Abstract

We report the fabrication and the nonlinear optical properties of Rh-doped BaTiO3 thin films. The films were deposited on SrTiO3 (100) substrates by pulsed-laser deposition. The deposited Rh:BaTiO3 thin films were single phase and c-axis orientation investigated by x-ray diffraction. The films exhibited large nonlinear optical effects, which were determined using Z-scan technique at a wavelength of 532 nm with a laser duration of 10 ns. The real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) were 5.71 × 10-7 esu and 9.59 × 10-8 esu, respectively. The value of Reχ(3) of Rh:BaTiO3 films is much larger than those of several representative nonlinear optical thin films. The results show that Rh:BaTiO3 thin films have great potential applications for nonlinear optical devices.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. Zhang, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, P. X. Ye, “Wavelength dependence of two-beam coupling gain coefficients of BaTiO3: Ce crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 458–460 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. N. Schwartz, B. A. Wechsler, L. Weat, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive properties of molybdenum-doped barium titanate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1353–1354 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1003–1005 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Huot, J. M. C. Jonathan, G. Roosen, “Two-wave mixing in photorefractive BaTiO3:Rh at 1.06 µm in the nanosecond regime,” Opt. Lett. 22, 976–978 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Kaczmarek, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, “Near-infrared incoherent coupling and photorefractive response time of ‘blue’ Rh:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 136, 277–282 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Fujimoto, Y. Kobayashi, K. Kubota, “Growth of BaTiO3-SrTiO3 thin films by R. F. Magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 169, 249–256 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. H. Hoerman, G. M. Ford, L. D. Kaufmann, B. W. Wessels, “Dielectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2248–2250 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Zhao, F. Chen, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, Z. H. Chen, “Thickness and oxygen pressure dependent structural characteristics of BaTiO3 thin films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7442–7447 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. D. Salvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Z-scan measurements of the anisotropy of nonlinear refraction and absorption in crystals,” Opt. Lett. 18, 194–196 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Muto, T. Kubo, Y. Kurokawa, K. Suzuki, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of disperse red 1 and Au nanometer-size particle-doped alumina films prepared by solgel method,” Thin Solid Films 322, 233–237 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–292 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. Zhao, F. Chen, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, Z. H. Chen, “Thickness and oxygen pressure dependent structural characteristics of BaTiO3 thin films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7442–7447 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1003–1005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

S. Muto, T. Kubo, Y. Kurokawa, K. Suzuki, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of disperse red 1 and Au nanometer-size particle-doped alumina films prepared by solgel method,” Thin Solid Films 322, 233–237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Hoerman, G. M. Ford, L. D. Kaufmann, B. W. Wessels, “Dielectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2248–2250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

M. Kaczmarek, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, “Near-infrared incoherent coupling and photorefractive response time of ‘blue’ Rh:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 136, 277–282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Huot, J. M. C. Jonathan, G. Roosen, “Two-wave mixing in photorefractive BaTiO3:Rh at 1.06 µm in the nanosecond regime,” Opt. Lett. 22, 976–978 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Zhang, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, P. X. Ye, “Wavelength dependence of two-beam coupling gain coefficients of BaTiO3: Ce crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 458–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Schwartz, B. A. Wechsler, L. Weat, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive properties of molybdenum-doped barium titanate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1353–1354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Salvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Z-scan measurements of the anisotropy of nonlinear refraction and absorption in crystals,” Opt. Lett. 18, 194–196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. Fujimoto, Y. Kobayashi, K. Kubota, “Growth of BaTiO3-SrTiO3 thin films by R. F. Magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 169, 249–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Afonso, C. N.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ando, M.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ballesteros, J. M.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chapple, P. B.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

T. Zhao, F. Chen, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, Z. H. Chen, “Thickness and oxygen pressure dependent structural characteristics of BaTiO3 thin films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7442–7447 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. H.

T. Zhao, F. Chen, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, Z. H. Chen, “Thickness and oxygen pressure dependent structural characteristics of BaTiO3 thin films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7442–7447 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cui, D. F.

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deguchi, K.

Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dou, S. X.

J. S. Zhang, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, P. X. Ye, “Wavelength dependence of two-beam coupling gain coefficients of BaTiO3: Ce crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 458–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

M. Kaczmarek, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, “Near-infrared incoherent coupling and photorefractive response time of ‘blue’ Rh:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 136, 277–282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

B. H. Hoerman, G. M. Ford, L. D. Kaufmann, B. W. Wessels, “Dielectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2248–2250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, K.

K. Fujimoto, Y. Kobayashi, K. Kubota, “Growth of BaTiO3-SrTiO3 thin films by R. F. Magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 169, 249–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

J. S. Zhang, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, P. X. Ye, “Wavelength dependence of two-beam coupling gain coefficients of BaTiO3: Ce crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 458–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

R. D. Salvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Z-scan measurements of the anisotropy of nonlinear refraction and absorption in crystals,” Opt. Lett. 18, 194–196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, R. F.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haruta, M.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, J. A.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hoerman, B. H.

B. H. Hoerman, G. M. Ford, L. D. Kaufmann, B. W. Wessels, “Dielectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2248–2250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hribek, P.

M. Kaczmarek, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, “Near-infrared incoherent coupling and photorefractive response time of ‘blue’ Rh:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 136, 277–282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. B.

W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1003–1005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huot, N.

Jonathan, J. M. C.

Kaczmarek, M.

M. Kaczmarek, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, “Near-infrared incoherent coupling and photorefractive response time of ‘blue’ Rh:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 136, 277–282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kadono, K.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kasatani, H.

Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, L. D.

B. H. Hoerman, G. M. Ford, L. D. Kaufmann, B. W. Wessels, “Dielectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2248–2250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

K. Fujimoto, Y. Kobayashi, K. Kubota, “Growth of BaTiO3-SrTiO3 thin films by R. F. Magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 169, 249–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, T.

S. Muto, T. Kubo, Y. Kurokawa, K. Suzuki, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of disperse red 1 and Au nanometer-size particle-doped alumina films prepared by solgel method,” Thin Solid Films 322, 233–237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, K.

K. Fujimoto, Y. Kobayashi, K. Kubota, “Growth of BaTiO3-SrTiO3 thin films by R. F. Magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 169, 249–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, Y.

S. Muto, T. Kubo, Y. Kurokawa, K. Suzuki, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of disperse red 1 and Au nanometer-size particle-doped alumina films prepared by solgel method,” Thin Solid Films 322, 233–237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. L.

L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. N.

W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. J.

W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. P.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N. N.

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. G.

W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1003–1005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. A.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. B.

T. Zhao, F. Chen, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, Z. H. Chen, “Thickness and oxygen pressure dependent structural characteristics of BaTiO3 thin films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7442–7447 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marks, T. J.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mckay, T. J.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miya, M.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Muto, S.

S. Muto, T. Kubo, Y. Kurokawa, K. Suzuki, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of disperse red 1 and Au nanometer-size particle-doped alumina films prepared by solgel method,” Thin Solid Films 322, 233–237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neumayer, D. A.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Okabe, T.

Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Osborne, D. H.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S. H.

L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petford-Long, A. K.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roosen, G.

Said, A. A.

R. D. Salvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Z-scan measurements of the anisotropy of nonlinear refraction and absorption in crystals,” Opt. Lett. 18, 194–196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, T.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sakaue, K.

Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salvo, R. D.

Schwartz, R. N.

R. N. Schwartz, B. A. Wechsler, L. Weat, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive properties of molybdenum-doped barium titanate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1353–1354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Serna, R.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

R. D. Salvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Z-scan measurements of the anisotropy of nonlinear refraction and absorption in crystals,” Opt. Lett. 18, 194–196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W. S.

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Staromlynska, J.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

S. Muto, T. Kubo, Y. Kurokawa, K. Suzuki, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of disperse red 1 and Au nanometer-size particle-doped alumina films prepared by solgel method,” Thin Solid Films 322, 233–237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Terauchi, H.

Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, T. Y.

W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S. L.

W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

R. D. Salvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Z-scan measurements of the anisotropy of nonlinear refraction and absorption in crystals,” Opt. Lett. 18, 194–196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. P.

L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weat, L.

R. N. Schwartz, B. A. Wechsler, L. Weat, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive properties of molybdenum-doped barium titanate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1353–1354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wechsler, B. A.

R. N. Schwartz, B. A. Wechsler, L. Weat, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive properties of molybdenum-doped barium titanate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1353–1354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, B. W.

B. H. Hoerman, G. M. Ford, L. D. Kaufmann, B. W. Wessels, “Dielectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2248–2250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wills, L. A.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, L. Z.

L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. Z.

T. Zhao, F. Chen, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, Z. H. Chen, “Thickness and oxygen pressure dependent structural characteristics of BaTiO3 thin films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7442–7447 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. J.

W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ye, P. X.

J. S. Zhang, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, P. X. Ye, “Wavelength dependence of two-beam coupling gain coefficients of BaTiO3: Ce crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 458–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yoneda, Y.

Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. S.

J. S. Zhang, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, P. X. Ye, “Wavelength dependence of two-beam coupling gain coefficients of BaTiO3: Ce crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 458–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M. S.

W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1003–1005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T. G.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. F.

W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1003–1005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, T.

T. Zhao, F. Chen, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, Z. H. Chen, “Thickness and oxygen pressure dependent structural characteristics of BaTiO3 thin films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7442–7447 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y. L.

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

J. S. Zhang, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, P. X. Ye, “Wavelength dependence of two-beam coupling gain coefficients of BaTiO3: Ce crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 458–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, Z. H. Chen, R. P. Wang, W. S. Shi, C. L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Zhang, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, P. X. Ye, “Wavelength dependence of two-beam coupling gain coefficients of BaTiO3: Ce crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 458–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Schwartz, B. A. Wechsler, L. Weat, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive properties of molybdenum-doped barium titanate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1353–1354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Shi, Z. H. Chen, N. N. Liu, H. B. Lu, Y. L. Zhou, D. F. Cui, G. Z. Yang, “Nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1547–1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1003–1005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Hoerman, G. M. Ford, L. D. Kaufmann, B. W. Wessels, “Dielectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2248–2250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

Y. Yoneda, T. Okabe, K. Sakaue, H. Terauchi, H. Kasatani, K. Deguchi, “Structural characterization of BaTiO3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2458–2461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Lin, T. Y. Tseng, H. B. Lu, S. L. Tu, S. J. Yang, J. N. Lin, “Growth and ferroelectricity of epitaxial-like BaTiO3 films on single-crystal MgO, SrTiO3, and silicon substrates synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6466–6471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhao, F. Chen, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, Z. H. Chen, “Thickness and oxygen pressure dependent structural characteristics of BaTiO3 thin films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7442–7447 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, “Single-beam z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251–292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Kaczmarek, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, “Near-infrared incoherent coupling and photorefractive response time of ‘blue’ Rh:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 136, 277–282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Thin Solid Films (2)

K. Fujimoto, Y. Kobayashi, K. Kubota, “Growth of BaTiO3-SrTiO3 thin films by R. F. Magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 169, 249–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Muto, T. Kubo, Y. Kurokawa, K. Suzuki, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of disperse red 1 and Au nanometer-size particle-doped alumina films prepared by solgel method,” Thin Solid Films 322, 233–237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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