wavelength dependence of two-beam coupling gain coefficients of BaTiO3: Ce crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 458–460 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. N. Schwartz, B. A. Wechsler, L. Weat, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive properties of molybdenum-doped barium titanate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1353–1354 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1003–1005 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Huot, J. M. C. Jonathan, G. Roosen, “Two-wave mixing in photorefractive BaTiO3:Rh at 1.06 µm in the nanosecond regime,” Opt. Lett. 22, 976–978 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Kaczmarek, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, “Near-infrared incoherent coupling and photorefractive response time of ‘blue’ Rh:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 136, 277–282 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Fujimoto, Y. Kobayashi, K. Kubota, “Growth of BaTiO3-SrTiO3 thin films by R. F. Magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 169, 249–256 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. H. Hoerman, G. M. Ford, L. D. Kaufmann, B. W. Wessels, “Dielectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2248–2250 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Zhao, F. Chen, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, Z. H. Chen, “Thickness and oxygen pressure dependent structural characteristics of BaTiO3 thin films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7442–7447 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. D. Salvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Z-scan measurements of the anisotropy of nonlinear refraction and absorption in crystals,” Opt. Lett. 18, 194–196 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Muto, T. Kubo, Y. Kurokawa, K. Suzuki, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of disperse red 1 and Au nanometer-size particle-doped alumina films prepared by solgel method,” Thin Solid Films 322, 233–237 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–292 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (2)

W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1003–1005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhao, F. Chen, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, Z. H. Chen, “Thickness and oxygen pressure dependent structural characteristics of BaTiO3 thin films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7442–7447 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Hoerman, G. M. Ford, L. D. Kaufmann, B. W. Wessels, “Dielectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2248–2250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Muto, T. Kubo, Y. Kurokawa, K. Suzuki, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of disperse red 1 and Au nanometer-size particle-doped alumina films prepared by solgel method,” Thin Solid Films 322, 233–237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Huot, J. M. C. Jonathan, G. Roosen, “Two-wave mixing in photorefractive BaTiO3:Rh at 1.06 µm in the nanosecond regime,” Opt. Lett. 22, 976–978 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kaczmarek, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, “Near-infrared incoherent coupling and photorefractive response time of ‘blue’ Rh:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 136, 277–282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

J. S. Zhang, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, P. X. Ye, “Wavelength dependence of two-beam coupling gain coefficients of BaTiO3: Ce crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 458–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Schwartz, B. A. Wechsler, L. Weat, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive properties of molybdenum-doped barium titanate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1353–1354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Salvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Z-scan measurements of the anisotropy of nonlinear refraction and absorption in crystals,” Opt. Lett. 18, 194–196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. Fujimoto, Y. Kobayashi, K. Kubota, “Growth of BaTiO3-SrTiO3 thin films by R. F. Magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 169, 249–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Afonso, C. N.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ando, M.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ballesteros, J. M.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chapple, P. B.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

T. Zhao, F. Chen, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, Z. H. Chen, “Thickness and oxygen pressure dependent structural characteristics of BaTiO3 thin films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7442–7447 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. H.

T. Zhao, F. Chen, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, Z. H. Chen, “Thickness and oxygen pressure dependent structural characteristics of BaTiO3 thin films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7442–7447 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cui, D. F.

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deguchi, K.

Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dou, S. X.

J. S. Zhang, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, P. X. Ye, “Wavelength dependence of two-beam coupling gain coefficients of BaTiO3: Ce crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 458–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

M. Kaczmarek, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, “Near-infrared incoherent coupling and photorefractive response time of ‘blue’ Rh:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 136, 277–282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

B. H. Hoerman, G. M. Ford, L. D. Kaufmann, B. W. Wessels, “Dielectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2248–2250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, K.

K. Fujimoto, Y. Kobayashi, K. Kubota, “Growth of BaTiO3-SrTiO3 thin films by R. F. Magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 169, 249–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

J. S. Zhang, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, P. X. Ye, “Wavelength dependence of two-beam coupling gain coefficients of BaTiO3: Ce crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 458–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

R. D. Salvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Z-scan measurements of the anisotropy of nonlinear refraction and absorption in crystals,” Opt. Lett. 18, 194–196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, R. F.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haruta, M.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, J. A.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hoerman, B. H.

B. H. Hoerman, G. M. Ford, L. D. Kaufmann, B. W. Wessels, “Dielectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2248–2250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hribek, P.

M. Kaczmarek, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, “Near-infrared incoherent coupling and photorefractive response time of ‘blue’ Rh:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 136, 277–282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. B.

W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1003–1005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huot, N.

Jonathan, J. M. C.

Kaczmarek, M.

M. Kaczmarek, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, “Near-infrared incoherent coupling and photorefractive response time of ‘blue’ Rh:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 136, 277–282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kadono, K.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kasatani, H.

Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, L. D.

B. H. Hoerman, G. M. Ford, L. D. Kaufmann, B. W. Wessels, “Dielectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2248–2250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

K. Fujimoto, Y. Kobayashi, K. Kubota, “Growth of BaTiO3-SrTiO3 thin films by R. F. Magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 169, 249–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, T.

S. Muto, T. Kubo, Y. Kurokawa, K. Suzuki, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of disperse red 1 and Au nanometer-size particle-doped alumina films prepared by solgel method,” Thin Solid Films 322, 233–237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, K.

K. Fujimoto, Y. Kobayashi, K. Kubota, “Growth of BaTiO3-SrTiO3 thin films by R. F. Magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 169, 249–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, Y.

S. Muto, T. Kubo, Y. Kurokawa, K. Suzuki, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of disperse red 1 and Au nanometer-size particle-doped alumina films prepared by solgel method,” Thin Solid Films 322, 233–237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. L.

L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. N.

W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. J.

W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. P.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N. N.

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. G.

W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1003–1005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. A.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. B.

T. Zhao, F. Chen, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, Z. H. Chen, “Thickness and oxygen pressure dependent structural characteristics of BaTiO3 thin films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7442–7447 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marks, T. J.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mckay, T. J.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miya, M.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Muto, S.

S. Muto, T. Kubo, Y. Kurokawa, K. Suzuki, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of disperse red 1 and Au nanometer-size particle-doped alumina films prepared by solgel method,” Thin Solid Films 322, 233–237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neumayer, D. A.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Okabe, T.

Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Osborne, D. H.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S. H.

L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petford-Long, A. K.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roosen, G.

Said, A. A.

R. D. Salvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Z-scan measurements of the anisotropy of nonlinear refraction and absorption in crystals,” Opt. Lett. 18, 194–196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, T.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sakaue, K.

Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salvo, R. D.

Schwartz, R. N.

R. N. Schwartz, B. A. Wechsler, L. Weat, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive properties of molybdenum-doped barium titanate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1353–1354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Serna, R.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

R. D. Salvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Z-scan measurements of the anisotropy of nonlinear refraction and absorption in crystals,” Opt. Lett. 18, 194–196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W. S.

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Staromlynska, J.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

S. Muto, T. Kubo, Y. Kurokawa, K. Suzuki, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of disperse red 1 and Au nanometer-size particle-doped alumina films prepared by solgel method,” Thin Solid Films 322, 233–237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Terauchi, H.

Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, T. Y.

W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S. L.

W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

R. D. Salvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Z-scan measurements of the anisotropy of nonlinear refraction and absorption in crystals,” Opt. Lett. 18, 194–196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. P.

L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weat, L.

R. N. Schwartz, B. A. Wechsler, L. Weat, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive properties of molybdenum-doped barium titanate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1353–1354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wechsler, B. A.

R. N. Schwartz, B. A. Wechsler, L. Weat, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive properties of molybdenum-doped barium titanate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1353–1354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, B. W.

B. H. Hoerman, G. M. Ford, L. D. Kaufmann, B. W. Wessels, “Dielectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2248–2250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wills, L. A.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, L. Z.

L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. Z.

T. Zhao, F. Chen, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, Z. H. Chen, “Thickness and oxygen pressure dependent structural characteristics of BaTiO3 thin films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7442–7447 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. J.

W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ye, P. X.

J. S. Zhang, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, P. X. Ye, “Wavelength dependence of two-beam coupling gain coefficients of BaTiO3: Ce crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 458–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yoneda, Y.

Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. S.

J. S. Zhang, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, P. X. Ye, “Wavelength dependence of two-beam coupling gain coefficients of BaTiO3: Ce crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 458–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M. S.

W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1003–1005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T. G.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. F.

W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1003–1005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, T.

T. Zhao, F. Chen, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, Z. H. Chen, “Thickness and oxygen pressure dependent structural characteristics of BaTiO3 thin films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7442–7447 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y. L.

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

J. S. Zhang, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, P. X. Ye, “Wavelength dependence of two-beam coupling gain coefficients of BaTiO3: Ce crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 458–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Zhang, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, P. X. Ye, “Wavelength dependence of two-beam coupling gain coefficients of BaTiO3: Ce crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 458–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Schwartz, B. A. Wechsler, L. Weat, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive properties of molybdenum-doped barium titanate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1353–1354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1003–1005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Hoerman, G. M. Ford, L. D. Kaufmann, B. W. Wessels, “Dielectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2248–2250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhao, F. Chen, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, Z. H. Chen, “Thickness and oxygen pressure dependent structural characteristics of BaTiO3 thin films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7442–7447 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Kaczmarek, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, “Near-infrared incoherent coupling and photorefractive response time of ‘blue’ Rh:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 136, 277–282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Thin Solid Films (2)

S. Muto, T. Kubo, Y. Kurokawa, K. Suzuki, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of disperse red 1 and Au nanometer-size particle-doped alumina films prepared by solgel method,” Thin Solid Films 322, 233–237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujimoto, Y. Kobayashi, K. Kubota, “Growth of BaTiO3-SrTiO3 thin films by R. F. Magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 169, 249–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear coefficients.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XRD θ-2θ scan of the Rh:BaTiO3 films. The inset shows the ω-rocking curve for the (002) peak of the films.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Z-scan-measured curve of the Rh:BaTiO3 films using 10 ns pulses at λ = 532 nm. The solid curve is the theoretical fit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Z-scan-measured curve of the films for nonlinear optical absorption. The solid curve is the theoretical fit.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Value of χ(3) of Several Representative Nonlinear Optical Thin Films

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ω z 2 = ω 0 2 1 + z 2 / z R 2 ,
n 2 esu = 2.943 × 10 6 n 0 λ τ ω 0 2 × Δ T p - ν / 1 - S 0.25 L eff E ,
Re χ 3 esu = n 0 2 cn 2 m 2 / W / 120 π 2 = n 0 n 2 esu / 3 π ,
T S = 1 = m = 0 + - β I 0 L eff m m + 1 3 / 2 ,   for   | β I 0 L eff | < 1 ,
β m / W = 240 π 2 ω Im χ 3 esu / n 0 2 c 2 ,

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