Abstract

An arrayed waveguide display (AWD) is proposed in which a linear emitter array is coupled to a waveguide array upon which liquid-crystal (LC) switches are formed. Images are displayed by line-by-line control of light, including emission by the emitter array, injection into the waveguide array, propagation inside, and extraction by use of the LC switches. With mostly polymeric materials, an AWD can be made thin and tough. Its light-use efficiency can be made larger than that of a conventional transmissive LC display. Because of these potential advantages, an AWD is well suited for mobile applications.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2001

J. H. Shin, S. H. Shin, J. I. Park, H. H. Kim, “Properties of dc magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide films on polymeric substrates at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5199–5203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. Eldada, L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Kobayashi, “Mobile terminals and devices technology for the 21st century,” NEC Res. Dev. 42, 15–24 (2000).

G. H. Gelinck, T. C. T. Geuns, D. M. de Leeuw, “High-performance all-polymer integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1487–1489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243–1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Gleskova, S. Wagner, “Amorphous silicon thin-film transistors on compliant polyimide foil substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. EDL-20, 473–475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, T. Tsuysui, Y. Taga, “Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 2407–2411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohmori, H. Ueta, Y. Kurosawa, M. Hikita, K. Yoshino, “Organic EL diode with plastic waveguide devices,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 461–464 (1999).

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides of epoxy resins fabricated by direct photo-patterning process,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 441–444 (1999).

1997

1995

A. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Ohmori, K. Yoshino, “Polarization anisotropy of organic electroluminescent diode with periodic multilayer structure utilizing 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum and aromatic diamine,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, l621–L624 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. Hiramoto, J. Tani, M. Yokoyama, “Directed beam emission from film edge in organic electroluminescent diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 666–668 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

M. Ozaki, Y. Sadohara, T. Hatai, K. Yoshino, “Fast optical switching in polymer waveguide using ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L843–L845 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated optics components and devices using periodic structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 845–867 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982

1979

1973

Andrejewski, D.

R. Maurer, D. Andrejewski, F.-H. Kreuzer, A. Miller, “Polarizing color filters made from cholesteric LC Silicones,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1990), Vol. 21, pp. 110–113.

Burrows, P.

S. Forrest, P. Burrows, M. Thompson, “The dawn of organic electronics,” IEEE Spectrum (August2000), pp. 29–34.

Burrows, P. E.

Carey, P. G.

S. D. Theiss, P. G. Carey, P. M. Smith, P. Wickboldt, T. W. Sigmon, “PolySilicon thin film transistors fabricated at 100 °C on a flexible plastic substrate,” in Proceedings of the 1998 International Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM Technical Digest (Electron Devices Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 257–260.

Crawford, G. P.

G. P. Crawford, “A bright new page in portable displays,” IEEE Spectrum (October2000), pp. 40–46.

de Leeuw, D. M.

G. H. Gelinck, T. C. T. Geuns, D. M. de Leeuw, “High-performance all-polymer integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1487–1489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dudkin, V. A.

A. P. Ghosh, W. E. Howard, I. Sokolik, R. Zhang, V. M. Shershukov, A. V. Tolmachev, N. I. Voronkina, V. A. Dudkin, “Color changing materials for OLED microdisplays,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 31, pp. 983–985.
[CrossRef]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada, L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Enbutsu, K.

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides of epoxy resins fabricated by direct photo-patterning process,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 441–444 (1999).

Forrest, S.

S. Forrest, P. Burrows, M. Thompson, “The dawn of organic electronics,” IEEE Spectrum (August2000), pp. 29–34.

Forrest, S. R.

Fujii, A.

A. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Ohmori, K. Yoshino, “Polarization anisotropy of organic electroluminescent diode with periodic multilayer structure utilizing 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum and aromatic diamine,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, l621–L624 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fujikake, H.

H. Fujikake, T. Murashige, J. Yonai, H. Sato, Y. Tsuchiya, H. Kikuchi, Y. Iino, M. Kawakita, K. Takizawa, “Flexible ferroelectric liquid crystal devices with polymer fiber network supporting plastic substrates,” in Conference Record of the 20th International Display Research Conference Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 68–71 (2000).

Fujisawa, K.

K. Yoshino, K. Fujisawa, Y. Uemura, M. Minamii, “Display apparatus,” Japanese patent 5–5882 (filed 9May1991).

Fukuda, T.

Y. Tsuruoka, S. Nakayama, T. Fukuda, Y. Shimizu, Y. Kobori, “Application of organic electroluminescent device to color print head,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 31, pp. 978–981.
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D. Z.

Gelinck, G. H.

G. H. Gelinck, T. C. T. Geuns, D. M. de Leeuw, “High-performance all-polymer integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1487–1489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geuns, T. C. T.

G. H. Gelinck, T. C. T. Geuns, D. M. de Leeuw, “High-performance all-polymer integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1487–1489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, A. P.

A. P. Ghosh, W. E. Howard, I. Sokolik, R. Zhang, V. M. Shershukov, A. V. Tolmachev, N. I. Voronkina, V. A. Dudkin, “Color changing materials for OLED microdisplays,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 31, pp. 983–985.
[CrossRef]

Gleskova, H.

H. Gleskova, S. Wagner, “Amorphous silicon thin-film transistors on compliant polyimide foil substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. EDL-20, 473–475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gu, G.

Hamano, H.

M. Ogihara, T. Shimizu, M. Taninaka, H. Hamano, Y. Nakayama, “1200dpi LED print head,” in Nip 13: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (1997) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 28–33.

Hatai, T.

M. Ozaki, Y. Sadohara, T. Hatai, K. Yoshino, “Fast optical switching in polymer waveguide using ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L843–L845 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hikita, M.

Y. Ohmori, H. Ueta, Y. Kurosawa, M. Hikita, K. Yoshino, “Organic EL diode with plastic waveguide devices,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 461–464 (1999).

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides of epoxy resins fabricated by direct photo-patterning process,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 441–444 (1999).

Hikita, Makoto

Makoto Hikita, NTT Advanced Technology Corporation, 162 Shirakata, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki, 319-1193, Japan (personal communication, 2001).

Hiramoto, M.

M. Hiramoto, J. Tani, M. Yokoyama, “Directed beam emission from film edge in organic electroluminescent diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 666–668 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Howard, W. E.

A. P. Ghosh, W. E. Howard, I. Sokolik, R. Zhang, V. M. Shershukov, A. V. Tolmachev, N. I. Voronkina, V. A. Dudkin, “Color changing materials for OLED microdisplays,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 31, pp. 983–985.
[CrossRef]

Iino, Y.

H. Fujikake, T. Murashige, J. Yonai, H. Sato, Y. Tsuchiya, H. Kikuchi, Y. Iino, M. Kawakita, K. Takizawa, “Flexible ferroelectric liquid crystal devices with polymer fiber network supporting plastic substrates,” in Conference Record of the 20th International Display Research Conference Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 68–71 (2000).

Imamura, S.

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides of epoxy resins fabricated by direct photo-patterning process,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 441–444 (1999).

Kashnow, R. A.

Kawakita, M.

H. Fujikake, T. Murashige, J. Yonai, H. Sato, Y. Tsuchiya, H. Kikuchi, Y. Iino, M. Kawakita, K. Takizawa, “Flexible ferroelectric liquid crystal devices with polymer fiber network supporting plastic substrates,” in Conference Record of the 20th International Display Research Conference Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 68–71 (2000).

Kawano, K.

H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, Y. Shigesato, “Silica aerogel thin film substrate for OLED,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 405–407.
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, H.

H. Fujikake, T. Murashige, J. Yonai, H. Sato, Y. Tsuchiya, H. Kikuchi, Y. Iino, M. Kawakita, K. Takizawa, “Flexible ferroelectric liquid crystal devices with polymer fiber network supporting plastic substrates,” in Conference Record of the 20th International Display Research Conference Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 68–71 (2000).

Kim, H. H.

J. H. Shin, S. H. Shin, J. I. Park, H. H. Kim, “Properties of dc magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide films on polymeric substrates at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5199–5203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

K. Kobayashi, “Mobile terminals and devices technology for the 21st century,” NEC Res. Dev. 42, 15–24 (2000).

Kobori, Y.

Y. Tsuruoka, S. Nakayama, T. Fukuda, Y. Shimizu, Y. Kobori, “Application of organic electroluminescent device to color print head,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 31, pp. 978–981.
[CrossRef]

Koyama, J.

M. Sawada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Integrated hologram memory device using liquid-crystal optical switch matrix,” (in Japanese) IEICE Tech. Rep. OQE81–116 (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 1982), pp. 21–28.

Kreuzer, F.-H.

R. Maurer, D. Andrejewski, F.-H. Kreuzer, A. Miller, “Polarizing color filters made from cholesteric LC Silicones,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1990), Vol. 21, pp. 110–113.

Kubota, T.

Kurosawa, Y.

Y. Ohmori, H. Ueta, Y. Kurosawa, M. Hikita, K. Yoshino, “Organic EL diode with plastic waveguide devices,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 461–464 (1999).

Lu, M.-H.

F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Madigan, F.

F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, R.

R. Maurer, D. Andrejewski, F.-H. Kreuzer, A. Miller, “Polarizing color filters made from cholesteric LC Silicones,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1990), Vol. 21, pp. 110–113.

Miller, A.

R. Maurer, D. Andrejewski, F.-H. Kreuzer, A. Miller, “Polarizing color filters made from cholesteric LC Silicones,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1990), Vol. 21, pp. 110–113.

Minamii, M.

K. Yoshino, K. Fujisawa, Y. Uemura, M. Minamii, “Display apparatus,” Japanese patent 5–5882 (filed 9May1991).

Murashige, T.

H. Fujikake, T. Murashige, J. Yonai, H. Sato, Y. Tsuchiya, H. Kikuchi, Y. Iino, M. Kawakita, K. Takizawa, “Flexible ferroelectric liquid crystal devices with polymer fiber network supporting plastic substrates,” in Conference Record of the 20th International Display Research Conference Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 68–71 (2000).

Nakayama, S.

Y. Tsuruoka, S. Nakayama, T. Fukuda, Y. Shimizu, Y. Kobori, “Application of organic electroluminescent device to color print head,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 31, pp. 978–981.
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, Y.

M. Ogihara, T. Shimizu, M. Taninaka, H. Hamano, Y. Nakayama, “1200dpi LED print head,” in Nip 13: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (1997) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 28–33.

Nishihara, H.

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated optics components and devices using periodic structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 845–867 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Sawada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Integrated hologram memory device using liquid-crystal optical switch matrix,” (in Japanese) IEICE Tech. Rep. OQE81–116 (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 1982), pp. 21–28.

Ogihara, M.

M. Ogihara, T. Shimizu, M. Taninaka, H. Hamano, Y. Nakayama, “1200dpi LED print head,” in Nip 13: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (1997) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 28–33.

Ohmori, Y.

Y. Ohmori, H. Ueta, Y. Kurosawa, M. Hikita, K. Yoshino, “Organic EL diode with plastic waveguide devices,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 461–464 (1999).

A. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Ohmori, K. Yoshino, “Polarization anisotropy of organic electroluminescent diode with periodic multilayer structure utilizing 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum and aromatic diamine,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, l621–L624 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

M. Ozaki, Y. Sadohara, T. Hatai, K. Yoshino, “Fast optical switching in polymer waveguide using ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L843–L845 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. I.

J. H. Shin, S. H. Shin, J. I. Park, H. H. Kim, “Properties of dc magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide films on polymeric substrates at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5199–5203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prache, O.

O. Prache, “Full color SVGA+OLED on silicon microdisplay,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 514–517.
[CrossRef]

Sadohara, Y.

M. Ozaki, Y. Sadohara, T. Hatai, K. Yoshino, “Fast optical switching in polymer waveguide using ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L843–L845 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

H. Fujikake, T. Murashige, J. Yonai, H. Sato, Y. Tsuchiya, H. Kikuchi, Y. Iino, M. Kawakita, K. Takizawa, “Flexible ferroelectric liquid crystal devices with polymer fiber network supporting plastic substrates,” in Conference Record of the 20th International Display Research Conference Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 68–71 (2000).

Sawada, M.

M. Sawada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Integrated hologram memory device using liquid-crystal optical switch matrix,” (in Japanese) IEICE Tech. Rep. OQE81–116 (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 1982), pp. 21–28.

Shacklette, L. W.

L. Eldada, L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shershukov, V. M.

A. P. Ghosh, W. E. Howard, I. Sokolik, R. Zhang, V. M. Shershukov, A. V. Tolmachev, N. I. Voronkina, V. A. Dudkin, “Color changing materials for OLED microdisplays,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 31, pp. 983–985.
[CrossRef]

Shigesato, Y.

H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, Y. Shigesato, “Silica aerogel thin film substrate for OLED,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 405–407.
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

M. Ogihara, T. Shimizu, M. Taninaka, H. Hamano, Y. Nakayama, “1200dpi LED print head,” in Nip 13: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (1997) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 28–33.

Shimizu, Y.

Y. Tsuruoka, S. Nakayama, T. Fukuda, Y. Shimizu, Y. Kobori, “Application of organic electroluminescent device to color print head,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 31, pp. 978–981.
[CrossRef]

Shin, J. H.

J. H. Shin, S. H. Shin, J. I. Park, H. H. Kim, “Properties of dc magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide films on polymeric substrates at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5199–5203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S. H.

J. H. Shin, S. H. Shin, J. I. Park, H. H. Kim, “Properties of dc magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide films on polymeric substrates at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5199–5203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sigmon, T. W.

S. D. Theiss, P. G. Carey, P. M. Smith, P. Wickboldt, T. W. Sigmon, “PolySilicon thin film transistors fabricated at 100 °C on a flexible plastic substrate,” in Proceedings of the 1998 International Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM Technical Digest (Electron Devices Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 257–260.

Smith, P. M.

S. D. Theiss, P. G. Carey, P. M. Smith, P. Wickboldt, T. W. Sigmon, “PolySilicon thin film transistors fabricated at 100 °C on a flexible plastic substrate,” in Proceedings of the 1998 International Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM Technical Digest (Electron Devices Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 257–260.

Sokolik, I.

A. P. Ghosh, W. E. Howard, I. Sokolik, R. Zhang, V. M. Shershukov, A. V. Tolmachev, N. I. Voronkina, V. A. Dudkin, “Color changing materials for OLED microdisplays,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 31, pp. 983–985.
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

Stein, C. R.

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F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated optics components and devices using periodic structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 845–867 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Sawada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Integrated hologram memory device using liquid-crystal optical switch matrix,” (in Japanese) IEICE Tech. Rep. OQE81–116 (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 1982), pp. 21–28.

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T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243–1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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S. Tokito, T. Tsuysui, Y. Taga, “Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 2407–2411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

Takizawa, K.

H. Fujikake, T. Murashige, J. Yonai, H. Sato, Y. Tsuchiya, H. Kikuchi, Y. Iino, M. Kawakita, K. Takizawa, “Flexible ferroelectric liquid crystal devices with polymer fiber network supporting plastic substrates,” in Conference Record of the 20th International Display Research Conference Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 68–71 (2000).

Tani, J.

M. Hiramoto, J. Tani, M. Yokoyama, “Directed beam emission from film edge in organic electroluminescent diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 666–668 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taninaka, M.

M. Ogihara, T. Shimizu, M. Taninaka, H. Hamano, Y. Nakayama, “1200dpi LED print head,” in Nip 13: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (1997) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 28–33.

Theiss, S. D.

S. D. Theiss, P. G. Carey, P. M. Smith, P. Wickboldt, T. W. Sigmon, “PolySilicon thin film transistors fabricated at 100 °C on a flexible plastic substrate,” in Proceedings of the 1998 International Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM Technical Digest (Electron Devices Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 257–260.

Thompson, M.

S. Forrest, P. Burrows, M. Thompson, “The dawn of organic electronics,” IEEE Spectrum (August2000), pp. 29–34.

Tokito, S.

S. Tokito, T. Tsuysui, Y. Taga, “Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 2407–2411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tolmachev, A. V.

A. P. Ghosh, W. E. Howard, I. Sokolik, R. Zhang, V. M. Shershukov, A. V. Tolmachev, N. I. Voronkina, V. A. Dudkin, “Color changing materials for OLED microdisplays,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 31, pp. 983–985.
[CrossRef]

Tomaru, S.

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides of epoxy resins fabricated by direct photo-patterning process,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 441–444 (1999).

Tsuchiya, Y.

H. Fujikake, T. Murashige, J. Yonai, H. Sato, Y. Tsuchiya, H. Kikuchi, Y. Iino, M. Kawakita, K. Takizawa, “Flexible ferroelectric liquid crystal devices with polymer fiber network supporting plastic substrates,” in Conference Record of the 20th International Display Research Conference Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 68–71 (2000).

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Y. Tsuruoka, S. Nakayama, T. Fukuda, Y. Shimizu, Y. Kobori, “Application of organic electroluminescent device to color print head,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 31, pp. 978–981.
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243–1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, Y. Shigesato, “Silica aerogel thin film substrate for OLED,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 405–407.
[CrossRef]

Tsuysui, T.

S. Tokito, T. Tsuysui, Y. Taga, “Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 2407–2411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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K. Yoshino, K. Fujisawa, Y. Uemura, M. Minamii, “Display apparatus,” Japanese patent 5–5882 (filed 9May1991).

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Y. Ohmori, H. Ueta, Y. Kurosawa, M. Hikita, K. Yoshino, “Organic EL diode with plastic waveguide devices,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 461–464 (1999).

Venkatesh, S.

Voronkina, N. I.

A. P. Ghosh, W. E. Howard, I. Sokolik, R. Zhang, V. M. Shershukov, A. V. Tolmachev, N. I. Voronkina, V. A. Dudkin, “Color changing materials for OLED microdisplays,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 31, pp. 983–985.
[CrossRef]

Wagner, S.

H. Gleskova, S. Wagner, “Amorphous silicon thin-film transistors on compliant polyimide foil substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. EDL-20, 473–475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wickboldt, P.

S. D. Theiss, P. G. Carey, P. M. Smith, P. Wickboldt, T. W. Sigmon, “PolySilicon thin film transistors fabricated at 100 °C on a flexible plastic substrate,” in Proceedings of the 1998 International Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM Technical Digest (Electron Devices Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 257–260.

Yahiro, M.

H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, Y. Shigesato, “Silica aerogel thin film substrate for OLED,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 405–407.
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, T.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243–1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yokogawa, H.

H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, Y. Shigesato, “Silica aerogel thin film substrate for OLED,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 405–407.
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, M.

M. Hiramoto, J. Tani, M. Yokoyama, “Directed beam emission from film edge in organic electroluminescent diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 666–668 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, Y. Shigesato, “Silica aerogel thin film substrate for OLED,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 405–407.
[CrossRef]

Yonai, J.

H. Fujikake, T. Murashige, J. Yonai, H. Sato, Y. Tsuchiya, H. Kikuchi, Y. Iino, M. Kawakita, K. Takizawa, “Flexible ferroelectric liquid crystal devices with polymer fiber network supporting plastic substrates,” in Conference Record of the 20th International Display Research Conference Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 68–71 (2000).

Yoshida, M.

A. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Ohmori, K. Yoshino, “Polarization anisotropy of organic electroluminescent diode with periodic multilayer structure utilizing 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum and aromatic diamine,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, l621–L624 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, R.

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides of epoxy resins fabricated by direct photo-patterning process,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 441–444 (1999).

Yoshino, K.

Y. Ohmori, H. Ueta, Y. Kurosawa, M. Hikita, K. Yoshino, “Organic EL diode with plastic waveguide devices,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 461–464 (1999).

A. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Ohmori, K. Yoshino, “Polarization anisotropy of organic electroluminescent diode with periodic multilayer structure utilizing 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum and aromatic diamine,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, l621–L624 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, Y. Sadohara, T. Hatai, K. Yoshino, “Fast optical switching in polymer waveguide using ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L843–L845 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, K. Fujisawa, Y. Uemura, M. Minamii, “Display apparatus,” Japanese patent 5–5882 (filed 9May1991).

Zhang, R.

A. P. Ghosh, W. E. Howard, I. Sokolik, R. Zhang, V. M. Shershukov, A. V. Tolmachev, N. I. Voronkina, V. A. Dudkin, “Color changing materials for OLED microdisplays,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 31, pp. 983–985.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. H. Gelinck, T. C. T. Geuns, D. M. de Leeuw, “High-performance all-polymer integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1487–1489 (2000).
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M. Hiramoto, J. Tani, M. Yokoyama, “Directed beam emission from film edge in organic electroluminescent diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 666–668 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243–1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

H. Gleskova, S. Wagner, “Amorphous silicon thin-film transistors on compliant polyimide foil substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. EDL-20, 473–475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated optics components and devices using periodic structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 845–867 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

L. Eldada, L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
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J. Appl. Phys.

J. H. Shin, S. H. Shin, J. I. Park, H. H. Kim, “Properties of dc magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide films on polymeric substrates at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5199–5203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, T. Tsuysui, Y. Taga, “Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 2407–2411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Ozaki, Y. Sadohara, T. Hatai, K. Yoshino, “Fast optical switching in polymer waveguide using ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L843–L845 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Ohmori, K. Yoshino, “Polarization anisotropy of organic electroluminescent diode with periodic multilayer structure utilizing 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum and aromatic diamine,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, l621–L624 (1995).
[CrossRef]

NEC Res. Dev.

K. Kobayashi, “Mobile terminals and devices technology for the 21st century,” NEC Res. Dev. 42, 15–24 (2000).

Nonlinear Opt.

Y. Ohmori, H. Ueta, Y. Kurosawa, M. Hikita, K. Yoshino, “Organic EL diode with plastic waveguide devices,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 461–464 (1999).

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides of epoxy resins fabricated by direct photo-patterning process,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 441–444 (1999).

Opt. Lett.

Other

S. Forrest, P. Burrows, M. Thompson, “The dawn of organic electronics,” IEEE Spectrum (August2000), pp. 29–34.

G. P. Crawford, “A bright new page in portable displays,” IEEE Spectrum (October2000), pp. 40–46.

S. D. Theiss, P. G. Carey, P. M. Smith, P. Wickboldt, T. W. Sigmon, “PolySilicon thin film transistors fabricated at 100 °C on a flexible plastic substrate,” in Proceedings of the 1998 International Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM Technical Digest (Electron Devices Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 257–260.

K. Yoshino, K. Fujisawa, Y. Uemura, M. Minamii, “Display apparatus,” Japanese patent 5–5882 (filed 9May1991).

M. Sawada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Integrated hologram memory device using liquid-crystal optical switch matrix,” (in Japanese) IEICE Tech. Rep. OQE81–116 (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 1982), pp. 21–28.

M. Ogihara, T. Shimizu, M. Taninaka, H. Hamano, Y. Nakayama, “1200dpi LED print head,” in Nip 13: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (1997) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 28–33.

Y. Tsuruoka, S. Nakayama, T. Fukuda, Y. Shimizu, Y. Kobori, “Application of organic electroluminescent device to color print head,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 31, pp. 978–981.
[CrossRef]

A. P. Ghosh, W. E. Howard, I. Sokolik, R. Zhang, V. M. Shershukov, A. V. Tolmachev, N. I. Voronkina, V. A. Dudkin, “Color changing materials for OLED microdisplays,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 31, pp. 983–985.
[CrossRef]

O. Prache, “Full color SVGA+OLED on silicon microdisplay,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 514–517.
[CrossRef]

H. Fujikake, T. Murashige, J. Yonai, H. Sato, Y. Tsuchiya, H. Kikuchi, Y. Iino, M. Kawakita, K. Takizawa, “Flexible ferroelectric liquid crystal devices with polymer fiber network supporting plastic substrates,” in Conference Record of the 20th International Display Research Conference Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 68–71 (2000).

Makoto Hikita, NTT Advanced Technology Corporation, 162 Shirakata, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki, 319-1193, Japan (personal communication, 2001).

R. Maurer, D. Andrejewski, F.-H. Kreuzer, A. Miller, “Polarizing color filters made from cholesteric LC Silicones,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1990), Vol. 21, pp. 110–113.

H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, Y. Shigesato, “Silica aerogel thin film substrate for OLED,” in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 405–407.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Portable device equipped with a roll-up display.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Configuration of an AWD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Light is injected into the waveguide from the linear emitter array. R, red; G, green; B, blue.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross section of the waveguide array and the LC switches.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light passage through the LC layer is controlled by the bias applied to the upper electrode.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Alternative configuration for biasing the LC layer. R, red; G, green; B, blue.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

In-plane switching of the LC molecules.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Configurations for coupling an emitter array with a waveguide array.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Configuration for recycling the otherwise-lost polarized light emitted by an OLED. λ/4, quarter-wavelength retarder.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Extra power factor required for compensating the propagation loss inside a waveguide.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Geometry assumed for calculating the hit probability.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Three angular distributions determine the probability of light leaking into the LC, i.e., directionality of an emitter, probability of hitting the light-extraction area, and transmission at the core-LC boundary.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

This leakage probability is strongly affected by the length and the thickness of the waveguide core.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Leakage probability is a weak function of the refractive indices for the unbiased and the biased LC layer.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Structure with a grating layer and a reflector layer for output coupling.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 AWD Specifications

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated Efficiency for AWDs

Tables Icon

Table 3 Calculated Power Consumption

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

no<nfne.
d<p-w2 tan θ.
Pcomp=10az/10×Po.
Fa, b=0bPcompdzPo×b=10ab/10-1ab/10log 10.
-π2-sin-1ncnf<θ<-tan-1t/2L/3,
tan-1t/2L<θ<π2-sin-1ncnf.

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