Abstract

The sensitivity of aerosol optical depths τ1 and τ2 derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) channels 1 and 2, centered at λ1 = 0.63 and λ2 = 0.83 µm, respectively, and of an effective Ångstrom exponent α, derived therefrom as α = -ln(τ12)/ln(λ12), to calibration uncertainties, radiometric noise, and digitization is estimated. Analyses are made both empirically (by introduction of perturbations into the measured radiances and estimation of the respective partial derivatives) and theoretically (by use of a decoupled form of the single-scattering approximation of the radiative transfer equation). The two results are in close agreement. The errors, Δτi and Δαi, are parameterized empirically as functions of τi, radiometric errors, and Sun and view geometry. In particular, the α errors change in approximately inverse proportion to τ and are comparable with, or even exceed, typical α signals over oceans when τ < 0.25. Their detrimental effect on the information content of the AVHRR-derived size parameter gradually weakens as τ increases.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  37. T. Aoki, “On the information content of the satellite measured infrared radiation in the atmospheric window region,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 56, 508–515 (1979).
  38. N. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. Holben, T. Eck, “The log-normal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics: empirical tests using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sun-photometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  44. A. Ångstrom, “The parameters of atmospheric turbidity,” Tellus 16, 214–223 (1964).
  45. Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2001

R. Mitchell, “In-flight characteristics of the space count of NOAA AVHRR channels 1 and 2,” CSIRO Res. Rep. 52, 1–24 (2001).

2000

N. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. Holben, T. Eck, “The log-normal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics: empirical tests using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sun-photometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, “Physical basis, premises, and self-consistency checks of aerosol retrievals from TRMM VIRS,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 2259–2277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, A. Lacis, “Aerosol retrievals over the oceans by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data: sensitivity analysis and preliminary results,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7325–7341 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Higurashi, T. Nakajima, “Development of a two-channel aerosol retrieval algorithm on a global scale using NOAA/AVHRR,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 924–941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Rao, J. Chen, “Revised post-launch calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-14 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 3485–3491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, R. Singh, “Sensitivity study of the Ångström exponent derived from AVHRR over the oceans,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 439–442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Wagener, S. Nemesure, S. E. Schwartz, “Aerosol optical depth over oceans: high space- and time-resolution retrieval and error budget from satellite radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 14, 577–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Stowe, A. Ignatov, R. Singh, “Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at NOAA/NESDIS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,923–16,934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, ‘6S’: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Loeb, “In-flight calibration of NOAA AVHRR visible and near-IR bands over Greenland and Antarctica,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 477–490 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Mitchell, “Pre-flight calibration anomaly in the NOAA14 AVHRR channels 1 and 2,” Remote Sens. Environ. 56, 141–147 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Rao, J. Chen, “Post-launch calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-14 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 2743–2747 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitchell, D. O’Brien, B. Forgan, “Calibration of the AVHRR shortwave channels. II. Application to NOAA-11 during early 1991,” Remote Sens. Environ. 55, 139–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Cihlar, P. Teillet, “Forward piecewise linear calibration model for quasi-real time processing of AVHRR data,” Can. J. Remote Sens. 21, 22–27 (1995).

N. Rao, J. Chen, “Inter-satellite calibration linkages for the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution radiometer on the NOAA-7, -9, and -11 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 16, 1931–1942 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Vermote, Y. Kaufman, “Absolute calibration of the AVHRR visible and near-IR channels using ocean and cloud views,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 16, 2317–2340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. H. Evans, H. Gordon, “Coastal zone color scanner system calibration: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

Y. Kaufman, “Aerosol optical thickness and atmospheric path radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2677–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaufman, B. Holben, “Calibration of the AVHRR visible and near-IR bands by atmospheric scattering, ocean glint, and desert reflection,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 14, 21–52 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Abel, B. Guenther, R. Galimore, J. Cooper, “Calibration results for NOAA-11 AVHRR channels 1 and 2 from coherent path aircraft observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 493–508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

R. Mitchell, D. O’Brien, B. Forgan, “Calibration of the AVHRR shortwave channels using split pass imagery. I. Pilot study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 40, 57–65 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Che, J. Price, “Survey of radiometric calibration results and methods for visible and near infrared channels of NOAA-7, -9, and -11 AVHRRs,” Remote Sens. Environ. 41, 19–27 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

P. Durkee, F. Pfeil, E. Frost, E. Shima, “Global analysis of aerosol particle characteristics,” Atmos. Environ. A 25, 2457–2471 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

H. R. Gordon, “Radiometric considerations for ocean color remote sensors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3228–3236 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Staylor, “Degradation rates of the AVHRR visible channel for the NOAA 6, 7, and 9 spacecraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 7, 411–423 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Teillet, P. Santer, Y. Ding, R. Santer, R. Jackson, M. Moran, “Three methods for the absolute calibration of the NOAA AVHRR sensors in-flight,” Remote Sens. Environ. 31, 105–120 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaufman, R. Fraser, R. Ferrare, “Satellite measurements of large-scale air pollution: methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9895–9909 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

P. McClain, “Global SST and cloud clearing for aerosol optical depth estimates,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 763–769 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–208 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981

1980

M. Viollier, D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, “An algorithm for remote sensing of water color from space,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 247–267 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

T. Aoki, “On the information content of the satellite measured infrared radiation in the atmospheric window region,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 56, 508–515 (1979).

1976

C. D. Rogers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1968

E. R. Westwater, O. N. Strand, “Statistical information content of radiation measurements used in indirect sensing,” J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 750–758 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1964

A. Ångstrom, “The parameters of atmospheric turbidity,” Tellus 16, 214–223 (1964).

1961

A. Ångstrom, “Techniques of determining the turbidity of the atmosphere,” Tellus 13, 214–223 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Abel, P.

P. Abel, B. Guenther, R. Galimore, J. Cooper, “Calibration results for NOAA-11 AVHRR channels 1 and 2 from coherent path aircraft observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 493–508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ångstrom, A.

A. Ångstrom, “The parameters of atmospheric turbidity,” Tellus 16, 214–223 (1964).

A. Ångstrom, “Techniques of determining the turbidity of the atmosphere,” Tellus 13, 214–223 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, “On the information content of the satellite measured infrared radiation in the atmospheric window region,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 56, 508–515 (1979).

Brest, C.

C. Brest, W. Rossow, M. Roiter, “Update of radiance calibration for ISCCP,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 14, 1091–1109.

Cairns, B.

Che, N.

N. Che, J. Price, “Survey of radiometric calibration results and methods for visible and near infrared channels of NOAA-7, -9, and -11 AVHRRs,” Remote Sens. Environ. 41, 19–27 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

N. Rao, J. Chen, “Revised post-launch calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-14 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 3485–3491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Rao, J. Chen, “Post-launch calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-14 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 2743–2747 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Rao, J. Chen, “Inter-satellite calibration linkages for the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution radiometer on the NOAA-7, -9, and -11 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 16, 1931–1942 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cihlar, J.

J. Cihlar, P. Teillet, “Forward piecewise linear calibration model for quasi-real time processing of AVHRR data,” Can. J. Remote Sens. 21, 22–27 (1995).

Cooper, J.

P. Abel, B. Guenther, R. Galimore, J. Cooper, “Calibration results for NOAA-11 AVHRR channels 1 and 2 from coherent path aircraft observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 493–508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P. Y.

M. Viollier, D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, “An algorithm for remote sensing of water color from space,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 247–267 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Deuze, J. L.

E. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, ‘6S’: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

P. Teillet, P. Santer, Y. Ding, R. Santer, R. Jackson, M. Moran, “Three methods for the absolute calibration of the NOAA AVHRR sensors in-flight,” Remote Sens. Environ. 31, 105–120 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Durkee, P.

P. Durkee, F. Pfeil, E. Frost, E. Shima, “Global analysis of aerosol particle characteristics,” Atmos. Environ. A 25, 2457–2471 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T.

N. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. Holben, T. Eck, “The log-normal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics: empirical tests using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sun-photometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

R. H. Evans, H. Gordon, “Coastal zone color scanner system calibration: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R.

Y. Kaufman, R. Fraser, R. Ferrare, “Satellite measurements of large-scale air pollution: methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9895–9909 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Forgan, B.

R. Mitchell, D. O’Brien, B. Forgan, “Calibration of the AVHRR shortwave channels. II. Application to NOAA-11 during early 1991,” Remote Sens. Environ. 55, 139–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitchell, D. O’Brien, B. Forgan, “Calibration of the AVHRR shortwave channels using split pass imagery. I. Pilot study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 40, 57–65 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, R.

Y. Kaufman, R. Fraser, R. Ferrare, “Satellite measurements of large-scale air pollution: methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9895–9909 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Frost, E.

P. Durkee, F. Pfeil, E. Frost, E. Shima, “Global analysis of aerosol particle characteristics,” Atmos. Environ. A 25, 2457–2471 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Galimore, R.

P. Abel, B. Guenther, R. Galimore, J. Cooper, “Calibration results for NOAA-11 AVHRR channels 1 and 2 from coherent path aircraft observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 493–508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Geogdzhayev, I. V.

Gordon, H.

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Evans, H. Gordon, “Coastal zone color scanner system calibration: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Gordon, P. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: a Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Grassl, H.

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B.

P. Abel, B. Guenther, R. Galimore, J. Cooper, “Calibration results for NOAA-11 AVHRR channels 1 and 2 from coherent path aircraft observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 493–508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

E. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, ‘6S’: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Higurashi, A.

A. Higurashi, T. Nakajima, “Development of a two-channel aerosol retrieval algorithm on a global scale using NOAA/AVHRR,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 924–941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B.

N. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. Holben, T. Eck, “The log-normal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics: empirical tests using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sun-photometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaufman, B. Holben, “Calibration of the AVHRR visible and near-IR bands by atmospheric scattering, ocean glint, and desert reflection,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 14, 21–52 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ignatov, A.

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, “Physical basis, premises, and self-consistency checks of aerosol retrievals from TRMM VIRS,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 2259–2277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. Holben, T. Eck, “The log-normal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics: empirical tests using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sun-photometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, R. Singh, “Sensitivity study of the Ångström exponent derived from AVHRR over the oceans,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 439–442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Stowe, A. Ignatov, R. Singh, “Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at NOAA/NESDIS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,923–16,934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, “Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. I. Retrieval algorithm, and transition from Davé to 6S radiative transfer model,” J. Atmos. Sci. (to be published).

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, “Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. II. Quality control, probability distribution functions, and consistency checks of retrievals,” J. Atm. Sci. (to be published).

Jackson, R.

P. Teillet, P. Santer, Y. Ding, R. Santer, R. Jackson, M. Moran, “Three methods for the absolute calibration of the NOAA AVHRR sensors in-flight,” Remote Sens. Environ. 31, 105–120 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jacobowitz, H.

L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, G. Ohring, K. Knapp, N. Nalli, “The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Pathfinder Atmosphere (PATMOS) dataset: initial analyses and evaluation,” submitted to J. Clim.

Kaufman, Y.

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Vermote, Y. Kaufman, “Absolute calibration of the AVHRR visible and near-IR channels using ocean and cloud views,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 16, 2317–2340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaufman, B. Holben, “Calibration of the AVHRR visible and near-IR bands by atmospheric scattering, ocean glint, and desert reflection,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 14, 21–52 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaufman, “Aerosol optical thickness and atmospheric path radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2677–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaufman, R. Fraser, R. Ferrare, “Satellite measurements of large-scale air pollution: methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9895–9909 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kidwell, K.

K. Kidwell, NOAA Polar Orbiter Data User’s Guide (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1995, 630–673).

King, M. D.

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knapp, K.

L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, G. Ohring, K. Knapp, N. Nalli, “The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Pathfinder Atmosphere (PATMOS) dataset: initial analyses and evaluation,” submitted to J. Clim.

Labs, D.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–208 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lacis, A.

Lenoble, J.

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Loeb, N.

N. Loeb, “In-flight calibration of NOAA AVHRR visible and near-IR bands over Greenland and Antarctica,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 477–490 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McClain, P.

P. McClain, “Global SST and cloud clearing for aerosol optical depth estimates,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 763–769 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

Mitchell, R.

R. Mitchell, “In-flight characteristics of the space count of NOAA AVHRR channels 1 and 2,” CSIRO Res. Rep. 52, 1–24 (2001).

R. Mitchell, “Pre-flight calibration anomaly in the NOAA14 AVHRR channels 1 and 2,” Remote Sens. Environ. 56, 141–147 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitchell, D. O’Brien, B. Forgan, “Calibration of the AVHRR shortwave channels. II. Application to NOAA-11 during early 1991,” Remote Sens. Environ. 55, 139–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitchell, D. O’Brien, B. Forgan, “Calibration of the AVHRR shortwave channels using split pass imagery. I. Pilot study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 40, 57–65 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moran, M.

P. Teillet, P. Santer, Y. Ding, R. Santer, R. Jackson, M. Moran, “Three methods for the absolute calibration of the NOAA AVHRR sensors in-flight,” Remote Sens. Environ. 31, 105–120 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Morcrette, J. J.

E. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, ‘6S’: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morel, P.

H. Gordon, P. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: a Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

A. Higurashi, T. Nakajima, “Development of a two-channel aerosol retrieval algorithm on a global scale using NOAA/AVHRR,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 924–941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nalli, N.

L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, G. Ohring, K. Knapp, N. Nalli, “The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Pathfinder Atmosphere (PATMOS) dataset: initial analyses and evaluation,” submitted to J. Clim.

Navy, U.S.

U.S. Navy, “Marine Climatic Atlas of the World,” CD-ROM, Version 1.0 (Naval Oceanography Command Detachment, Asheville, N.C., 1992).

Neckel, H.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–208 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nemesure, S.

R. Wagener, S. Nemesure, S. E. Schwartz, “Aerosol optical depth over oceans: high space- and time-resolution retrieval and error budget from satellite radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 14, 577–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D.

R. Mitchell, D. O’Brien, B. Forgan, “Calibration of the AVHRR shortwave channels. II. Application to NOAA-11 during early 1991,” Remote Sens. Environ. 55, 139–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitchell, D. O’Brien, B. Forgan, “Calibration of the AVHRR shortwave channels using split pass imagery. I. Pilot study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 40, 57–65 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, N.

N. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. Holben, T. Eck, “The log-normal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics: empirical tests using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sun-photometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohring, G.

L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, G. Ohring, K. Knapp, N. Nalli, “The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Pathfinder Atmosphere (PATMOS) dataset: initial analyses and evaluation,” submitted to J. Clim.

Pfeil, F.

P. Durkee, F. Pfeil, E. Frost, E. Shima, “Global analysis of aerosol particle characteristics,” Atmos. Environ. A 25, 2457–2471 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Price, J.

N. Che, J. Price, “Survey of radiometric calibration results and methods for visible and near infrared channels of NOAA-7, -9, and -11 AVHRRs,” Remote Sens. Environ. 41, 19–27 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rao, N.

N. Rao, J. Chen, “Revised post-launch calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-14 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 3485–3491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Rao, J. Chen, “Post-launch calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-14 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 2743–2747 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Rao, J. Chen, “Inter-satellite calibration linkages for the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution radiometer on the NOAA-7, -9, and -11 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 16, 1931–1942 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, C. D.

C. D. Rogers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Roiter, M.

C. Brest, W. Rossow, M. Roiter, “Update of radiance calibration for ISCCP,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 14, 1091–1109.

Rossow, W.

C. Brest, W. Rossow, M. Roiter, “Update of radiance calibration for ISCCP,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 14, 1091–1109.

Rossow, W. B.

Santer, P.

P. Teillet, P. Santer, Y. Ding, R. Santer, R. Jackson, M. Moran, “Three methods for the absolute calibration of the NOAA AVHRR sensors in-flight,” Remote Sens. Environ. 31, 105–120 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Santer, R.

P. Teillet, P. Santer, Y. Ding, R. Santer, R. Jackson, M. Moran, “Three methods for the absolute calibration of the NOAA AVHRR sensors in-flight,” Remote Sens. Environ. 31, 105–120 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, S. E.

R. Wagener, S. Nemesure, S. E. Schwartz, “Aerosol optical depth over oceans: high space- and time-resolution retrieval and error budget from satellite radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 14, 577–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shima, E.

P. Durkee, F. Pfeil, E. Frost, E. Shima, “Global analysis of aerosol particle characteristics,” Atmos. Environ. A 25, 2457–2471 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R.

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, R. Singh, “Sensitivity study of the Ångström exponent derived from AVHRR over the oceans,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 439–442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Stowe, A. Ignatov, R. Singh, “Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at NOAA/NESDIS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,923–16,934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Staylor, F.

F. Staylor, “Degradation rates of the AVHRR visible channel for the NOAA 6, 7, and 9 spacecraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 7, 411–423 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L.

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, “Physical basis, premises, and self-consistency checks of aerosol retrievals from TRMM VIRS,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 2259–2277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, R. Singh, “Sensitivity study of the Ångström exponent derived from AVHRR over the oceans,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 439–442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Stowe, A. Ignatov, R. Singh, “Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at NOAA/NESDIS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,923–16,934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, “Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. I. Retrieval algorithm, and transition from Davé to 6S radiative transfer model,” J. Atmos. Sci. (to be published).

L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, G. Ohring, K. Knapp, N. Nalli, “The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Pathfinder Atmosphere (PATMOS) dataset: initial analyses and evaluation,” submitted to J. Clim.

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, “Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. II. Quality control, probability distribution functions, and consistency checks of retrievals,” J. Atm. Sci. (to be published).

Strand, O. N.

E. R. Westwater, O. N. Strand, “Statistical information content of radiation measurements used in indirect sensing,” J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 750–758 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Tanre, D.

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, ‘6S’: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Viollier, D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, “An algorithm for remote sensing of water color from space,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 247–267 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Teillet, P.

J. Cihlar, P. Teillet, “Forward piecewise linear calibration model for quasi-real time processing of AVHRR data,” Can. J. Remote Sens. 21, 22–27 (1995).

P. Teillet, P. Santer, Y. Ding, R. Santer, R. Jackson, M. Moran, “Three methods for the absolute calibration of the NOAA AVHRR sensors in-flight,” Remote Sens. Environ. 31, 105–120 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Teillet, P. M.

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

E. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, ‘6S’: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Vermote, Y. Kaufman, “Absolute calibration of the AVHRR visible and near-IR channels using ocean and cloud views,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 16, 2317–2340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Viollier, M.

M. Viollier, D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, “An algorithm for remote sensing of water color from space,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 247–267 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wagener, R.

R. Wagener, S. Nemesure, S. E. Schwartz, “Aerosol optical depth over oceans: high space- and time-resolution retrieval and error budget from satellite radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 14, 577–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Westwater, E. R.

E. R. Westwater, O. N. Strand, “Statistical information content of radiation measurements used in indirect sensing,” J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 750–758 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res.

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, R. Singh, “Sensitivity study of the Ångström exponent derived from AVHRR over the oceans,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 439–442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Environ. A

P. Durkee, F. Pfeil, E. Frost, E. Shima, “Global analysis of aerosol particle characteristics,” Atmos. Environ. A 25, 2457–2471 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boundary-Layer Meteorol.

M. Viollier, D. Tanre, P. Y. Deschamps, “An algorithm for remote sensing of water color from space,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 247–267 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Remote Sens.

J. Cihlar, P. Teillet, “Forward piecewise linear calibration model for quasi-real time processing of AVHRR data,” Can. J. Remote Sens. 21, 22–27 (1995).

CSIRO Res. Rep.

R. Mitchell, “In-flight characteristics of the space count of NOAA AVHRR channels 1 and 2,” CSIRO Res. Rep. 52, 1–24 (2001).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

N. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. Holben, T. Eck, “The log-normal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics: empirical tests using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sun-photometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

E. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, ‘6S’: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens.

N. Rao, J. Chen, “Post-launch calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-14 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 2743–2747 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. McClain, “Global SST and cloud clearing for aerosol optical depth estimates,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 763–769 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Rao, J. Chen, “Inter-satellite calibration linkages for the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution radiometer on the NOAA-7, -9, and -11 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 16, 1931–1942 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Vermote, Y. Kaufman, “Absolute calibration of the AVHRR visible and near-IR channels using ocean and cloud views,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 16, 2317–2340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaufman, B. Holben, “Calibration of the AVHRR visible and near-IR bands by atmospheric scattering, ocean glint, and desert reflection,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 14, 21–52 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Loeb, “In-flight calibration of NOAA AVHRR visible and near-IR bands over Greenland and Antarctica,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 477–490 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Rao, J. Chen, “Revised post-launch calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-14 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 3485–3491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, “Physical basis, premises, and self-consistency checks of aerosol retrievals from TRMM VIRS,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 2259–2277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

R. Wagener, S. Nemesure, S. E. Schwartz, “Aerosol optical depth over oceans: high space- and time-resolution retrieval and error budget from satellite radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 14, 577–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Staylor, “Degradation rates of the AVHRR visible channel for the NOAA 6, 7, and 9 spacecraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 7, 411–423 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Abel, B. Guenther, R. Galimore, J. Cooper, “Calibration results for NOAA-11 AVHRR channels 1 and 2 from coherent path aircraft observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 493–508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Brest, W. Rossow, M. Roiter, “Update of radiance calibration for ISCCP,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 14, 1091–1109.

J. Atmos. Sci.

E. R. Westwater, O. N. Strand, “Statistical information content of radiation measurements used in indirect sensing,” J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 750–758 (1968).
[CrossRef]

A. Higurashi, T. Nakajima, “Development of a two-channel aerosol retrieval algorithm on a global scale using NOAA/AVHRR,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 924–941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

L. Stowe, A. Ignatov, R. Singh, “Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at NOAA/NESDIS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,923–16,934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Evans, H. Gordon, “Coastal zone color scanner system calibration: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaufman, R. Fraser, R. Ferrare, “Satellite measurements of large-scale air pollution: methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9895–9909 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaufman, “Aerosol optical thickness and atmospheric path radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2677–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn.

T. Aoki, “On the information content of the satellite measured infrared radiation in the atmospheric window region,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 56, 508–515 (1979).

Remote Sens. Environ.

P. Teillet, P. Santer, Y. Ding, R. Santer, R. Jackson, M. Moran, “Three methods for the absolute calibration of the NOAA AVHRR sensors in-flight,” Remote Sens. Environ. 31, 105–120 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitchell, D. O’Brien, B. Forgan, “Calibration of the AVHRR shortwave channels using split pass imagery. I. Pilot study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 40, 57–65 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitchell, D. O’Brien, B. Forgan, “Calibration of the AVHRR shortwave channels. II. Application to NOAA-11 during early 1991,” Remote Sens. Environ. 55, 139–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Che, J. Price, “Survey of radiometric calibration results and methods for visible and near infrared channels of NOAA-7, -9, and -11 AVHRRs,” Remote Sens. Environ. 41, 19–27 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitchell, “Pre-flight calibration anomaly in the NOAA14 AVHRR channels 1 and 2,” Remote Sens. Environ. 56, 141–147 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys.

C. D. Rogers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Solar Phys.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–208 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tellus

A. Ångstrom, “Techniques of determining the turbidity of the atmosphere,” Tellus 13, 214–223 (1961).
[CrossRef]

A. Ångstrom, “The parameters of atmospheric turbidity,” Tellus 16, 214–223 (1964).

Other

U.S. Navy, “Marine Climatic Atlas of the World,” CD-ROM, Version 1.0 (Naval Oceanography Command Detachment, Asheville, N.C., 1992).

H. Gordon, P. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: a Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, G. Ohring, K. Knapp, N. Nalli, “The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Pathfinder Atmosphere (PATMOS) dataset: initial analyses and evaluation,” submitted to J. Clim.

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, “Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. II. Quality control, probability distribution functions, and consistency checks of retrievals,” J. Atm. Sci. (to be published).

K. Kidwell, NOAA Polar Orbiter Data User’s Guide (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1995, 630–673).

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, “Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. I. Retrieval algorithm, and transition from Davé to 6S radiative transfer model,” J. Atmos. Sci. (to be published).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time series of calibration slopes of channels a, 1 and b, 2 for the AVHRR sensors on the NOAA satellites NOAA-07, NOAA-09, and NOAA-11, according to Rao and Chen22: For NOAA-14 the data are from (1) Rao and Chen14 and (2) Rao.26

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Histograms of actual AEROBS albedos in channels 1 and 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fragments of histograms of aerosol optical depth retrievals in channel 1: a, b, from AEROBS albedos shown in Fig. 2 and c, the Ångstrom exponent derived therefrom.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Perturbations in aerosol optical depths Δτ iC versus τ i that result from perturbation in the calibration slopes ε iC = ΔS i /S i and linear fit according to Eqs. (5) in AVHRR channels 1 (i = 1) and 2 (i = 2) for four values of calibration error: ε iC = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Coefficients of linear Eq. (3): slope, a i ′ and intercept b i ′ in AVHRR channels 1 and 2 versus calibration slope perturbation, ε iC = ΔS i /S i , for the four data sets used in this study.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Perturbations Δα i in the Ångstrom exponent resulting from perturbations in the calibration slopes ε iC = ΔS i /S i in AVHRR channels 1 (i = 1) and 2 (i = 2) for four values of calibration error: ε iC = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, (3) 0.05.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ångstrom exponent perturbations Δα i resulting from perturbations in the calibration slopes ε iC = ΔS i /S i versus those estimated with Eqs. (7), Δα i,est.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Perturbations Δτ iC in aerosol optical depths in AVHRR channels 1 (i = 1) and 2 (i = 2) versus Sun, view, scattering, and glint angles for a perturbation in the calibration slopes, ε iC = ΔS i /S i = 0.20.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Top two rows, histograms of perturbation signals superimposed upon the AEROBS albedo in AVHRR channels 1 and 2 to imitate noise (a1–a2), digitization (b1–b2), and noise and digitization (c1–c2). Bottom two rows, histograms of the respective aerosol optical depth perturbations.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Ångstrom exponent perturbations Δα iX caused by a, noise, b, digitization, and c, noise and digitization in AVHRR channel (1), channel 2 (2), and both (3) versus τ1. The ±3σα (dashed) lines are drawn from the data in respective panels of Fig. 11.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Root mean square deviation of the Ångstrom exponent perturbations from the data in the respective panels of Fig. 10.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Statistics (mean, standard deviation, and min/max) of perturbations Δτ iND in aerosol optical depths owing to noise and digitization in AVHRR channels 1 (a1–a4) and 2 (b1–b4) and Ångstrom exponent Δα ND versus Sun view, and scattering, and glint angles (c1–c4).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Perturbations Δτ iX in aerosol optical depths owing to noise (X = N; a1–b1), digitization (X = D; a2–b2), and noise and digitization (X = ND; a3–b3) in AVHRR channels 1 and 2, estimated with exact lookup-table inversions, versus those estimated with Eq. (15).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Effect of (1° × 1°) averaging on the ND error in the AEROBS retrievals: a1, histogram of the number of clear sky pixels within (1° × 1°) boxes; a2, a3, histograms of averaged ND signals in channels 1 (Δτ1ND ; a2; cf. Fig. 9c3) and 2 (Δτ2ND ; a3; cf. Fig. 9c4); and a4, scattergram of averaged Δα ND versus τ1 (cf. Fig. 10c3).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Coefficients of Eqs. (4) That Represent Aerosol Optical Depth Error

Tables Icon

Table 2 Statistics of the Noise and Digitization Signals Superimposed upon the Measured Albedo and the Signal’s Effect on Aerosol Optical Depth Retrievals

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α=- lnτ1/τ2lnλ1/λ2Λ lnτ1τ2, Λ- 1lnλ1/λ2,
Ai=πNiFiπWiLiFiSiCi-Ci0, SiπWiGiFi,
ΔτiC=ai+bi×τi.
ai=aiεiC, bi=biεiC.
Δτ1C=0.370±0.011+0.714±0.023τ1ε1C,
Δτ2C=0.158±0.004+0.742±0.030τ2ε2C,
Δα1C=Λlnτ1+Δτ1Cτ2-lnτ1τ2+Λ ln1+Δτ1Cτ1,
Δα2C=Λlnτ1τ2+Δτ2C-lnτ1τ2-Λ ln1+Δτ2Cτ2.
Δα1C=+Λln1+0.370±0.011+0.714±0.023τ1τ1 ε1C,
Δα2C=-Λln1+0.158±0.004+0.742±0.030τ2τ2 ε2C.
ΔαX=Λlnτ1+Δτ1Xτ2+Δτ2X-lnτ1τ2Λln1+Δτ1Xτ1-ln1+Δτ2Xτ2ΛΔτ1Xτ1-Δτ2Xτ2;
σαX2=Λ2στ1X2τ12+στ2X2τ22Λ2στ1X2τ12+β2στ2X2τ12Λ2τ12στ1X2+β2στ2X2σαX02τ12.
ρi=ρiR+ρiA+ρiS×Titig, ρiR=pRχτiR4μSμV,ρiA=ωiAtpiAtχτit4μSμV.
A=AR+AAtg, AR=pRχτR4μV,AA=ωAtpAtχτt4μVpAχτ4μV.
τt=1ωpχAt4μV×Atg-pRχτR,τ=1pAχ4μV×Atg-pRχτR.
Δτt=4μVωAtpAtχΔAtg, Δτ=4μVpAχΔAtg.
Δτ=τ+τRpRχpAχεC.
b01, a0pRχpAχ τR.
ΔτX=4μVpAχΔAXtg.
ΔτX=0, στX=4μVpAχσAXtg.

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