Abstract

The design and operation of a proof-of-principle rectangular He-Ne ring laser resonator with a cavity perimeter of 77.0 m and an area of ∼367 m2 are described. With unevacuated beam lines this device gave an Earth-induced Sagnac frequency of 1513 Hz, with a relative Allan deviation over 1000 s down to 3 parts per million. The Earth’s rotation provided a bias that eliminated the lock-in susceptibility. The use of increased pressure in the plasma tube facilitated single-mode operation by increasing the homogeneous pressure-broadened linewidth.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. W. Dunn, “Design of a triangular active ring laser 13 m on a side,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6405–6409 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. H. Rowe, K. U. Schreiber, S. J. Cooper, B. T. King, M. Poulton, G. E. Stedman, “Design and operation of a very large ring laser gyroscope,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2516–2523 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. U. Schreiber, C. H. Rowe, D. N. Wright, S. J. Cooper, G. E. Stedman, “Precision stabilization of the optical frequency in a large ring laser gyroscope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8371–8381 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. E. Stedman, “Ring-laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615–688 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, H. R. Bilger, “Sideband analysis and seismic detection in a large ring laser,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5375–5385 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, C. H. Rowe, G. E. Stedman, W. Schlüter, “Stabilising the operation of a large ring laser,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Gyro Technology 1999, H. Sorg, ed. (Universität Stuttgart, Institut A für Mechanik, Stuttgart, Germany, 1999), pp. 14.0–14.7.
  7. A. Pancha, T. H. Webb, G. E. Stedman, D. P. McLeod, K. U. Schreiber, “Ring laser detection of rotations from teleseismic waves,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3553–3556 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. U. Scheiber, G. E. Stedman, “Earth tide and tilt detection by a ring laser gyroscope,” J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, submitted for publication.
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    [CrossRef]
  10. L. W. Casperson, “Saturation and power in a high-gain gas laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 250–251 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. W. Rigrod, “The optical resonator,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 907–916 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Aronowitz, “The laser Gyro,” in Laser Applications, M. Ross, ed. (Academic, New York, 1971), Vol. 1, pp. 133–200.
  13. L. C. Ng, D. J. Pines, “Characterization of ring laser gyro performance using the Allan variance method,” J. Guid. Control Dyn. 20, 211–214 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Pancha, T. H. Webb, G. E. Stedman, D. P. McLeod, K. U. Schreiber, “Ring laser detection of rotations from teleseismic waves,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3553–3556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

G. E. Stedman, “Ring-laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615–688 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L. C. Ng, D. J. Pines, “Characterization of ring laser gyro performance using the Allan variance method,” J. Guid. Control Dyn. 20, 211–214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1973 (1)

L. W. Casperson, “Saturation and power in a high-gain gas laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 250–251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

P. W. Smith, “Linewidth and saturation parameters for 6328 A transitions in a He-Ne laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2089–2093 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

W. W. Rigrod, “The optical resonator,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 907–916 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Aronowitz, F.

F. Aronowitz, “The laser Gyro,” in Laser Applications, M. Ross, ed. (Academic, New York, 1971), Vol. 1, pp. 133–200.

Bilger, H. R.

Casperson, L. W.

L. W. Casperson, “Saturation and power in a high-gain gas laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 250–251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, S. J.

Dunn, R. W.

King, B. T.

Li, Z.

McLeod, D. P.

A. Pancha, T. H. Webb, G. E. Stedman, D. P. McLeod, K. U. Schreiber, “Ring laser detection of rotations from teleseismic waves,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3553–3556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ng, L. C.

L. C. Ng, D. J. Pines, “Characterization of ring laser gyro performance using the Allan variance method,” J. Guid. Control Dyn. 20, 211–214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pancha, A.

A. Pancha, T. H. Webb, G. E. Stedman, D. P. McLeod, K. U. Schreiber, “Ring laser detection of rotations from teleseismic waves,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3553–3556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pines, D. J.

L. C. Ng, D. J. Pines, “Characterization of ring laser gyro performance using the Allan variance method,” J. Guid. Control Dyn. 20, 211–214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, M.

Rigrod, W. W.

W. W. Rigrod, “The optical resonator,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 907–916 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, C. H.

C. H. Rowe, K. U. Schreiber, S. J. Cooper, B. T. King, M. Poulton, G. E. Stedman, “Design and operation of a very large ring laser gyroscope,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2516–2523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. U. Schreiber, C. H. Rowe, D. N. Wright, S. J. Cooper, G. E. Stedman, “Precision stabilization of the optical frequency in a large ring laser gyroscope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8371–8381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, C. H. Rowe, G. E. Stedman, W. Schlüter, “Stabilising the operation of a large ring laser,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Gyro Technology 1999, H. Sorg, ed. (Universität Stuttgart, Institut A für Mechanik, Stuttgart, Germany, 1999), pp. 14.0–14.7.

Scheiber, K. U.

K. U. Scheiber, G. E. Stedman, “Earth tide and tilt detection by a ring laser gyroscope,” J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, submitted for publication.

Schlüter, W.

K. U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, C. H. Rowe, G. E. Stedman, W. Schlüter, “Stabilising the operation of a large ring laser,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Gyro Technology 1999, H. Sorg, ed. (Universität Stuttgart, Institut A für Mechanik, Stuttgart, Germany, 1999), pp. 14.0–14.7.

Schneider, M.

K. U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, C. H. Rowe, G. E. Stedman, W. Schlüter, “Stabilising the operation of a large ring laser,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Gyro Technology 1999, H. Sorg, ed. (Universität Stuttgart, Institut A für Mechanik, Stuttgart, Germany, 1999), pp. 14.0–14.7.

Schreiber, K. U.

A. Pancha, T. H. Webb, G. E. Stedman, D. P. McLeod, K. U. Schreiber, “Ring laser detection of rotations from teleseismic waves,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3553–3556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Rowe, K. U. Schreiber, S. J. Cooper, B. T. King, M. Poulton, G. E. Stedman, “Design and operation of a very large ring laser gyroscope,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2516–2523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. U. Schreiber, C. H. Rowe, D. N. Wright, S. J. Cooper, G. E. Stedman, “Precision stabilization of the optical frequency in a large ring laser gyroscope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8371–8381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, C. H. Rowe, G. E. Stedman, W. Schlüter, “Stabilising the operation of a large ring laser,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Gyro Technology 1999, H. Sorg, ed. (Universität Stuttgart, Institut A für Mechanik, Stuttgart, Germany, 1999), pp. 14.0–14.7.

Smith, P. W.

P. W. Smith, “Linewidth and saturation parameters for 6328 A transitions in a He-Ne laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2089–2093 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Stedman, G. E.

A. Pancha, T. H. Webb, G. E. Stedman, D. P. McLeod, K. U. Schreiber, “Ring laser detection of rotations from teleseismic waves,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3553–3556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Rowe, K. U. Schreiber, S. J. Cooper, B. T. King, M. Poulton, G. E. Stedman, “Design and operation of a very large ring laser gyroscope,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2516–2523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. U. Schreiber, C. H. Rowe, D. N. Wright, S. J. Cooper, G. E. Stedman, “Precision stabilization of the optical frequency in a large ring laser gyroscope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8371–8381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Stedman, “Ring-laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615–688 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, H. R. Bilger, “Sideband analysis and seismic detection in a large ring laser,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5375–5385 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, C. H. Rowe, G. E. Stedman, W. Schlüter, “Stabilising the operation of a large ring laser,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Gyro Technology 1999, H. Sorg, ed. (Universität Stuttgart, Institut A für Mechanik, Stuttgart, Germany, 1999), pp. 14.0–14.7.

K. U. Scheiber, G. E. Stedman, “Earth tide and tilt detection by a ring laser gyroscope,” J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, submitted for publication.

Webb, T. H.

A. Pancha, T. H. Webb, G. E. Stedman, D. P. McLeod, K. U. Schreiber, “Ring laser detection of rotations from teleseismic waves,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3553–3556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wright, D. N.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

W. W. Rigrod, “The optical resonator,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 907–916 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

A. Pancha, T. H. Webb, G. E. Stedman, D. P. McLeod, K. U. Schreiber, “Ring laser detection of rotations from teleseismic waves,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3553–3556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. W. Casperson, “Saturation and power in a high-gain gas laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 250–251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. W. Smith, “Linewidth and saturation parameters for 6328 A transitions in a He-Ne laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2089–2093 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Guid. Control Dyn. (1)

L. C. Ng, D. J. Pines, “Characterization of ring laser gyro performance using the Allan variance method,” J. Guid. Control Dyn. 20, 211–214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

G. E. Stedman, “Ring-laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615–688 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

F. Aronowitz, “The laser Gyro,” in Laser Applications, M. Ross, ed. (Academic, New York, 1971), Vol. 1, pp. 133–200.

K. U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, C. H. Rowe, G. E. Stedman, W. Schlüter, “Stabilising the operation of a large ring laser,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Gyro Technology 1999, H. Sorg, ed. (Universität Stuttgart, Institut A für Mechanik, Stuttgart, Germany, 1999), pp. 14.0–14.7.

K. U. Scheiber, G. E. Stedman, “Earth tide and tilt detection by a ring laser gyroscope,” J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, submitted for publication.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Montage of computer-aided design drawings for UG1a and one corner area. The gas-retaining tubes are omitted.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical Sagnac time series record from UG1a for 11 September 2000.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative Allan deviation σ A f of the Sagnac frequency estimates for UG1a plotted versus sample time τ for the data run of Fig. 2. The dashed curves indicate confidence limits; the dotted curves correspond to σ A proportional to τ-1/2 (as for quantum noise) and τ1/2.

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