Abstract

We have built a coupled master oscillator and a slave oscillator optical parametric oscillator (OPO) system that provides single-frequency, pulsed radiation in the midwave infrared (MWIR). The direct-diode-pumped master OPO provided narrow-band (<6-MHz, instrument-limited), tunable MWIR cw radiation that was used to seed a higher-peak-power pulsed slave OPO. When seeded directly at the MWIR idler, the pulsed output of the slave OPO was constrained to oscillate on a single longitudinal mode even though the slave OPO is pumped by a multilongitudinal-mode laser source. The linewidth of the pulsed output has been measured to be <220 MHz (instrument limited), which is well suited for coherent differential absorption lidar applications.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, S. W. Sharpe, M. S. Taubman, J. L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1844–1846 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Topfer, K. P. Petrov, Y. Mine, D. Jundt, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Room-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8042–8049 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, J. Ndap, X. Ma, A. Burger, “Continuous-wave, broadly tunable Cr2+:ZnSe laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 19–21 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. E. Klein, C. K. Laue, D.-H. Lee, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Diode-pumped singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator with wide continuous tuning of the near-infrared idler wave,” Opt. Lett. 25, 490–492 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. J. Henderson, P. M. Roper, L. A. Borschowa, R. D. Mead, “Stable, continuous tunable operation of a diode-pumped doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1264–1266 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, G. Chourdakis, P. T. Woods, “Injection seeding of an infrared optical parametric oscillator with a tunable diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 281–283 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. T. Yang, S. P. Velsko, “Frequency-agile kilohertz repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 24, 133–135 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Schlup, I. T. McKinnie, S. D. Butterworth, “Single-mode, singly resonant pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7398–7401 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Schlup, G. W. Baxter, I. T. McKinnie, “Single-mode near- and mid-infrared periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 176, 267–271 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Marquardt, F. C. Cruz, M. Stephens, C. W. Oates, L. W. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, S. Sanders, “Grating-tuned semiconductor MOPA lasers for precision spectroscopy,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Process Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 34–40 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Garcia, L. Hollberg, S. D. Demars, A. Schoenfelder, V. Wong, R. J. Lang, “Narrow-linewidth phase-lockable high power α-DFB laser,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sixteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 249–250.
  12. L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Feyer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2102–2116 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. E. Klein, D.-H. Lee, J.-P. Meyn, B. Beier, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Diode-pumped continuous-wave widely tunable optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium tantalate,” Opt. Lett. 23, 831–833 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. A. Trurnbull, D. McGloin, I. D. Lindsay, M. Ebrahimzadeh, M. H. Dunn, “Extended mode-hop-free tuning by use of a dual-cavity, pump-enhanced optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 25, 341–343 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (4)

1999 (4)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

Baillargeon, J. N.

Baxter, G. W.

P. Schlup, G. W. Baxter, I. T. McKinnie, “Single-mode near- and mid-infrared periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 176, 267–271 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beier, B.

Bergquist, J. C.

J. H. Marquardt, F. C. Cruz, M. Stephens, C. W. Oates, L. W. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, S. Sanders, “Grating-tuned semiconductor MOPA lasers for precision spectroscopy,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Process Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 34–40 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K.-J.

Borschowa, L. A.

Bosenberg, W. R.

Burger, A.

Butterworth, S. D.

Byer, R. L.

Capasso, F.

Carrig, T. J.

Cho, A. Y.

Chourdakis, G.

Cruz, F. C.

J. H. Marquardt, F. C. Cruz, M. Stephens, C. W. Oates, L. W. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, S. Sanders, “Grating-tuned semiconductor MOPA lasers for precision spectroscopy,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Process Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 34–40 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

Demars, S. D.

A. Garcia, L. Hollberg, S. D. Demars, A. Schoenfelder, V. Wong, R. J. Lang, “Narrow-linewidth phase-lockable high power α-DFB laser,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sixteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 249–250.

Dunn, M. H.

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

Eckardt, R. C.

Feyer, M. M.

Garcia, A.

A. Garcia, L. Hollberg, S. D. Demars, A. Schoenfelder, V. Wong, R. J. Lang, “Narrow-linewidth phase-lockable high power α-DFB laser,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sixteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 249–250.

Gardiner, T. D.

Gmachl, C.

Hall, J. L.

Hartman, J. S.

Henderson, A. J.

Hollberg, L.

A. Garcia, L. Hollberg, S. D. Demars, A. Schoenfelder, V. Wong, R. J. Lang, “Narrow-linewidth phase-lockable high power α-DFB laser,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sixteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 249–250.

Hollberg, L. W.

J. H. Marquardt, F. C. Cruz, M. Stephens, C. W. Oates, L. W. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, S. Sanders, “Grating-tuned semiconductor MOPA lasers for precision spectroscopy,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Process Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 34–40 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D.

Kelly, J. F.

Klein, M. E.

Lang, R. J.

A. Garcia, L. Hollberg, S. D. Demars, A. Schoenfelder, V. Wong, R. J. Lang, “Narrow-linewidth phase-lockable high power α-DFB laser,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sixteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 249–250.

Laue, C. K.

Lee, D.-H.

Lindsay, I. D.

Ma, X.

Marquardt, J. H.

J. H. Marquardt, F. C. Cruz, M. Stephens, C. W. Oates, L. W. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, S. Sanders, “Grating-tuned semiconductor MOPA lasers for precision spectroscopy,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Process Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 34–40 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McGloin, D.

McKinnie, I. T.

P. Schlup, G. W. Baxter, I. T. McKinnie, “Single-mode near- and mid-infrared periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 176, 267–271 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Schlup, I. T. McKinnie, S. D. Butterworth, “Single-mode, singly resonant pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7398–7401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mead, R. D.

Mehuys, D.

J. H. Marquardt, F. C. Cruz, M. Stephens, C. W. Oates, L. W. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, S. Sanders, “Grating-tuned semiconductor MOPA lasers for precision spectroscopy,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Process Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 34–40 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meyn, J.-P.

Milton, M. J. T.

Mine, Y.

Myers, L. E.

Ndap, J.

Oates, C. W.

J. H. Marquardt, F. C. Cruz, M. Stephens, C. W. Oates, L. W. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, S. Sanders, “Grating-tuned semiconductor MOPA lasers for precision spectroscopy,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Process Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 34–40 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Page, R. H.

Petrov, K. P.

Pierce, J. W.

Roper, P. M.

Sanders, S.

J. H. Marquardt, F. C. Cruz, M. Stephens, C. W. Oates, L. W. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, S. Sanders, “Grating-tuned semiconductor MOPA lasers for precision spectroscopy,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Process Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 34–40 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schaffers, K. I.

Schlup, P.

P. Schlup, G. W. Baxter, I. T. McKinnie, “Single-mode near- and mid-infrared periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 176, 267–271 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Schlup, I. T. McKinnie, S. D. Butterworth, “Single-mode, singly resonant pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7398–7401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schoenfelder, A.

A. Garcia, L. Hollberg, S. D. Demars, A. Schoenfelder, V. Wong, R. J. Lang, “Narrow-linewidth phase-lockable high power α-DFB laser,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sixteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 249–250.

Sharpe, S. W.

Sivco, D. L.

Stephens, M.

J. H. Marquardt, F. C. Cruz, M. Stephens, C. W. Oates, L. W. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, S. Sanders, “Grating-tuned semiconductor MOPA lasers for precision spectroscopy,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Process Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 34–40 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M. S.

Tittel, F. K.

Topfer, T.

Trurnbull, G. A.

Velsko, S. P.

Wagner, G. J.

Wallenstein, R.

Welch, D. F.

J. H. Marquardt, F. C. Cruz, M. Stephens, C. W. Oates, L. W. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, S. Sanders, “Grating-tuned semiconductor MOPA lasers for precision spectroscopy,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Process Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 34–40 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. M.

Wong, V.

A. Garcia, L. Hollberg, S. D. Demars, A. Schoenfelder, V. Wong, R. J. Lang, “Narrow-linewidth phase-lockable high power α-DFB laser,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sixteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 249–250.

Woods, P. T.

Yang, S. T.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Schlup, G. W. Baxter, I. T. McKinnie, “Single-mode near- and mid-infrared periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 176, 267–271 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (8)

G. A. Trurnbull, D. McGloin, I. D. Lindsay, M. Ebrahimzadeh, M. H. Dunn, “Extended mode-hop-free tuning by use of a dual-cavity, pump-enhanced optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 25, 341–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Klein, C. K. Laue, D.-H. Lee, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Diode-pumped singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator with wide continuous tuning of the near-infrared idler wave,” Opt. Lett. 25, 490–492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, G. Chourdakis, P. T. Woods, “Injection seeding of an infrared optical parametric oscillator with a tunable diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 281–283 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Klein, D.-H. Lee, J.-P. Meyn, B. Beier, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Diode-pumped continuous-wave widely tunable optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium tantalate,” Opt. Lett. 23, 831–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, J. Ndap, X. Ma, A. Burger, “Continuous-wave, broadly tunable Cr2+:ZnSe laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 19–21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Yang, S. P. Velsko, “Frequency-agile kilohertz repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 24, 133–135 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Henderson, P. M. Roper, L. A. Borschowa, R. D. Mead, “Stable, continuous tunable operation of a diode-pumped doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1264–1266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, S. W. Sharpe, M. S. Taubman, J. L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1844–1846 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. H. Marquardt, F. C. Cruz, M. Stephens, C. W. Oates, L. W. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, S. Sanders, “Grating-tuned semiconductor MOPA lasers for precision spectroscopy,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Process Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 34–40 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Garcia, L. Hollberg, S. D. Demars, A. Schoenfelder, V. Wong, R. J. Lang, “Narrow-linewidth phase-lockable high power α-DFB laser,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sixteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 249–250.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the direct-diode, pump-enhanced SRO showing the locking schemes to achieve single-frequency cw oscillation. The mode-matching lens was a 10-cm plano-convex singlet.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output of the pump-enhanced SRO as the OPO cavity is scanned. The OPO is locked to the peak of this signal with the servo electronics loop shown schematically in Fig. 1. The residual transmitted pump is clamped while the OPO stays above threshold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output power of 3.3 µm as a function of incident 0.98-µm pump power. The plot shows a pump-to-idler efficiency of ∼8% and a slope efficiency of ∼13%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission of 300 MHz FSR scanning interferometer near 3.7 µm. The FWHM linewidth in the scan is ∼6 MHz (instrument limited). The actual linewidth of the MWIR output is expected to be significantly smaller than this.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the slave OPO ring cavity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Conversion efficiency for the idler resonant ring cavity for the (a) total converted light (signal plus idler) and (b) idler only.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Seeded slave OPO transmission through a 15-GHz FSR scanning interferometer with a finesse of ∼65. The linewidth was measured to be ∼220 MHz, which is instrument limited. This figure shows that the OPO is operating in single-mode operation (limited by the signal-to-noise ratio). The FSR of the SO cavity is ∼550 MHz.

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