The near-normal-incidence efficiencies of a 2400-groove/mm holographic master grating, a replica grating, and a multilayer grating are modeled in the soft-x-ray-extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) regions and are compared with efficiencies that are measured with synchrotron radiation. The efficiencies are calculated by the computer program PCGrate, which is based on a rigorous modified integral method. The theory of our integral method is described both for monolayer and multilayer gratings designated for the soft-x-ray-EUV-wavelength range. The calculations account for the groove profile as determined from atomic force microscopy with a depth scaling in the case of the multilayer grating and an average random microroughness (0.7 nm) for the short wavelengths. The refractive indices of the grating substrate and coatings have been taken from different sources because of the wide range of the wavelengths (4.5–50 nm). The measured peak absolute efficiency of 10.4% in the second diffraction order at a wavelength of 11.4 nm is achieved for the multilayer grating and is in good agreement with a computed value of ∼11.5%. Rigorous modeling of the efficiencies of three similar gratings is in good overall agreement with the measured efficiency over a wide wavelength region. Additional calculations have indicated that relatively high normal incidence efficiency (of at least several percent) and large angular dispersion in the higher orders can be achieved in the 4.5–10.5-nm range by application of various multilayer coatings.
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